Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Civil and Environmental Engineering

FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE: SPATIO-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF WATER-BALANCE IN A RAPIDLY URBANIZING KATHMANDU VALLEY WATERSHED OF NEPAL

Suchana Acharya, Tomoharu Hori, Saroj Karki

Published: 2021-04-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering

The resources of the earth are under immense pressure due to the multiple anthropogenic influences. The land resources which largely attribute to the quality as well as quantity of the water, is facing extreme stress due to the rapid urbanization resulting from population growth as well as socio-economic development. It is imperative that the response of hydrological processes to the change in [...]

Microstructural differences between naturally-deposited and laboratory beach sands

Amy Ferrick, Vashan Wright, Michael Manga, Nicholas Sitar

Published: 2021-04-14
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The orientation of and contacts between grains of sand reflect the processes that deposit the sands. Grain orientation and contact geometry also influence mechanical properties. Quantifying and understanding sand microstructure thus provide an opportunity to understand depositional processes better and connect microstructure and macroscopic properties. We compare naturally-deposited beach sands [...]

A Regional Semi-Distributed Streamflow Model Using Deep Learning

Zhongrun Xiang, Ibrahim Demir, Ricardo Mantilla, Witold F. Krajewski

Published: 2021-03-08
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Hydrology

Recent studies have shown that deep learning models in hydrological applications significantly improved streamflow predictions at multiple stations compared to traditional machine learning approaches. However, most studies lack generalization; i.e. researchers are training separate models for each location. The spatial and temporal generalization ability of deep learning models in hydrology that [...]

How unprecedented was the February 2021 Texas cold snap?

James Doss-Gollin, David J Farnham, Upmanu Lall, Vijay Modi

Published: 2021-02-28
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Risk Analysis

Winter storm Uri brought severe cold to the southern United States in February 2021, causing a cascading failure of interdependent systems in Texas where infrastructure was not adequately prepared for such cold. In particular, the failure of interconnected energy systems restricted electricity supply just as demand for heating spiked, leaving millions of Texans without heat or electricity, many [...]

Global climate-driven trade-offs between the water retention and cooling benefits of urban greening

Mark Cuthbert, Gabriel Rau, Adam Bates, Marie Ekstrom, Denis O'Carroll

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Engineering and Management, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Heat-related mortality and flooding are pressing challenges for the >4 billion urban population worldwide, exacerbated by increasing urbanization and climate change. Urban greening, such as green roofs and parks, can potentially help address both problems, but the geographical variation of the relative hydrological and thermal performance benefits of such interventions are unknown. Here we [...]

Displacing fishmeal with protein derived from stranded methane

Sahar Head El Abbadi, Evan D Sherwin, Adam R Brandt, Stephen P. Luby, Craig S. Criddle

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

Methane emitted and flared from industrial sources across the United States is a major contributor to global climate change. Methanotrophic bacteria can transform this methane into useful protein-rich biomass for animal feed. In the rapidly growing aquaculture industry, this can replace ocean-caught fishmeal, reducing demands on over-harvested fisheries. Here, we analyze the economic potential of [...]

Real-time Flood Mapping on Client-side Web Systems using HAND model

Anson Hu, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2021-02-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computational Engineering, Engineering

The height above nearest drainage (HAND) model is frequently used to calculate properties of the soil as well as predict flood inundation extents. HAND is extremely useful due to its lack of reliance on prior data, as only the digital elevation model (DEM) is needed. It is close to optimal, running in linear or linearithmic time in the number of cells depending on the values of the heights. It [...]

Numerical modeling of Earth's dynamic surface: a community approach

Gregory E Tucker, Eric Hutton, Mark Piper, Benjamin Campforts, Tian Gan, Katherine R Barnhart, Albert Kettner, Irina Overeem, Scott D Peckham, Lynn McCready, Jaia Syvitski

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy

Computational modelling occupies a unique niche in Earth environmental sciences. Models serve not just as scientific technology and infrastructure, but also as digital containers of the scientific community's understanding of the natural world. As this understanding improves, so too must the associated software. This dual nature---models as both infrastructure and hypotheses---means that [...]

