Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Atmospheric Sciences

The 3D Structure of Northern Hemisphere Blocking Events: Climatology, Role of Moisture, and Response to Climate Change

Ebrahim Nabizadeh, Sandro W Lubis, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2021-02-16
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate

We present a comprehensive composite analysis of the 3D structure of blocks and its response to future climate change over North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Russia in summers and winters. Using reanalysis and two large-ensemble datasets from CESM1 and GFDL-CM3, we investigate the following: The climatology of 3D structure, physical processes governing the temperature anomaly associated with [...]

Reduced High-Latitude Land Seasonality in Climates with Very High Carbon Dioxide

Matthew Henry, Geoffrey K Vallis

Published: 2021-02-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Observations of warm past climates and projections of future climate change show that the Arctic warms more than the global mean, particularly during winter months. Past warm climates such as the early Eocene had above-freezing Arctic continental temperatures year-round. In this paper, we show that a reduced Arctic land seasonality with increased greenhouse gases is a robust consequence of the [...]

A study of nowcast of Indian Monsoon Rainfall over Mumbai using Rainymotion

Kunal Anil Rustagi, Vipul Gote, Mahesh Mote, Jayesh Kothawade, Varsha Patil

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Since ages, we know that rainfall is a very important factor in deciding the fate of a country. In an agrarian country like India where more than 70% of rural households are dependent on agriculture, agriculture contributes to nearly 17% GDP of the country and is directly dependent on rainfall. Excessive rainfall can lead to floods, landslides, soil erosion and no rainfall can lead to [...]

Global air quality change during COVID-19: a synthetic result of human activities and meteorology

Qianqian Yang, Bin Wang, Yuan Wang, Qiangqiang Yuan, Caiyi Jin, Jiwen Wang, Shuwen Li, Muyu Li, Tongwen Li, Song Liu, Huanfeng Shen, Liangpei Zhang

Published: 2020-12-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

In recent months, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading around the globe, and this has led to a rare reduction in human activities. In such a background, data from ground-based environmental stations, satellites, and reanalysis materials are utilized to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the air quality changes during the COVID-19 outbreak at the global scale. The results showed [...]

The influence of orbital parameters on the North American Monsoon system during the Last Interglacial Period

Nadja Insel, Max Berkelhammer

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The response of summer precipitation in the western U.S. to climate variability remains a subject of uncertainty. For example, paleoclimate records indicate the North American monsoon (NAM) was stronger and spatially more extensive during the Holocene, whereas recent modeling suggests a weakened NAM response to increasing temperatures. These illustrate diverging pictures of the NAM response to [...]

Bias correction of global climate model using machine learning algorithms to determine meteorological variables in different tropical climates of Indonesia

Juan Nathaniel

Published: 2020-12-11
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Atmospheric Sciences, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Statistical Models

Accurate and localized forecasting of climate variables are important especially in the face of uncertainty imposed by climate change. However, the data used for prediction are either incomplete at the local level or inaccurate because the simulation models do not explicitly consider local contexts and extreme events. This paper, therefore, attempts to bridge this gap by applying tree-based [...]

The Fingerprint of Anthropogenic Warming on Global Agriculture

Frances Moore

Published: 2020-10-30
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistical Methodology

A large literature on “detection and attribution” has now demonstrated the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on a range of physical climate variables. Social and economic outcomes are known to be sensitive to climate change, but directly connecting observed changes to anthropogenic forcing is challenging. Here I demonstrate that changes in global productivity of maize, wheat, [...]

Urban Air Quality Modeling Using Low-Cost Sensor Network and Data Assimilation in the Aburra Valley, Colombia

Santiago Lopez-Restrepo, Andres Yarce, Nicolas Pinel, O. Lucia Quintero, Arjo Segers, Arnold W. Heemink

Published: 2020-10-29
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Monitoring

The use of low air quality networks has been increasing in recent years to study urban pollution dynamics. Here we show the evaluation of the operational Aburra Valley's low-cost network against the official monitoring network. The results show that the PM2.5 low-cost measurements are very close to those observed by the official network. Additionally, the low-cost allows a higher spatial [...]

