Filtering by Subject: Atmospheric Sciences

The carbon cycle of southeast Australia during 2019-2020: Drought, fires and subsequent recovery

Brendan Byrne, Junjie Liu, Meemong Lee, Yi Yin, Kevin W. Bowman, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Alexander J. Norton, Joanna Joiner, David F. Pollard, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Nicholas B. Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

2019 was the hottest and driest year on record for southeast Australia leading to bushfires of unprecedented extent between November 2019 and January 2020. In this study, we utilize space-based measurements of trace gases (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument XCO, Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 XCO2) and up-scaled GPP (FluxSat GPP) to quantify the carbon cycle anomalies resulting from drought and [...]

Global Assessment of Oil and Gas Methane Ultra-Emitters

Thomas Lauvaux, Clément Giron, Matthieu Mazzolini, Alexandre d'Aspremont, Riley Duren, Daniel Cusworth, Drew Shindell, Philippe Ciais

Published: 2021-05-07
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Methane emissions from oil and gas (O&G) production and transmission represent a significant contribution to climate change. These emissions comprise sporadic releases of large amounts of methane during maintenance operations or equipment failures not accounted for in current inventory estimates. We collected and analyzed hundreds of very large releases from atmospheric methane images sampled by [...]

The gap between atmospheric nitrogen deposition experiments and reality

Daniel Patrick Bebber

Published: 2021-05-05
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Forest Biology, Other Environmental Sciences, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Soil Science, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Anthropogenic activities have dramatically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Atmospheric N deposition, primarily from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, has caused acidification of precipitation and freshwater and triggered intense research into ecosystem responses to this pollutant. Experimental simulations of N deposition have been the main scientific tool to understand ecosystem [...]

A deep-learning estimate of the decadal trends in the Southern Ocean carbon storage

Varvara E Zemskova, Tai-Long He, Zirui Wan, Nicolas Grisouard

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Uptake of atmospheric carbon by the ocean, especially at high latitudes, plays an important role in offsetting anthropogenic emissions. At the surface of the Southern Ocean south of 30 degrees S, the ocean carbon uptake, which had been weakening in 1990s, strengthened in the 2000s. However, sparseness of in-situ measurements in the ocean interior make it difficult to compute changes in carbon [...]

Why is the Hurricane Season So Sharp?

Wenchang Yang, Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Gabriel Vecchi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding tropical cyclone (TC) climatology is a problem of profound societal significance and deep scientific interest. The annual cycle is the biggest radiatively-forced signal in TC variability, presenting a key test of our understanding and modeling of TC activity. TCs over the North Atlantic (NA) basin, which are usually called hurricanes, have a sharp peak in the annual cycle, with more [...]

fv3gfs-wrapper: a Python wrapper of the FV3GFS atmospheric model

Jeremy James McGibbon, Noah D. Brenowitz, Mark Cheeseman, Spencer K. Clark, Johann Dahm, Eddie Davis, Oliver D. Elbert, Rhea C. George, Lucas M. Harris, Brian Henn, Anna Kwa, W. Andre Perkins, Oliver Watt-Meyer, Tobias Wicky, Christopher S. Bretherton, Oliver Fuhrer

Published: 2021-03-05
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Software Engineering

Simulation software in geophysics is traditionally written in Fortran or C++ due to the stringent performance requirements these codes have to satisfy. As a result, these codes are often hard to understand, hard to modify and hard to interface with high-productivity languages used for exploratory work. \texttt{fv3gfs-wrapper} is an open-source Python-wrapped version of NOAA's FV3GFS global [...]

Crisis at the Salton Sea: Research Gaps and Opportunities

Marilyn Fogel, Hoori Ajami, Emma Aronson, Roya Bahreini, Wilfred Elders, Darrel Jenerette, David Lo, Timothy Lyons, Michael McKibben, William Porter, Arun Raju, Kurt Schwabe, Caroline Hung, Jonathan Nye

Published: 2021-03-03
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Salton Sea, a hypersaline lake in southern California, USA, is in crisis. A combination of mismanagement and competition between federal, state and local agencies has resulted in stalled efforts to address dropping water levels and unstable lake biogeochemistry. This in turn has led to a growing public health crisis as exposed shoreline exposes potentially toxic dust to local and regional [...]

Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts for the Yangtze River Basin in the Extreme Summer of 2020

Philip Bett, Gill Martin, Nick Dunstone, Adam Scaife, Hazel Thornton, Chaofan Li

Published: 2021-02-27
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology

Seasonal forecasts for Yangtze River basin rainfall in June, May–June–July (MJJ) and June–July–August (JJA) 2020 are presented, following successful forecasts in previous years. The 3-month forecasts are based on dynamical predictions of an East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) index, which is transformed into regional-mean rainfall through linear regression. The June rainfall forecasts for the [...]

The 3D Structure of Northern Hemisphere Blocking Events: Climatology, Role of Moisture, and Response to Climate Change

Ebrahim Nabizadeh, Sandro W Lubis, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2021-02-16
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate

We present a comprehensive composite analysis of the 3D structure of blocks and its response to future climate change over North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Russia in summers and winters. Using reanalysis and two large-ensemble datasets from CESM1 and GFDL-CM3, we investigate the following: The climatology of 3D structure, physical processes governing the temperature anomaly associated with [...]

Reduced High-Latitude Land Seasonality in Climates with Very High Carbon Dioxide

Matthew Henry, Geoffrey K Vallis

Published: 2021-02-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Observations of warm past climates and projections of future climate change show that the Arctic warms more than the global mean, particularly during winter months. Past warm climates such as the early Eocene had above-freezing Arctic continental temperatures year-round. In this paper, we show that a reduced Arctic land seasonality with increased greenhouse gases is a robust consequence of the [...]

A study of nowcast of Indian Monsoon Rainfall over Mumbai using Rainymotion

Kunal Anil Rustagi, Vipul Gote, Mahesh Mote, Jayesh Kothawade, Varsha Patil

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Since ages, we know that rainfall is a very important factor in deciding the fate of a country. In an agrarian country like India where more than 70% of rural households are dependent on agriculture, agriculture contributes to nearly 17% GDP of the country and is directly dependent on rainfall. Excessive rainfall can lead to floods, landslides, soil erosion and no rainfall can lead to [...]

Global air quality change during COVID-19: a synthetic result of human activities and meteorology

Qianqian Yang, Bin Wang, Yuan Wang, Qiangqiang Yuan, Caiyi Jin, Jiwen Wang, Shuwen Li, Muyu Li, Tongwen Li, Song Liu, Huanfeng Shen, Liangpei Zhang

Published: 2020-12-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

In recent months, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading around the globe, and this has led to a rare reduction in human activities. In such a background, data from ground-based environmental stations, satellites, and reanalysis materials are utilized to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the air quality changes during the COVID-19 outbreak at the global scale. The results showed [...]

The influence of orbital parameters on the North American Monsoon system during the Last Interglacial Period

Nadja Insel, Max Berkelhammer

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The response of summer precipitation in the western U.S. to climate variability remains a subject of uncertainty. For example, paleoclimate records indicate the North American monsoon (NAM) was stronger and spatially more extensive during the Holocene, whereas recent modeling suggests a weakened NAM response to increasing temperatures. These illustrate diverging pictures of the NAM response to [...]

Bias correction of global climate model using machine learning algorithms to determine meteorological variables in different tropical climates of Indonesia

Juan Nathaniel

Published: 2020-12-11
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Atmospheric Sciences, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Statistical Models

Accurate and localized forecasting of climate variables are important especially in the face of uncertainty imposed by climate change. However, the data used for prediction are either incomplete at the local level or inaccurate because the simulation models do not explicitly consider local contexts and extreme events. This paper, therefore, attempts to bridge this gap by applying tree-based [...]

The Fingerprint of Anthropogenic Warming on Global Agriculture

Frances Moore

Published: 2020-10-30
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistical Methodology

A large literature on “detection and attribution” has now demonstrated the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on a range of physical climate variables. Social and economic outcomes are known to be sensitive to climate change, but directly connecting observed changes to anthropogenic forcing is challenging. Here I demonstrate that changes in global productivity of maize, wheat, [...]


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