Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Climate

The influence of rock uplift rate on the formation and preservation of individual marine terraces during multiple sea level stands

Luca Malatesta, Noah J. Finnegan, Kimberly L. Huppert, Emily I. Carreño

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Climate, Geology, Geomorphology

Marine terraces are a cornerstone for the study of paleo sea level and crustal deformation. Commonly, individual erosive marine terraces are attributed to unique sea level high-stands. This stems from early reasoning that erosive marine platforms could only be significantly widened at the beginning of an interglacial. However, this implies that wave erosion is insignificant during the vast [...]

CO2 capture by pumping surface acidity to the deep ocean

Michael Tyka, John C Platt, Christopher Van Arsdale

Published: 2021-04-30
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Climate, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The majority of IPCC scenarios call for active CO2 removal (CDR) to remain below 2oC of warm- ing. On geological timescales, ocean uptake regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration, with two homeostats driving CO2 uptake: dissolution of deep ocean calcite deposits and terrestrial weathering of silicate rocks, acting on 1ka to 100ka timescales, respectively. Many current ocean-based CDR proposals [...]

Localised economic impacts from high temperature disruption days under climate change

Tim Summers, Erik Mackie, Risa Ueno, Charles Henry Simpson, Scott Hosking, Tudor Suciu, Andrew Coburn, Emily Shuckburgh

Published: 2021-04-23
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Studies

Most studies into the effects of climate change have headline results in the form of a global change in mean temperature. More useful for businesses and governments however are measures of the economic impact, either direct or indirect. We have addressed this by examining how the frequency of exceeding a daily mean temperature threshold changes, defined as “disruption days”, as it is often this [...]

A Hydrologist’s Guide to Open Science

Caitlyn A Hall, Sheila M. Saia, Andrea Popp, Nilay Dogulu, Stan Schymanski, Niels Drost, Tim van Emmerik, Rolf Hut

Published: 2021-04-23
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Hydrologic research that is open, accessible, reusable, and reproducible will have the largest impact on the scientific community and broader society. While more and more members of the hydrology community and key hydrology organizations are embracing open science practices, technical (e.g., limited coding experience), resource (e.g., open access fees), and social (e.g., fear of being scooped) [...]

A deep-learning estimate of the decadal trends in the Southern Ocean carbon storage

Varvara E Zemskova, Tai-Long He, Zirui Wan, Nicolas Grisouard

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Uptake of atmospheric carbon by the ocean, especially at high latitudes, plays an important role in offsetting anthropogenic emissions. At the surface of the Southern Ocean south of 30 degrees S, the ocean carbon uptake, which had been weakening in 1990s, strengthened in the 2000s. However, sparseness of in-situ measurements in the ocean interior make it difficult to compute changes in carbon [...]

A simplified palaeoceanography archiving system (PARIS) and GUI for storage and visualisation of marine sediment core proxy data vs age and depth.

Bryan C. Lougheed, Claire Waelbroeck, Nicolas Smialkowski, Natalia Vazquez Riveiros, Stephen Obrochta

Published: 2021-04-15
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography

Scientific discovery can be aided when data is shared following the principles of findability, accessibility, interoperability, reusability (FAIR) data (Wilkinson et al., 2016). Recent discussions in the palaeoclimate literature have focussed on defining the ideal database format for storing data and associated metadata. Here, we highlight an often overlooked primary process in widespread [...]

Why is the Hurricane Season So Sharp?

Wenchang Yang, Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Gabriel Vecchi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding tropical cyclone (TC) climatology is a problem of profound societal significance and deep scientific interest. The annual cycle is the biggest radiatively-forced signal in TC variability, presenting a key test of our understanding and modeling of TC activity. TCs over the North Atlantic (NA) basin, which are usually called hurricanes, have a sharp peak in the annual cycle, with more [...]

Paleoclimate Changes in the Pacific Northwest Over the Past 36,000 Years from Clumped Isotope Measurements and Isotope-Enabled Model Analysis

Ricardo Lopez-Maldonado, Jesse Bateman, Andre Ellis, Nicholas E. Bader, Pedro Ramirez, Alexandrea Arnold, Osinachi Ajoku, Hung-I Lee, Gregory Jesmok, Deepshikha Upadhyay, Bryce Mitsunaga, Ben Elliott, Clay Tabor, Aradhna Tripati

Published: 2021-04-08
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Since the last glacial period, North America has experienced dramatic changes in regional climate, including the collapse of ice sheets and changes in effective precipitation. We use clumped isotopes and analysis of transient climate simulations to provide constraints on hydroclimate changes in the Pacific Northwest. The coldest soil temperatures (~10.5 ±1.°C to 14.9 ±1.2°C) occurred [...]

