Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Astrophysics and Astronomy

A prototype for a Multi-GNSS orbit combination

Pierre Sakic, Gustavo Mansur, Benjamin Männel

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Since 1994, the International GNSS Service (IGS) provides a combination of orbit and clock offset products from its different Analysis Centers. These products are used as input by many software for countless scientific and/or operational applications. They can also be used as an independent reference for benchmark experiments. Nevertheless, those products include GPS-only data, despite the fact [...]

Estimating survival probability using the terrestrial extinction history for the search for extraterrestrial life

Kohji Tsumura

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Several exoplanets have been discovered to date, and the next step is the search for extraterrestrial life. However, it is difficult to estimate the number of life-bearing exoplanets because our only template is based on life on Earth. In this paper, a new approach is introduced to estimate the probability that life on Earth has survived from birth to the present based on its terrestrial [...]

Habitability of the early Earth: Liquid water under a faint young Sun facilitated by strong tidal heating due to a nearby Moon

René Heller, Jan-Peter Duda, Max Winkler, Joachim Reitner, Laurent Gizon

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, The Sun and the Solar System

Geological evidence suggests liquid water near the Earths surface as early as 4.4 gigayears ago when the faint young Sun only radiated about 70 % of its modern power output. At this point, the Earth should have been a global snowball. An extreme atmospheric greenhouse effect, an initially more massive Sun, release of heat acquired during the accretion process of protoplanetary material, and [...]

Detection of VLF attenuation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide caused by X-class solar flares using a global lightning location network

Todd Anderson, Michael McCarthy, Robert Holzworth

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, The Sun and the Solar System

Solar flares, energetic particles and Earth-impacting coronal mass ejections enhance ionization in the lower ionosphere, inhibiting radio wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). This enhanced ionization is observed locally by ionosondes and GPS/GNSS receivers, but spatial coverage of these observations is limited by receiver location. VLF propagation studies have previously [...]

Linking the evolution of terrestrial interiors and an early outgassed atmosphere to astrophysical observations

Dan J. Bower, Daniel Kitzmann, Aaron S. Wolf, Patrick Sanan, Caroline Dorn, Apurva V. Oza

Published: 2019-10-17
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

A terrestrial planet is molten during formation and may remain molten due to intense insolation or tidal forces. Observations favour the detection and characterisation of hot planets, potentially with large outgassed atmospheres. We aim to determine the radius of hot Earth-like planets with large outgassing atmospheres. Our goal is to explore the differences between molten and solid silicate [...]

Causation of Late Quaternary Rapid-increase Radiocarbon Anomalies

G. BRAKENRIDGE

Published: 2019-05-07
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Brief (<100 y) rapid-increase anomalies in the Earth’s atmospheric 14C production have previously been attributed to either gamma photon radiation from supernovae or to cosmic ray particle radiation from exceptionally large solar flares. Analysis of distances and ages of nearby supernovae (SNe) remnant surveys, the probable gamma emissions, the predicted Earth-incident radiation, and the [...]

Decomposition of Amino Acids in Water with Application to In-Situ Measurements of Enceladus, Europa and Other Hydrothermally Active Icy Ocean Worlds

Ngoc Tuan Truong

Published: 2019-04-17
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Sciences, The Sun and the Solar System

To test the potential of using amino acid abundances as a biosignature at icy ocean worlds, we investigate whether primordial amino acids (accreted or formed by early aqueous processes) could persist until the present time. By examining the decomposition kinetics of amino acids in aqueous solution based on existing laboratory rate data, we find that all fourteen proteinogenic amino acids [...]

Methane bursts as a trigger for intermittent lake-forming climates on post-Noachian Mars

Edwin S Kite, Peter Gao, Colin Goldblatt, Michael A. Mischna, David Mayer, Yuk L. Yung

Published: 2019-01-01
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, The Sun and the Solar System

Lakes existed on Mars later than 3.6 billion years ago, according to sedimentary evidence for deltaic deposition. The observed fluvio-lacustrine deposits suggest that individual lake-forming climates persisted for at least several thousand years (assuming dilute flow). But the lake watersheds’ little weathered soils indicate a largely dry climate history, with intermittent runoff events. Here we [...]

Persistent or repeated surface habitability on Mars during the Late Hesperian - Amazonian

Edwin S Kite, Jonathan Sneed, David Mayer, Sharon Wilson

Published: 2019-01-01
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, The Sun and the Solar System

Large alluvial fan deposits on Mars record relatively recent habitable surface conditions (≲3.5 Ga, Late Hesperian – Amazonian). We find net sedimentation rate <(4-8) μm/yr in the alluvial-fan deposits, using the frequency of craters that are interbedded with alluvial fan deposits as a fluvial-process chronometer. Considering only the observed interbedded craters sets a lower bound of >20 [...]

A fossiliferous spherule-rich bed at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary in Mississippi, USA: implications for the K-Pg mass extinction event in the MS Embayment and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

James Witts, Neil H. Landman, Matthew P. Garb, Caitlin Boas, Ekaterina Larina, Remy Rovelli, Lucy E. Edwards, Robert M. Sherrell, J. Kirk Cochran

Published: 2018-06-14
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

We describe an outcrop of the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary exposed due to construction near New Albany, Union County, Mississippi. It consists of the Owl Creek Formation and overlying Clayton Formation. The Owl Creek Formation is rich in the ammonites Discoscaphites iris and Eubaculites carinatus, which, along with biostratigraphically important dinoflagellate cysts and calcareous [...]

Stratigraphy of Aeolis Dorsa, Mars: stratigraphic context of the great river deposits

Edwin S Kite, Alan Howard, Antoine Lucas, John C. Armstrong, Oded Aharonson, Michael P. Lamb

Published: 2018-04-03
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, The Sun and the Solar System

Unraveling the stratigraphic record is the key to understanding ancient climate and past climate changes on Mars (Grotzinger et al. 2011). Stratigraphic records of river deposits hold particular promise because rain or snowmelt must exceed infiltration plus evaporation to allow sediment transport by rivers. Therefore, river deposits when placed in stratigraphic order could constrain the number, [...]

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