Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Biogeochemistry

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, Simon Stephenson

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

Evidence confirms an anthropic origin of Amazonian Dark Earths

Umberto Lombardo, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Hans Huisman, Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira, Charles R Clement, Carlos Francisco Brazão Vieira Alho, Fernando Almeida, Lucia Helena Cunha Anjos, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, George Brown, Marcondes Costa, Luis Cunha, William M Denevan, Ademir Fontana, Bruno Glaser, Susanna Hecht, Klaus A Jarosch, André Braga Junqueira, Thiago Kater, Thomas W Kuyper, Johannes Lehmann, Helena Pinto Lima, Rodrigo Santana Macedo, Marco Madella, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Francis E Mayle, Doyle McKEY, Claide de Paula Moraes, Gaspar Morcote-Ríos, Eduardo Neves, Francisco Pugliese, Fabiano Pupim, Marco F Raczka, Anne Rapp Py-Daniel, Philip Riris, Leonor Rodrigues, Stéphen Rostain, Morgan Schmidt, Myrtle P Shock, Tobias Sprafke, Eduardo Kazuo Tamanaha, Pablo Vidal-Torrado, Ximena S Villagran, Jennifer Watling, Sadie L Weber

Published: 2021-01-22
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

First described over 120 years ago in Brazil, Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are expanses of dark soil that are exceptionally fertile and contain large quantities of archaeological artefacts. The elevated fertility of the dark and often deep A horizon of ADEs is widely regarded as an outcome of pre-Columbian human influence1. Controversially, in their recent paper Silva et al.2argue that the higher [...]

Multi-decadal improvement in U.S. lake water clarity

Simon Nemer Topp, Tamlin M. Pavelsky, Emily H. Stanley, Xiao Yang, Claire G. Griffin, Matthew R.V. Ross

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Across the globe, recent work examining the state of freshwater resources paints an increasingly dire picture of degraded water quality. However, much of this work either focuses on a small subset of large waterbodies or uses in situ water quality datasets that contain biases in when and where sampling occurred. Using these unrepresentative samples limits our understanding of landscape level [...]

Differences in carbon isotope discrimination between angiosperm and gymnosperm woody plants, and their relationship to atmospheric O2:CO2 ratio, physiology, and environment

Vincent John Hare, Aliénor Lavergne

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology

For most of the Phanerozoic Eon, Earth’s woody vegetation has been dominated by C3 plants – predominantly gymnosperms - with angiosperms only emerging as the dominant plant group as CO2 declined during the Cenozoic (66 Ma onward). At present, differences in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) between angiosperm and gymnosperm plants are relatively small (2–3 ‰), but an increasing body of [...]

Stalagmite carbon isotopes suggest deglacial increase in soil respiration in Western Europe driven by temperature change

Franziska Lechleitner, Christopher C. Day, Oliver Kost, Micah Wilhelm, Negar Haghipour, Gideon M. Henderson, Heather M. Stoll

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Speleology

The temperate region of Western Europe underwent dramatic climatic and environmental change during the last deglaciation. Much of what is known about the terrestrial ecosystem response to deglacial warming stems from pollen preserved in sediment sequences, providing information on vegetation composition. Other ecosystem processes, such as soil respiration, remain poorly constrained over past [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

A global Bayesian temperature calibration for lacustrine brGDGTs

Pablo Martinez Sosa, Jess Tierney, Ioana Cristina Stefanescu, Emily Dearing Crampton-Flood, Bryan N Shuman, Cody Routson

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate

Despite widespread use of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) for paleo-temperature reconstruction, no global calibration for their application in lakes has been generated since improved analytical methods have allowed for the separation of the structural isomers. This is a substantial obstacle for the application of this tool as soil calibrations underestimate temperature [...]

Leaf trait plasticity alters competitive ability and functioning of simulated tropical trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide

Marlies Kovenock, Charles D. Koven, Ryan G. Knox, Rosie A. Fisher, Abigail L. S. Swann

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

The response of tropical ecosystems to elevated carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) remains a critical uncertainty in projections of future climate. Here we investigate how leaf trait plasticity in response to elevated CO$_2$ alters projections of tropical forest competitive dynamics and functioning. We use vegetation demographic model simulations to quantify how plasticity in leaf mass per area and leaf [...]

dragon: A New Tool for Exploring Redox Evolution Preserved in the Mineral Record

Stephanie J. Spielman, Eli K. Moore

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The flow of energy and elements between the geosphere and biosphere can be traced through changing redox chemistry of Earth’s surface. Deep-time trends in the mineral record, including mineral age and elemental composition, reveal a dynamic history of changing redox states and chemical speciation. We present a user-friendly exploratory network analysis platform called dragon (Deep-time Redox [...]

Alkenone isotopes show evidence of active carbon concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores as aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations fall below 7 µmolL-1

Marcus Peter Sebastian Badger

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Coccolithophores and other haptophyte algae acquire the carbon required for metabolic processes from the water in which they live. Whether carbon is actively moved across the cell membrane via a carbon concentrating mechanism, or passively through diffusion, is important for haptophyte biochemistry. The possible utilisation of carbon concentrating mechanisms also has the potential to overprint [...]

Iron oxide reactivity controls organic matter mineralization in ferruginous sediments

André Friese, Kohen Bauer, Clemens Glombitza, Luis Ordóñez, Daniel Ariztegui, Verena B. Heuer, Aurèle Vuillemin, Cynthia Henny, Sulung Nomosatryo, Rachel Simister

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ferruginous sediments were widespread during the Archaean and Proterozoic Eons, but our knowledge about organic matter mineralization remains mostly conceptual, as analogous modern ferruginous sediments are largely unstudied. In sediments of ferruginous Lake Towuti, Indonesia, methanogenesis dominates organic matter mineralization despite abundant reactive ferric iron phases persisting throughout [...]

Carbon fractions in the world’s dead wood

Adam R Martin, Grant M. Dimke, Mahendra Doraisami, Sean C. Thomas

Published: 2020-06-05
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Alarming increases in tree mortality due to environmental change suggest that contributions of dead wood to global carbon (C) cycles are rapidly increasing 1-3, with dead wood C flux estimates already approximating total annual anthropogenic C emissions 4. Quantifying C in dead wood critically depends on accurate estimates of dead wood C fractions (CFs) to convert dead woody biomass into C. Most [...]

Fate of intertidal microphytobenthos nitrogen under enhanced nutrient availability: Evidence for reduced nitrogen retention revealed through 15N-labeling

Philip Riekenberg, Joanne Oakes, Bradley Eyre

Published: 2020-05-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sediment microbial communities are an important sink for both organic and inorganic nitrogen (N), with microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass having the largest contribution to short-term N-assimilation and retention. Coastal waters are increasingly subject to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, but the effect of this nutrient enrichment on microbial assimilation, processing, and fate of MPB-derived N [...]

Shining light on priming in euphotic sediments: Nutrient enrichment stimulates export of stored organic matter

Philip Riekenberg, Joanne Oakes, Bradley Eyre

Published: 2020-05-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Estuarine sediments are important sites for the interception, processing and retention of organic matter, prior to its export to the coastal oceans. Stimulated microbial co-metabolism (priming) potentially increases export of refractory organic matter through increased production of hydrolytic enzymes. By using the microphytobenthos community to directly introduce a pulse of labile carbon into [...]

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