Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Civil and Environmental Engineering

An Ethical Decision-Making Framework with Serious Gaming: Smart Water Case Study on Flooding

Gregory Ewing, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2020-06-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Engineering, Engineering Education, Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Theory and Algorithms

Sensors and control technologies are being deployed extensively in both urban water networks and rural river systems, leading to unprecedented ability to sense and control our water environment. Because these sensor networks and control systems allow for higher resolution monitoring and decision making in both time and space, greater discretization of control will allow for an unprecedented [...]

A Comprehensive Review of Deep Learning Applications in Hydrology and Water Resources

Muhammed Ali Sit, Bekir Zahit Demiray, Zhongrun Xiang, Gregory Ewing, Yusuf Sermet, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2020-06-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

The global volume of digital data is expected to reach 175 zettabytes by 2025. The volume, variety, and velocity of water-related data are increasing due to large-scale sensor networks and increased attention to topics such as disaster response, water resources management, and climate change. Combined with the growing availability of computational resources and popularity of deep learning, these [...]

Global wave-driven beach evolution; consequences for observation strategies

Erwin Bergsma, Rafael Almar, Thierry Garlan, Elodie Kestenare

Published: 2020-06-12
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Life Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

It is an illusion to think that one can observe monthly beach behaviour with monthly surveys. Current coastal observation strategies restrict understanding of beach evolution, preventing effective risk mitigation. In this article, we quantify the global spatiotemporal scales of coastal wave changes, which are the known dominant driver of beach evolution. Consequences and recommendations for beach [...]

Large model parameter and structural uncertainties in global projections of urban heat waves

Zhonghua Zheng, Lei Zhao, Keith W. Oleson

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Risk Analysis, Statistics and Probability

Urban heat waves (UHWs) are strongly associated with socioeconomic impacts. Reliable projections of these extremes are pressingly needed for local actions in the context of extreme event preparedness and mitigation. Such information, however, is not available because current multi-model projections largely lack a representation of urban areas. Here, we use a newly-developed urban climate emulator [...]

The sustainability of beach nourishments: A review of nourishment and environmental monitoring practice

Franziska Staudt, Rik Gijsman, Caroline Ganal, Finn Mielck, Johanna Wolbring, H. Christian Hass, Nils Goseberg, Holger Schüttrumpf, Torsten Schlurmann, Stefan Schimmels

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Beach nourishments are a widely used method to mitigate erosion along flood-prone sandy shorelines. In contrast to hard coastal protection structures, nourishments are considered as soft engineering, although little is known about the cumulative, long-term environmental effects of both marine sediment extraction and nourishment activities. Recent endeavours to sustain the marine ecosystem and [...]

Laboratory experiments and grain based discrete element numerical simulations investigating the thermo-mechanical behaviour of sandstone

James Woodman, Audrey Ougier-Simonin, Anastasios Stavrou, Ioannis Vazaios, William Murphy, Mark E Thomas, Helen J Reeves

Published: 2020-05-29
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Thermo-mechanical loading can occur in numerous engineering geological environments, from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Different minerals and micro-defects in rock cause heterogeneity at a grain scale, affecting the mechanical and thermal properties of the material. Changes in strength and stiffness can occur from exposure to elevated temperatures, with the accumulation of localised [...]

Evaluating single and multi-date Landsat classifications of land-cover in a seasonally dry tropical forest

João Maria de Andrade, John Elton Brito Leite Cunha, João Nailson de Castro Silva, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Carlos de Oliveira Galvão

Published: 2020-05-28
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurate information on the land cover is crucial for efficient monitoring and development of environmental studies in the Brazilian Caatinga forest. It is the largest tropical seasonal forest in South America, presenting high biodiversity and is under intense anthropogenic disturbance. Caatingas land cover is heterogeneous, and rainfall is its primary phenological regulator, presenting mainly [...]

