Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Atmospheric Sciences

Do atmospheric plastics act as fomites for novel viruses?

Renjith VishnuRadhan, Divya David T, Eldho T I, Jacky Bhagat

Published: 2020-04-15
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Plastic particles are ubiquitous in various environmental compartments, the atmosphere being the least explored compartment in terms of plastic pollution. The way that atmospheric plastics affect the biological systems has not yet been explored when compared to aquatic ecosystems. There are many speculated human health impacts, one definite and direct impact of atmospheric plastics would be [...]

Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China

Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Jian Gao, Bo Zheng, Derong Zhou, Ximeng Qi, Rong Tang, Chuanhua Ren, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

To control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. Despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China, raising [...]

Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts for the Yangtze River Basin in Summer 2019 from an Improved Climate Service

Philip E Bett, Nicola Martin, Adam Scaife, Nick Dunstone, Gill Martin, Nicola Golding, Joanne Camp, Peiqun Zhang, Chris Hewitt, Leon Hermanson

Published: 2020-03-18
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rainfall forecasts for the summer monsoon season in the Yangtze River Basin allow decision-makers to plan for possible flooding, which can affect the lives and livelihoods of millions of people. A trial climate service was developed in 2016, producing a prototype seasonal forecast product for use by stakeholders in the region, based on forecasting rainfall directly using a dynamical model. Here [...]

Plant Physiology Increases the Magnitude and Spread of the Transient Climate Response in CMIP6 Earth System Models

Claire Marie Zarakas, Abigail L. S. Swann, Marysa M. Lague, Kyle C Armour, James T. Randerson

Published: 2020-02-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere not only influence climate through CO2’s effect as a greenhouse gas but also through its impact on plants. Plants respond to atmospheric CO2 concentrations in several ways that can alter surface energy and water fluxes and thus surface climate, including changes in stomatal conductance, water use, and canopy leaf area. These plant physiological [...]

A Shallow Water Model for Convective Self-Aggregation

Da Yang

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Convective self-aggregation is proposed to be fundamental to the development of tropical cyclones and the Madden-Julian Oscillation, both of which are long-term mysteries in tropical meteorology. Therefore, understanding self-aggregation is key to deciphering how convection works in the tropical atmosphere. Here we present a 1D shallow water model that simulates the dynamics of the planetary [...]

Spatially distributed chaos and turbulence in clouds

Alexander Bershadskii

Published: 2020-01-22
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Spatially distributed chaos (turbulence) in the cumulus and stratiform clouds have been studied using results of direct numerical simulations and radiometric measurements in cloudy atmosphere. It is shown that in the both cases the second order moment of helicity distribution (the Levich-Tsinober invariant) dominates the kinetic energy spectra.

Uncertainty in the response of sudden stratospheric warmings and stratosphere-troposphere coupling to quadrupled CO2 concentrations in CMIP6 models

Blanca Ayarzagüena, Andrew Charlton-Perez, Amy Butler, Peter Hitchcock, Isla Simpson, Lorenzo Polvani, Neal Butchart, Edwin Gerber, Lesley Gray, Birgit Hassler

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Major sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs), vortex formation and final breakdown dates are key highlight points of the stratospheric polar vortex. These phenomena are relevant for stratosphere-troposphere coupling, which explains the interest in understanding their future changes. However, up to now, there is not a clear consensus on which projected changes to the polar vortex are robust, [...]

Feedback between drought and deforestation in the Amazon

Arie Staal, Bernardo M. Flores, Ana Paula Aguiar, Joyce H.C. Bosmans, Ingo Fetzer, Obbe A. Tuinenburg

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Deforestation and drought are among the greatest environmental pressures on the Amazon rainforest, possibly destabilizing the forest-climate system. Deforestation in the Amazon reduces rainfall regionally, while this deforestation itself has been reported to be facilitated by droughts. Here we quantify the interactions between drought and deforestation spatially across the Amazon during the early [...]

Detection Uncertainty Matters for Understanding Atmospheric Rivers

Travis O'Brien, Ashley E. Payne, Christine A. Shields, Jonathan Rutz, Swen Brands, Christopher Castellano, Jiayi Chen, William Cleveland, Michael J. DeFlorio, Naomi Goldenson

Published: 2020-01-02
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The 3rd ARTMIP Workshop What: Over 30 participants from multiple universities and research insititutions met to discuss new results from the Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project. Where: Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA, USA When: 16-18 October 2019

Evaluation and comparison of a machine learning cloud identification algorithm for the SLSTR in polar regions

Caroline Poulsen, Ulrik Egede, Daniel Robbins, Barnaby Sandeford, Kenza Tazi, Thomas Zhu

Published: 2019-12-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Feed Forward Neural Net (NN) approach to distinguish between clouds and the surface has been applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer in polar regions. The masking algorithm covers the Arctic, Antarctic and regions typically classified as the cryosphere such as northern hemisphere permafrost. The mask has been trained using collocations with the CALIOP active lidar, which in [...]

Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Current are synchronized

Tsubasa Kohyama, Hiroaki Miura, Shoichiro Kido

Published: 2019-11-05
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio are shown to be synchronized for the decadal time scale. This synchronization, which we refer to as the Boundary Current Synchronization (BCS), is associated with meridional migrations of the atmospheric jet stream. The singular value decomposition (SVD) between SST and zonal wind shows that, within the context of known climate [...]

Pre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Jack Jie Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, Nønne L. Prisle

Published: 2019-10-31
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Chemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Chemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In this work we study the adsorption, or uptake, of water onto deposited inorganic sodium chloride and organic malonic acid and sucrose nanoparticles at low relative humidities from 0 to 16%. We employ the surface sensitive ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique, which has a detection sensitivity from parts per thousand. Our results show that water is adsorbed on sodium [...]

Non-stationary teleconnection between the Pacific Ocean and Arctic sea ice

David Brooking Bonan, Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth

Published: 2019-10-08
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Over the last 40 years observations show a teleconnection between summertime Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperatures and September Arctic sea-ice extent. However, the short satellite observation record has made it difficult to further examine this relationship. Here, we use 30 fully-coupled general circulation models (GCMs) participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project to [...]

Analog forecasting of extreme-causing weather patterns using deep learning

Ashesh Kumar Chattopadhyay, Pedram Hassanzadeh, Ebrahim Nabizadeh

Published: 2019-07-31
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Atmospheric Sciences, Computational Engineering, Computer Sciences, Engineering, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models require ever-growing computing time/resources, but still, have difficulties with predicting weather extremes. Here we introduce a data-driven framework that is based on analog forecasting (prediction using past similar patterns) and employs a novel deep learning pattern-recognition technique (capsule neural networks, CapsNets) and impact-based [...]

Evidence against a general positive eddy feedback in atmospheric blocking

Lei Wang, Zhiming Kuang

Published: 2019-07-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The eddy straining mechanism of Shutts (1983; S83) has long been considered a main process for explaining the maintenance of atmospheric blocking. As hypothesized in S83, incoming synoptic eddies experience a meridional straining effect when approaching a split jetstream, and as a result, enhanced PV fluxes reinforce the block. A two-layer QG model is adopted here as a minimal model to conduct [...]

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