Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Applied Mathematics

Matlab/R workflows to assess critical choices in Global Sensitivity Analysis using the SAFE toolbox

Valentina Noacco, Fanny Sarrazin, Francesca Pianosi, Thorsten Wagener

Published: 2019-04-05
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Risk Analysis, Statistics and Probability

Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical techniques to investigate the effects of the uncertainty in the input factors of a mathematical model on the model’s outputs. The value of GSA for the construction, evaluation, and improvement of earth system models is reviewed in a companion paper by Wagener and Pianosi [n.d.]. The present paper focuses on the implementation of GSA and [...]

A test case for application of convolutional neural networks to spatio-temporal climate data: Re-identifying clustered weather patterns

Ashesh Kumar Chattopadhyay, Pedram Hassanzadeh, Saba Pasha

Published: 2019-01-01
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can potentially provide powerful tools for classifying and identifying patterns in climate and environmental data. However, because of the inherent complexities of such data, which are often spatio-temporal, chaotic, and non-stationary, the CNN algorithms must be designed/evaluated for each specific dataset and application. Yet to start, CNN, a supervised [...]

Wavelet-based analysis of ground deformation coupling satellite acquisitions (Sentinel-1, SMOS) and data from shallow and deep wells in Southwestern France

André Burnol, Hideo Aochi, Daniel Raucoules, Fernanda M.L. Veloso, Fifamè Koudogbo, Alfio Fumagalli, Pierre Chiquet, Christophe Maisons

Published: 2018-10-15
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Acquisitions of the Sentinel-1 satellite are processed and comprehensively analyzed to investigate the ground displacement during a 3-year period above a gas storage site in Southwestern France. Despite quite low vertical displacements (between 4 and 8 mm) compared to the noise level, the local displacements reflects the variations due to charge and discharge during summer and winter periods, [...]

Statistics and segmentation: Using Big Data to assess Cascades Arc compositional variability

Bradley W Pitcher, Adam J.R. Kent

Published: 2018-09-24
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Multivariate Analysis, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

Primitive lavas erupted in the Cascades arc of western North America demonstrate significant patterns of along-arc heterogeneity. Such compositional diversity may be the result of differences in mantle melting processes, subduction geometry, regional tectonics, or compositions of the slab, mantle or overlying lithosphere. Previous authors have partitioned the arc into four geochemically distinct [...]

HYRISK: An R package for hybrid uncertainty analysis using probability, imprecise probability and possibility distributions

Jeremy Rohmer, manceau , Guyonnet , Boulahya , Dubois

Published: 2018-08-31
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Engineering, Ordinary Differential Equations and Applied Dynamics, Other Applied Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Risk Analysis

Uncertainty analysis is an unavoidable risk assessment task (for instance for natural hazards, or for environmental issues). In situations where data are scarce, incomplete or imprecise, the systematic and only use of probabilities can be debatable. Over the last years, several alternative mathematical representation methods have been developed to handle in a more flexible manner the lack of [...]

Higher potential compound flood risk in Northern Europe under anthropogenic climate change

Emanuele Bevacqua, Douglas Maraun, Michalis I. Vousdoukas, Evangelos Voukouvalas, Mathieu Vrac, Lorenzo Mentaschi, Martin Widmann

Published: 2018-07-18
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Multivariate Analysis, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Probability

The published version of this article is available at https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/9/eaaw5531. Compound flooding (CF) is an extreme event taking place in low-lying coastal areas as a result of co-occurring high sea level and large amounts of runoff, caused by precipitation. The impact from the two hazards occurring individually can be significantly lower than the result of their [...]

Using flood-excess volume to show that upscaling beaver dams for protection against extreme floods proves unrealistic

Onno Bokhove, Mark Kelmanson, Tom Kent

Published: 2018-07-10
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Other Applied Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The questions we address in the present article are the following: (i) whether (extreme) river floods can be prevented or seriously mitigated by the introduction of beavers in the wild, and (ii) for which river catchments does flood mitigation by beaver activity (not) work? By using the concept of flood-excess volume (FEV) for four rivers in the UK, in the context of five (extreme) UK flood [...]