Orbital, the Box - An interactive educational tool for in-depth understanding of astronomical climate forcing.

Bryan C. Lougheed

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Adult and Continuing Education, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Climate, Earth Sciences, Education, Educational Methods, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Higher Education, Instructional Media Design, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, The Sun and the Solar System

“Orbital, the Box” provides an interactive tool with graphical user interface (GUI) for stimulating active, visual learning for understanding of astronomical climate forcing. This cross-platform tool can be run locally on a personal computer using a standard web browser environment with no need for plugins, thus maximising accessibility for students and teachers alike. The tool facilitates in the [...]

Globally resolved surface temperatures since the Last Glacial Maximum

Matthew B Osman, Jessica E. Tierney, Jiang Zhu, Robert Tardif, Gregory J. Hakim, Jonathan King, Christopher J Poulsen

Published: 2021-04-01
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Climate changes across the last 24,000 years provide key insights into Earth system responses to external forcing. Climate model simulations and proxy data have independently allowed for study of this crucial interval; however, they have at times yielded disparate conclusions. Here, we leverage both types of information using paleoclimate data assimilation to produce the first observationally [...]

Crisis at the Salton Sea: Research Gaps and Opportunities

Marilyn Fogel, Hoori Ajami, Emma Aronson, Roya Bahreini, Wilfred Elders, Darrel Jenerette, David Lo, Timothy Lyons, Michael McKibben, William Porter, Arun Raju, Kurt Schwabe, Caroline Hung, Jonathan Nye

Published: 2021-03-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Salton Sea, a hypersaline lake in southern California, USA, is in crisis. A combination of mismanagement and competition between federal, state and local agencies has resulted in stalled efforts to address dropping water levels and unstable lake biogeochemistry. This in turn has led to a growing public health crisis as exposed shoreline exposes potentially toxic dust to local and regional [...]

An uncertainty-focused database approach to extract spatiotemporal trends from qualitative and discontinuous lake-status histories

Gijs De Cort, Manuel Chevalier, Sallie L. Burrough, Christine Y. Chen, Sandy P. Harrison

Published: 2021-03-01
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Stratigraphy

Changes in lake status are often interpreted as palaeoclimate indicators due to their dependence on precipitation and evaporation. The Global Lake Status Database (GLSDB) has since long provided a standardised synopsis of qualitative lake status over the last 30,000 14C years. Potential sources of uncertainty however are not recorded in the GLSDB. Here we present an updated and improved [...]

Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts for the Yangtze River Basin in the Extreme Summer of 2020

Philip Bett, Gill Martin, Nick Dunstone, Adam Scaife, Hazel Thornton, Chaofan Li

Published: 2021-02-28
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology

Seasonal forecasts for Yangtze River basin rainfall in June, May–June–July (MJJ) and June–July–August (JJA) 2020 are presented, following successful forecasts in previous years. The 3-month forecasts are based on dynamical predictions of an East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) index, which is transformed into regional-mean rainfall through linear regression. The June rainfall forecasts for the [...]

Shallow or deep? A reinterpretation of the Rifian Corridor’s unique sandy contourites

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood, Mohammed Najib Zaghloul, Michiel Arts, Fredrick Sarg

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

This study proposes that sandstone layers exposed in the Fez-Meknes region of Northern Morocco (Ben Allou (Sidi Chaded) and El Adergha localities), have been misinterpreted as unique examples of geostrophically-driven, deep marine (150 - 400 m water depth) sandy contourites. Instead, our independent paleontological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic analyses show that these sandstones represent [...]

The 3D Structure of Northern Hemisphere Blocking Events: Climatology, Role of Moisture, and Response to Climate Change

Ebrahim Nabizadeh, Sandro W Lubis, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2021-02-16
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate

We present a comprehensive composite analysis of the 3D structure of blocks and its response to future climate change over North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Russia in summers and winters. Using reanalysis and two large-ensemble datasets from CESM1 and GFDL-CM3, we investigate the following: The climatology of 3D structure, physical processes governing the temperature anomaly associated with [...]

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