Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

A numerical study of SMART Cables potential in marine hazard early warning for the Sumatra and Java regions

Amir Salaree, Bruce M Howe, Yihe Huang, Stuart A Weinstein, Andi E Sakya

Published: 2021-05-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences

We present results from a series of exploratory numerical experiments based on ocean bottom pressure and seismic data from a simulated linear array of SMART cable stations off the trench in the Sumatra-Java region. We use six rupture scenarios to calculate tsunami propagation using hydrodynamic simulations. Through these experiments we show that such an addition would result in up to several [...]

Data Science for Geoscience: Recent Progress and Future Trends from the Perspective of a Data Life Cycle

Xiaogang Ma

Published: 2021-05-04
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Theory and Algorithms

Data science receives increasing attention in a variety of geoscience disciplines and applications. Many successful data-driven geoscience discoveries have been reported recently, and the number of geoinformatics and data science sessions have begun to increase in many geoscience conferences. Across academia, industry, and governmental sectors, there is a strong interest to know more about the [...]


Hamish Robertson, Fiona Whitaker, Cathy Hollis, Hilary Corlett

Published: 2021-05-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

The calculation of a reliable temperature dependent dolomite solubility product constant (Ksp°−dol) has been the subject of much research over the last 70 years. This study evaluates log10(aCa2+/aMg2+) using PHREEQC (Pitzer approach) for a screened subset (n=11,480) of formation waters in the U.S. Geological Survey National Produced Waters Geochemical Database V2 (PWGD), an extensive inventory of [...]

Knowledge graph construction and application in geosciences: A review

Xiaogang Ma

Published: 2021-04-30
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Engineering, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Knowledge graph (KG) is a topic of great interests to geoscientists as it can be deployed throughout the data life cycle in data-intensive geoscience studies. Nevertheless, comparing with the large amounts of publications on machine learning applications in geosciences, summaries and reviews of geoscience KGs are still limited. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of KG [...]

Caribbean plate boundaries control on the tectonic duality in the back-arc of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone during the Eocene

Nestor G. Cerpa, Riad Hassani, Diane Arcay, Serge Lallemand, Clément Garrocq, Mélody Philippon, Jean-Jacques Cornée, Philippe Münch, Fanny Garel, Boris Marcaillou, Bernard Mercier de Lépinay, Jean-Frédéric Lebrun

Published: 2021-04-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The Eocene tectonic evolution of the easternmost Caribbean Plate (CP) boundary, i.e. the Lesser Antilles subduction zone (LASZ), is debated. Recents works shed light on a peculiar period of tectonic duality in the arc/back-arc regions. A compressive-to-transpressive regime occurred in the north, while rifting and seafloor spreading occurred in Grenada basin to the south. The mechanism for this [...]

Probing the nucleation of iron in Earth’s core using MD simulations of supercooled liquids

Alfred Wilson, Andrew Walke, Dario Alfè, Christopher J Davies

Published: 2021-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Classical nucleation theory describes the formation of the first solids from supercooled liquids and predicts an average waiting time for a system to freeze as it is supercooled to temperatures below the melting temperature. For systems at low to moderate undercooling, waiting times are too long for freezing to be observed via experiment or simulation. Here a system can be described by estimated [...]

Utilizing Random Forest Machine Learning Models to Determine Water Table Flood Levels through Volunteered Geospatial Information

Raghav Sriram

Published: 2021-04-27
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Many people use smartphone cameras to record their living environments through captured images, and share aspects of their daily lives on social networks, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. These platforms provide volunteered geographic information (VGI), which enables the public to know where and when events occur. At the same time, image-based VGI can also indicate environmental changes [...]

Deformation of the western Andes at ~20–22°S: a contribution to the quantification of crustal shortening

Tania Habel, Robin Lacassin, Martine Simoes, Daniel Carrizo, Germán Aguilar

Published: 2021-04-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Andes are an emblematic active Cordilleran orogen. It is admitted that mountain-building in the Central Andes, at ~20°S, started ~50–60 Myr ago, along the subduction margin, and propagated eastward. In general, the structures sustaining the uplift of the western flank of the Andes are dismissed, and their contribution to mountain-building remains poorly solved. Here, we focus on two sites [...]