The Global Warming Potential Misrepresents the Physics of Global Warming Thereby Misleading Policy Makers

Robert L Kleinberg

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a widely used metric used to compare the climate change effects of various greenhouse gases. Although GWP has an established role in international climate agreements, GWP does not, in general, describe any specific identifiable impact of greenhouse gas emissions on climate. It is argued here that GWP is unphysical, unintuitive, arbitrary, ignores the time [...]

Correcting 19th and 20th century sea surface temperatures improves simulations of Atlantic hurricane activity

DUO CHAN, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Wenchang Yang, Peter Huybers

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Changes in the statistics of North Atlantic hurricanes are known to depend upon the pattern of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Dynamical and statistical models are key tools to predict future hurricane activity, with our confidence in this application rooted in the models’ ability to skillfully reproduce hurricane variations over the past 30-40 years, when satellite data allows [...]

A Statistical Evaluation of WRF-LES Trace Gas Dispersion Using Project Prairie Grass Measurements

Alex Rybchuk, Caroline B. Alden, Julie K. Lundquist, Gregory B. Rieker

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In recent years, new measurement systems have been deployed to monitor and quantify methane emissions from the natural gas sector. Large-eddy simulation (LES) has complemented measurement campaigns by serving as a controlled environment in which to study plume dynamics and sampling strategies. However, with few comparisons to controlled-release experiments, the accuracy of LES for modeling [...]

An Eddy-Zonal Flow Feedback Model for Propagating Annular Modes

Sandro Lubis, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2020-07-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The variability of the zonal-mean large-scale extratropical circulation is often studied using individual modes obtained from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses. The prevailing reduced-order model of the leading EOF (EOF1) of zonal-mean zonal wind, called the annular mode, consists of an eddy-mean flow interaction mechanism that results in a positive feedback of EOF1 onto itself. [...]

Mass independent fractionation of even and odd mercury isotopes during free tropospheric mercury oxidation

Xuewu Fu, Martin Jiskra, Xu Yang, Nicolas Marusczak, Maxime Enrico, Jerome Chmeleff, Lars-Eric Heimburger-Boavida, Francois Gheusi, Jeroen E Sonke

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Even mercury (Hg) isotope mass independent fractionation (MIF), observed in rainfall globally, is used to quantify atmospheric Hg deposition pathways. The underlying reaction and MIF mechanism are unknown however. Here we investigate the Hg isotope composition of free tropospheric gaseous elemental Hg0 and HgII forms. We find that gaseous oxidized HgII has positive Δ199Hg, Δ201Hg, Δ200Hg, and [...]

Surprising Changes in Aerosol Loading over India Amid COVID-19 Lockdown

Satyndera Kumar Pandey, Vinoj V

Published: 2020-07-06
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Using ground-based and satellite observation along with aerosol reanalysis products, we show a widespread reduction in aerosol loading over the Indian subcontinent during the COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 2019) lockdown. The pre-lockdown and lockdown period considered in the present study is 20th February–20th March 2020 and 24th March–22nd April 2020. In terms of aerosol optical depth (AOD), [...]

Deep spatial transformers for autoregressive data-driven forecasting of geophysical turbulence

Ashesh Kumar Chattopadhyay, Mustafa Mustafa, Pedram Hassanzadeh, Karthik Kashinath

Published: 2020-07-05
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Computer Sciences, Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Mathematics, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

A deep spatial transformer based encoder-decoder model has been developed to autoregressively predict the time evolution of the upper layers stream function of a two-layered quasi-geostrophic (QG) system without any information about the lower layers stream function. The spatio-temporal complexity of QG flow is comparable to the complexity of 500hPa Geopotential Height (Z500) of fully coupled [...]

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