Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

The shape of volcanic conduits inferred from bubble size distributions

Sahand Hajimirza, Helge M. Gonnermann, James E. Gardner

Published: 2020-11-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

The most intense known explosive volcanic eruptions on Earth are Plinian eruptions of silicic magma. Geospeedometers indicate that Plinian magma erupts from high pressure within the magma chamber at average speeds of 0.001-1 MPa/s. Concurrently dissolved magmatic volatiles, predominantly water, nucleate about one quadrillion bubbles per cubic meter of melt, preserved as vesicles within tephra. [...]

Carbonate clumped isotope analysis (Δ47) of 21 carbonate standards determined via gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry on four instrumental configurations using carbonate-based standardization and multi-year datasets

Deepshikha Upadhyay, Jamie Lucarelli, Alexandrea Arnold, Randy Flores, Hayley Bricker, Robert Ulrich, Gregory Jesmok, William Defliese, Robert Eagle, Hannah Carroll, Jesse Bateman, Victoria Petryshyn, Sean Loyd, Jianwu Tang, Antra Priyadarshi, Ben Elliott, Aradhna Tripati

Published: 2020-11-28
Subjects: Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rationale: Clumped isotope geochemistry examines the pairing or clumping of rare, heavy isotopes in molecules and provides information about the thermodynamic and kinetic controls on their formation. Since clumped isotope measurements of carbonate minerals were first published 15 years ago, interlaboratory offsets in calibrations have been observed, and laboratory and community practices for [...]

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

Earthquake clusters analysis in Central and East Java region, Indonesia, based on hypocenter determination and relocation with waveform cross-correlation

Faiz Muttaqy, Andri Dian Nugraha, Nanang T. Puspito, David P. Sahara, Zulfakriza Zulfakriza, Supriyanto Rohadi, Pepen Supendi

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

The Central and East Java region, which is part of Sunda Arc, has relatively high seismicity rates due to the convergence between two major tectonic plates in Indonesia region, the Indo-Australian plate that subducts under the Eurasian plate. Many devastating earthquakes in the study area occurred as results of these plates interaction, such as the 1994 Banyuwangi earthquake (Mw 7.6) and the 2006 [...]

Deformation memory in the lithosphere: A comparison of damage-dependent weakening and grain-size sensitive rheologies

Lukas Fuchs, Thorsten W. Becker

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Strain localization in the lithosphere and the formation, evolution, and maintenance of resulting plate boundaries play a crucial role in plate tectonics and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Previously activated lithospheric deformation zones often appear to maintain a “memory” of weakening, leading to tectonic inheritance within plate reorganizations including the Wilson cycle. Different [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

Particle energy partitioning and transverse diffusion during rarefied travel on an experimental hillslope

Sarah Williams, David Furbish

Published: 2020-11-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

Recent theoretical and experimental work (Furbish et al., 2020a, 2020b) indicates that rarefied particle motions on rough hillslope surfaces are controlled by the balance between gravitational heating of particles due to conversion of potential to kinetic energy and frictional cooling of the particles due to collisions with the surface. Here we elaborate how particle energy is partitioned [...]

Times associated with source-to-sink propagation of environmental signals during landscape transience

Stefanie Tofelde, Anne Bernhardt, Brian Romans, Laure Guerit

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Sediment archives in the terrestrial and marine realm are regularly analyzed to infer changes in climate and tectonic boundary conditions of the past. However, contradictory observations have been made regarding whether short period events are faithfully preserved in stratigraphic archives; for instance, in marine sediments offshore large river systems. On the one hand, short period events are [...]

How fast can minibasins translate down a slope? Observations from 2D numerical models

Naiara Fernandez, Oliver B. Duffy, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Tim Dooley, Michael R. Hudec, Boris B. Kaus

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Minibasins are important features in salt-bearing basins and they are mostly found in salt-detached continental slopes where the sedimentary cover undergoes seaward translation. One question which is relevant to understand the structural evolution of salt-detached slopes is how fast can the sedimentary cover and the minibasins translate. The aim of this study is three-fold: 1) to compare [...]

International Meeting 40 years of the 1980 Azores Earthquake, 6th - 7th October 2020 - Conference Report

Joao Fontiela, Mourad Bezzeghoud, Carlos Sousa Oliveira, Mónica Amaral Ferreira, Joao Carlos Nunes

Published: 2020-11-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering

The main goal of the International Meeting “40 Years of the 1980 Azores Earthquake” was promoting a reflection of the earthquake of January 1st, 1980, and the advances since them on topics like seismology, seismic hazard, and risk, building rehabilitation and public policies. Nevertheless, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the organizing committee decided that the meeting should be online and [...]

Boron isotopic signatures of melt inclusions from North Iceland reveal recycled material in the Icelandic mantle source

Margaret Hartley, Oliver Shorttle, Cees-Jan de Hoog

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Trace element and volatile heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle is inuenced by the recycling of oceanic lithosphere through subduction. Oceanic island basalts commonly have high concentrations of volatiles compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, but the extent to which this enrichment is linked to recycled mantle domains remains unclear. Boron is an ideal tracer of recycled subducted material, [...]

An attempt at improving atmospheric corrections in InSAR using cycle-consistent adversarial networks

Guillaume Rongier, Cody M. Rude, Thomas Herring, Victor Pankratius

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Interferometry from satellite radar has thrived as a major asset to study surface deformations from earthquakes, volcanoes, aquifers, glaciers, landslides, etc. Most signals recorded in an interferogram have precise enough models to remove them almost completely. Yet, current models still fail to capture the full range and scales of variations of atmospheric perturbations. This work explores the [...]

Surface slip distributions and geometric complexity of intraplate reverse-faulting earthquakes

Haibin Yang, Mark Quigley, Tamarah King

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Earthquake ground surface ruptures provide insights into faulting mechanics and inform seismic hazard analyses. Surface ruptures for eleven historical (1968 to 2018) moment magnitude (Mw) 4.7 to 6.6 reverse earthquakes in Australia are analyzed using statistical techniques and compared to magnetic, gravity, and stress trajectory datasets. Of the total combined (summative) length of all surface [...]

Investigation on the Impacts of COVID-19 Lockdown and Influence Factors on Air Quality in Greater Bangkok, Thailand

Parichat Wetchayont

Published: 2020-11-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world, many countries announced lockdown measures, including Thailand. Several scientific studies have reported on improvements in air quality due to the impact of these COVID-19 lockdowns. This study aims to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown and its driving influence factors on air pollution in Greater Bangkok, Thailand using [...]

Thickness of the Saudi Arabian Crust

Alexander Robert Blanchette, Simon L Klemperer, Walter D Mooney, Hani M Zahran

Published: 2020-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We analyzed P-wave receiver functions from seismic stations covering most of Saudi Arabia to map the thickness of the crust across the Arabian plate. We present an update of crustal-thickness estimates and fill in data gaps for the western shield and the rifted margin at the Red Sea, as well as the eastern Arabian platform. Our application of a conventional H-k stacking algorithm included [...]


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