Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

Controls on grain size distribution in an ancient sand sea

GABRIEL BERTOLINI, Adrian Hartley, Juliana Marques, et al.

Published: 2022-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Grain size distribution in deserts is driven by a combination of autogenic controls such as grain abrasion and sorting due to wind transport and allogenic controls such as provenance and spatial changes in wind-direction. Downwind grain-size trends in present day sand seas display contrasting results. For example, the Namib and Hexi Corridor sand seas show broad downwind fining and sorting [...]

Building Archean cratonic roots

Charitra Jain, Antoine Billy Rozel, Jeroen van Hunen, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Geophysical, geochemical, and geological investigations have attributed the stable behaviour of Earth's continents to the presence of their Archean cratonic roots. These roots are likely composed of melt-depleted, low density residual peridotite with high Magnesium number (Mg#), while devolatilisation from the upper mantle during magmatic events might have made these roots more viscous and [...]

Validation of glacial-interglacial rainfall variations in southwest Sulawesi using Mg/Ca and δ18O in speleothems

Alena K Kimbrough, Michael Gagan, Gavin Dunbar, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Speleology

Speleothem δ18O is widely used as a proxy for rainfall amount in the tropics on glacial-interglacial to interannual scales. However, uncertainties in the interpretation of this renowned proxy pose a vexing problem in tropical paleoclimatology. Here, we present paired measurements of Mg/Ca and δ18O for multiple stalagmites from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, that that confirm changes in rainfall [...]

High resolution assessment of coal mining methane emissions by satellite in Shanxi, China

Shushi Peng, Clément Giron, Gang Liu, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Accurate assessment of coal mine methane (CMM) emissions is a prerequisite for defining baselines and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Such an endeavor is jeopardized however by large uncertainties in current CMM estimates. Here, we assimilated images of methane column atmospheric mixing ratios observed by the TROPOMI space borne instrument in a high-resolution regional [...]

Clay mineral type and content control properties of fine-grained CO2 caprocks—Laboratory insights from strongly-swelling and non-swelling clay-quartz mixtures

Mohammad Nooraiepour

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Understanding and predicting sealing characteristics and containment efficiency as a function of burial depth across sedimentary basins is a prerequisite for safe and secure subsurface CO2 storage. Instead of estimators and empirical relationships, this study aims to delineate bounds and variability domains for non-cemented fine-grained sediments. Constant rate of strain uniaxial compression [...]

Understanding Sampling Bias in the Global Heat Flow Compilation

Tobias Stål, Anya M. Reading, Sven Fuchs, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Geothermal heat flow is commonly inferred from the gradient of temperature values in boreholes. Such measurements are expensive and logistically challenging in remote locations and, therefore, often targeted to regions of economic interest. As a result, measurements are not distributed evenly. Some tectonic, geologic and even topographic settings are overrepresented in global heat flow [...]

Advances in seismic imaging of magma and crystal mush

Michele Paulatto, Emilie Hooft, Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Seismic imaging methods have been used to constrain the subsurface structure at nearly one hundred arc, hotspot and continental rift volcanoes worldwide. The resulting detailed three-dimensional constraints on physical properties have provided invaluable insight into the storage, differentiation and dynamics of magma. These constraints have significantly contributed to our modern understanding of [...]

The Mechanisms of Tsunami Amplification and the Earthquake Source of the 2021 M7 Acapulco, Mexico, Earthquake

Diego Melgar, Angel Ruiz-Angulo, Brendan W Crowell, et al.

Published: 2022-06-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Here we show a slip model for the 2021 M7 Acapulco, Mexico, earthquake produced by inversion of strong motion, GNSS, tide gauge, and InSAR data. The earthquake occurs within the Guerrero gap, identified as a region of concern for its seismogenic potential and paucity of large events. We find that rupture was compact, constrained to depths between 10 and 20 km and consistent of two main slip [...]

Space-time landslide hazard modeling via Ensemble Neural Networks

Ashok Dahal, Hakan Tanyas, Cees J. van Westen, et al.

Published: 2022-06-02
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

For decades, a full numerical description of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a landslide could be achieved only via physics-based models. The part of the geomorphology community focusing on data-driven model has instead focused on predicting where landslides may occur via susceptibility models. Moreover, they have estimated when landslides may occur via models that belong to the [...]

Foraminifera as a tool for the reconstruction of paleobathymetry and geohazard: A case study from Taiwan

Raúl Tapia, Sicheng Le, Sze Ling Ho, et al.

Published: 2022-06-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The calcite tests of foraminifera are an important biogenic component of marine sediments. The abundance of foraminiferal tests in marine sediments broadly varies with bathymetry, thus has been used to reconstruct paleobathymetry. It is also promising as a tracer for downslope transport triggered by earthquakes and typhoons, especially if the displaced material from shallow locality contrasts [...]

Inclination and heterogeneity of layered geological sequences influence dike-induced ground deformation

Matías Clunes, John Browning, Carlos Marquardt, et al.

Published: 2022-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Mining Engineering

Constraints on the amount and pattern of ground deformation induced by dike emplacement are important for assessing potential eruptions. The vast majority of ground deformation inversions made for volcano monitoring during volcanic unrest assume that dikes are emplaced in either an elastic-half space (a homogeneous crust) or a crust made of horizontal layers with different mechanical properties. [...]

The historical impact of anthropogenic air-borne sulphur on the Pleistocene rock art of Sulawesi

Michael Gagan, Halmar Halide, Raden Permana, et al.

Published: 2022-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Natural Resources and Conservation

The Maros-Pangkep karst in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, contains some of the world’s oldest rock art. However, the Pleistocene images survive only as weathered patches of pigment on exfoliated limestone surfaces. Salt efflorescence underneath the case-hardened limestone substrate causes spall-flaking, and it has been proposed that the loss of artwork has accelerated over recent decades. Here, [...]

Diagenetic priming of submarine landslides in ooze-rich substrates

Nan Wu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Michael Andrew Clare, et al.

Published: 2022-05-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology

Oozes are the most widespread deep-sea sediment in the global ocean, but very little is known about how changes in their physical properties impact slope stability and related geohazards. Characterisation of the conditions that prime ooze rich slides has been hindered, as physical properties of sediments are modified by the effects of mass wasting. We here use 3D seismic reflection, geochemical, [...]

Paleoclimate controls on lithium enrichment in Great Basin Pliocene-Pleistocene lacustrine clays

Catherine A Gagnon, Kristina Butler, Elizabeth Gaviria, et al.

Published: 2022-05-29
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Environmental Sciences, Sedimentology

Terminal lakes are important archives of continental hydroclimate and in some cases contain important economic resources. Here we present an ~3.6 Myr lacustrine carbonate carbon and oxygen stable isotope record from a Great Basin continental drill core. We pair these measurements with bulk lithium concentrations to reveal a relationship between past climate and lithium enrichment in authigenic [...]

How to drain a megalake: Comments on a study by Palcu et al. (2021) Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471.

Michal Šujan, Natália Hudáčková, Imre Magyar

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

In a recent paper by Palcu et al. (2021: Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471), the Cape Panagia section on the Taman peninsula (Russian Black Sea) was dated using magnetostratigraphy, in order to calibrate the timing of previously published regressions of the Paratethys megalake. The authors of the paper claim that this “largest megalake in the geological record” experienced four major [...]


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