Predictive modelling of envelope flood extents using geomorphic and climatic-hydrologic catchment characteristics

Ricardo Tavares da Costa, Stefano Zanardo, Stefano Bagli, Arno G. J. Hilberts, Salvatore Manfreda, Caterina Samela, Attilio Castellarin

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A topographic index (flood descriptor) that combines the scaling of bankfull depth with morphology was shown to describe the tendency of an area to be flooded. However, this approach depends on the quality and availability of flood maps and assumes that outcomes can be directly extrapolated and downscaled. This work attempts to relax these problems and answer two questions: 1) Can functional [...]

UNSEEN trends: Detecting decadal changes in 100-year precipitation extremes

Timo Kelder, Malte Muller, Louise J. Slater, Tim Marjoribanks, Robert L. Wilby, Christel Prudhomme, Patrik Bohlinger, Laura Ferranti, Thomas Nipen

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Climate, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sample sizes of observed climate extremes are typically too small to reliably constrain non-stationary behaviour. To facilitate detection of non-stationarities in 100-year precipitation values over a short period of 35 years (1981-2015), we apply the UNprecedented Simulated Extreme ENsemble (UNSEEN) approach, by pooling ensemble members and lead times from the ECMWF seasonal prediction system [...]

60 YEARS OF AIRBORNE AFMAG METHOD EVOLUTION

Alexander Prikhodko, Petr Valentinovich Kuzmin, Andrei Bagrianski

Published: 2020-05-24
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Development and following commercial use of the airborne electromagnetic method based on natural fields in the audio-frequency band (AFMAG) started in late 50s of the last century. After several decades of the development downtime, limitations inherent to the method were resolved in 80s by adapting the tensor analysis, remote reference noise bias removal techniques and computation of the tippers. [...]

On the thermo-poro-mechanics of chemically active faults

Emmanouil Veveakis

Published: 2020-05-21
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Shear zones in outcrops and core drillings on active faults commonly reveal two scales of localization, with centimeter to tens of meters thick deformation zones embedding much narrower zones of mm- to cm-scale. The narrow zones are often attributed to some form of fast instability such as earthquakes or slow slip events. Surprisingly, the double localisation phenomenon seem to be independent of [...]

Using Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling to capture cyanobacteria dynamics in Northern European lakes

Nikolaos K. Mellios, S. Jannicke Moe, Chrysi Laspidou

Published: 2020-05-21
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

Cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and reservoirs currently threaten water security and affect the ecosystem services provided by these freshwater ecosystems, such as drinking water and recreational use. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate the situation in the future because of higher temperatures, extended droughts and nutrient enrichment, due to urbanisation and intensified agriculture. [...]

Probabilistic soil moisture dynamics of water- and energy-limited ecosystems

Estefanía Muñoz, Andrés Ochoa, Germán Poveda, Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe

Published: 2020-05-17
Subjects: Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

This paper presents an extension of the stochastic ecohydrological model for soil moisture dynamics at a point of Rodriguez-Iturbe et al. (1999) and Laio et al. (2001). In the original model, evapotranspiration is a function of soil moisture and vegetation parameters, so that the model is suitable for water-limited environments. Our extension introduces a dependence on maximum evapotranspiration [...]

Permeability hysteresis from micro-channels opening during dissolution/reprecipitation cycle

Martin Lesueur, Thomas Poulet, Emmanouil Veveakis

Published: 2020-05-11
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computational Engineering, Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering

Permeability is a critical parameter for geological resources characterisation. Its evolution with respect to porosity is particularly interesting and many research initiatives focus on deriving such relationships, to understand some hydraulic impacts of microstructure alteration. Permeability evolution from chemical reactions for instance can become complex as flow channels may open during rock [...]

Estimating Submicron Aerosol Mixing State at the Global Scale with Machine Learning and Earth System Modeling

Zhonghua Zheng, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Yu Yao, Jessica T. Gasparik, Valentine G. Anantharaj, Lei Zhao, Matthew West, Nicole Riemer

Published: 2020-05-06
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computational Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This study integrates machine learning and particle-resolved aerosol simulations to develop emulators that predict sub-micron aerosol mixing state indices from the Earth System Model (ESM) simulations. The emulators predict aerosol mixing state using only ESM bulk aerosol species concentrations, which do not by themselves carry mixing state information. Here we used PartMC as the [...]

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