Upper Mississippi River Flow and Sediment Characteristics and Their Effect on a Harbor Siltation Case

Roberto Fernández, Marcelo H Garcia, Gary Parker

Published: 2021-01-28
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geomorphology, Hydraulic Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Upper Mississippi River flow and sediment characteristics downstream of St. Louis are presented in this study. Available and measured data were used to assess a harbor siltation case and dredging needs. Such data are also useful to researchers and engineers conducting work in the Mississippi River and large rivers in general. Flows were characterized in terms of the mean annual hydrograph, flow [...]

Determination of vulnerability areas from the simulated deposition of atmospheric pollutants using LOTOS-EUROS chemical transport model in North-West South-America

Andres Yarce Botero, Santiago Lopez-Restrepo, Arjo Segers, O. Lucia Quintero, Arnold W. Heemink, Nicolas Pinel

Published: 2021-01-06
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

This work presents the implementation of the LOTOS-EUROS regional atmospheric Chemical Transport Model (CTM) on Northwestern South America. The impact of land use and orography update in the model was analyzed to identify potential vulnerable natural areas by quantifying atmospheric deposition pollutants. CTMs allow simulating the physical dynamics of trace gasses and aerosols, including [...]

Future magnitude 7.5 earthquake offshore Martinique: Spotlight on the main source features controlling ground motion prediction

Elif Oral, Claudio Satriano

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering

The eastern offshore of Martinique is one of the active areas of the Lesser Antilles Subduc tion Zone (LASZ). Although its seismicity is moderate compared to other subduction zones, LASZ is capable of generating a M 7+ interplate earthquake and recent studies and historical events, such as the M8 1839 and M 7-7.5 1946 earthquakes, confirm this possibility. Given the high risk that Martinique can [...]

India Flood Inventory: Creation of a multi-source national geospatial database to facilitate comprehensive flood research

Manabendra Saharia, Avish Jain, Ronit Raj Baishya, Saagar Haobam, O. P. Sreejith, D. S. Pai, Arezoo RafieeiNasab

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering

Floods are one of the most devastating natural hazards across the world, with India being one of the worst affected countries in terms of fatalities and economic damage. In-depth research is required in order to understand the complex hydrometeorological and geomorphic factors at play and design solutions to minimize the impact of floods. But the existence of a historical inventory of floods is [...]

An Integrated Flood Risk Assessment and Mitigation Framework: Middle Cedar River Basin Case Study

Enes Yildirim, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

Property buyout is one of the most frequently preferred flood mitigation applications by decision-makers for long-term risk reduction. Due to its high-level funding requirements as a mitigation solution, it requires extensive benefits and costs analysis for the selected region. Many communities in the State of Iowa experienced flood events (i.e. 1993, 2008, 2014, 2019) which resulted in a heavy [...]

A data-driven approach for characterizing community scale air pollution exposure disparities in inland Southern California

Khanh Do, Haofei Yu, Jasmin Velasquez, Marilyn Grell-Brisk, Heather Smith, Cesunica Ivey

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

This study elucidates PM2.5 exposure disparities in a socioeconomically diverse air basin that is heavily burdened by air pollution. A novel spatial clustering approach is applied to classify the microenvironments of more than 900,000 high temporal resolution personal exposure data points. Results from the study indicate that participants from the lowest socioeconomic status community experienced [...]

Transportation Network Vulnerability and Accessibility for Critical Amenities during Flooding: A Case Study for Iowa

Yazeed Alabbad, Jerry Mount, Ann Melissa Campbell, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Risk Analysis, Transportation Engineering

Natural disasters, such as flooding, can cause severe social, environmental, and economic damage to a community. Transportation infrastructure plays an essential role in flood response and recovery efforts. However, flooding may disturb road functionality and generate direct and indirect adverse impacts, including the loss of access to essential services. This paper presents a comprehensive [...]

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