On using flood-excess volume to assess natural flood management, exemplified for extreme 2007 and 2015 floods in Yorkshire

Onno Bokhove, Mark Kelmanson, Tom Kent

Published: 2018-07-10
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Other Applied Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This paper offers a protocol for conducting a quantified assessment of the relative merits of both existing and proposed methods of Natural Flood Management (NFM). Assessment is based on the rarely used concept of flood-excess volume (FEV), which approximately quantifies the volume of water one wishes to eliminate via flood-mitigation schemes, and is exemplified using publicly available [...]

On using flood-excess volume in flood mitigation, exemplified for the River Aire Boxing Day Flood of 2015

Onno Bokhove, Mark Kelmanson, Tom Kent

Published: 2018-07-10
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Other Applied Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The goals of this paper are threefold, namely to: (i) define the rarely used concept of flood-excess volume (FEV) as the flood volume above a chosen river-level threshold of flooding; (ii) show how to estimate FEV for the Boxing Day Flood of 2015 of the River Aire in the UK; and, (iii) analyse the use of FEV in evaluating a hypothetical flood-alleviation scheme (FASII+) for the River [...]

Introduction to Interferometry of Fiber Optic Strain Measurements

Eileen R Martin, Nathaniel Lindsey, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin, Biondo Biondi

Published: 2018-06-14
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Applied Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) measures the average axial strain (strain rate) along a subset of a fiber optic cable, as opposed to the particle displacement (velocity) at a particular small point sensor. In shifting from measuring a vector field to a tensor field, DAS changes the directional sensitivity of measurements of every type of seismic wave when compared to single component [...]

River deltas as Multiplex networks: A framework for studying multi-process multi-scale connectivity via coupled-network theory

Alejandro Tejedor, Anthony Longjas, Paola Passalacqua, Yamir Moreno, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

Published: 2018-04-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Dynamic Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Mathematics, Non-linear Dynamics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

Transport of water, nutrients or energy fluxes in many natural or coupled human-natural systems occurs along different pathways that often have a wide range of transport timescales and might exchange fluxes with each other dynamically (e.g., surface-subsurface). Understanding this type of transport is key to predicting how landscapes will change under changing forcing. Here, we present a general [...]

Volume And Recurrence of Submarine-Fan-Building Turbidity Currents

Zane Richards Jobe, Nick C Howes, Brian Romans, Jacob Covault

Published: 2018-01-28
Subjects: Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

(now published in "The Depositional Record") Submarine fans are archives of Earth-surface processes and change, recording information about the turbidity currents that construct and sculpt them. The volume and recurrence of turbidity currents are of great interest for geohazard assessment, source-to-sink modeling, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Yet, such dynamics are poorly [...]

Numerical solution of a non-linear conservation law applicable to the interior dynamics of partially molten planets

Dan J. Bower, Patrick Sanan, Aaron S. Wolf

Published: 2017-11-21
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, dS/dr, as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with [...]

Basis functions for the consistent and accurate representation of surface mass loading

Peter John Clarke, David Lavallee, Geoffrey Blewitt, Tonie van Dam

Published: 2017-11-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Inversion of geodetic site displacement data to infer surface mass loads has previously been demonstrated using a spherical harmonic representation of the load. This method suffers from the continent-rich, ocean-poor distribution of the geodetic data, coupled with the predominance of the continental load (water storage and atmospheric pressure) compared with the ocean bottom pressure (including [...]

Computationally Efficient Tsunami Modelling on Graphics Processing Units (GPU)

Reza Amouzgar, Qiuhua Liang, Peter John Clarke, Tomohiro Yasuda, Hajime Mase

Published: 2017-11-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydraulic Engineering, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tsunamis generated by earthquakes commonly propagate as long waves in the deep ocean and develop into sharp-fronted surges moving rapidly towards the coast in shallow water, which may be effectively simulated by hydrodynamic models solving the nonlinear shallow water equations (SWEs). However, most of the existing tsunami models suffer from long simulation time for large-scale real-world [...]

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