Release timing and duration control the fate of photolytic compounds in stream-hyporheic systems

Jase Hixson, Adam Scott Ward, Christina Remucal, Megan McConville

Published: 2021-04-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Predicting environmental fate requires an understanding of the underlying, spatiotemporally variable interaction of transport and transformation processes. Photolytic compounds, for example, interact with both time-variable photolysis and the perennially dark hyporheic zone, generating potentially unexpected dynamics that arise from time-variable reactivity. This interaction has been found to [...]

A Hydrologist’s Guide to Open Science

Caitlyn A Hall, Sheila M. Saia, Andrea Popp, Nilay Dogulu, Stan Schymanski, Niels Drost, Tim van Emmerik, Rolf Hut

Published: 2021-04-22
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Hydrologic research that is open, accessible, reusable, and reproducible will have the largest impact on the scientific community and broader society. While more and more members of the hydrology community and key hydrology organizations are embracing open science practices, technical (e.g., limited coding experience), resource (e.g., open access fees), and social (e.g., fear of being scooped) [...]

Bridging spatiotemporal scales of normal fault growth using numerical models of continental extension

Sophie Pan, John Naliboff, Rebecca E. Bell, Chris Jackson

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Continental extension is accommodated by the development of kilometre-scale normal faults, which grow by accumulating metre-scale earthquake slip over millions of years. Reconstructing the entire lifespan of a fault remains challenging due to a lack of observational data of appropriate scale, particularly over intermediate timescales (10^4-10^6 yrs). Using 3D numerical simulations of continental [...]

A deep-learning estimate of the decadal trends in the Southern Ocean carbon storage

Varvara E Zemskova, Tai-Long He, Zirui Wan, Nicolas Grisouard

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Uptake of atmospheric carbon by the ocean, especially at high latitudes, plays an important role in offsetting anthropogenic emissions. At the surface of the Southern Ocean south of 30 degrees S, the ocean carbon uptake, which had been weakening in 1990s, strengthened in the 2000s. However, sparseness of in-situ measurements in the ocean interior make it difficult to compute changes in carbon [...]

Water acceleration in a supraglacial channel predicts locations of step-pool sequence formation

Andreas Alexander, Jeffrey A. Tuhtan, Maarja Kruusmaa, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Andreas Kääb

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Supraglacial channels constitute an important part of the glacial hydrological system, both by influencing surface energy exchange as well as routing meltwater to eventually feed en- and subglacial drainage systems. Subglacial systems have received considerable scientific interest, but specific studies of supraglacial channels are sparse. This limited scientific understanding represents a missing [...]

The Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity caused by channel flow in the cratonic lithosphere

Haibin Yang, Irina Artemieva, Hans Thybo

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Stable cratons with a thick (> 200 km) and cold lithosphere form rheologically strong plates that move atop a ductile asthenospheric mantle. Various types of seismic observations show the presence of a potentially rheologically weak zone at depths of ca. 80 – 150 km termed the Mid-Lithosphere Discontinuity (MLD). While various mechanisms may explain the MLD, the dynamic processes leading to the [...]

Vertical tectonic motions in the Lesser Antilles: linking short- and long-term observations

Elenora van Rijsingen, Eric Calais, Romain Jolivet, Jean-Bernard de Chabalier, Richard Robertson, Graham A Ryan, Steeve Symithe

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences

It has been proposed that interseismic coupling along the Lesser Antilles subduction interface could be responsible for subsidence observed over the past 125,000 to 100 years inferred from geological data on Quaternary coral terraces and active micro-atolls in the central part of the arc. However, horizontal GNSS velocities show that the Lesser Antilles subduction zone is currently experiencing [...]


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