Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

Fully distributed rainfall-runoff modeling using spatial-temporal graph neural network

Zhongrun Xiang, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-01-15
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Hydrology

Recent studies using latest deep learning algorithms such as LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) have shown great promise in time-series modeling. There are many studies focusing on the watershed-scale rainfall-runoff modeling or streamflow forecasting, often considering a single watershed with limited generalization capabilities. To improve the model performance, several studies explored an integrated [...]

How winds and river discharge affect circulation in a mesotidal estuary, San Francisco Bay, USA

Qianqian Liu, Huijie Xue, Fei Chai, et al.

Published: 2022-01-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Previous studies suggest importance of wind forcing on salt intrusion length and salt flux in river-dominated microtidal estuaries (with tidal range < 2 m). In this study, we investigate the role of wind forcing on salt intrusion in a mesotidal estuary, San Francisco Bay (SFB), with tidal ranges between 2 m and 4 m, through an open-source model of high transferability, the Semi-implicit [...]

Variations in Earth's 1D viscosity structure in different tectonic regimes

Anthony Osei Tutu, Christopher Harig

Published: 2022-01-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Earth’s long-wavelength geoid provides insights into the thermal, structural, and compositional evolution of the mantle. Historically, most estimates of mantle viscosity using the long-wavelength geoid have considered radial variations with depth in a symmetric Earth. Global estimates of this kind suggest an increase in viscosity from the upper mantle to lower mantle of roughly 2 -- 3 orders of [...]

Explosive activity on Kīlauea’s Lower East Rift Zone fuelled by a volatile-rich, dacitic melt

Penny E Wieser, Marie Edmonds, Cheryl Gansecki, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Magmas with matrix glass compositions ranging from basalt to dacite erupted from a series of 24 fissures in the first two weeks of the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption of Kīlauea Volcano. Eruption styles ranged from low spattering and fountaining to strombolian activity. Major element trajectories in matrix glasses and melt inclusions hosted by olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase are [...]

Arc-parallel shears in collisional orogens: Global review and paleostress analyses from the NW Lesser Himalayan Sequence (Garhwal region, Uttarakhand, India)

Tuhin Biswas, Narayan Bose, Dripta Dutta, et al.

Published: 2022-01-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Interest in hydrocarbon exploration from the the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) has recently been revived amongst petroleum geoscientists. Understanding the paleostress regime and the deformation processes are the two important steps to understand the structural geology of any (petroliferous) terrane. Arc-parallel shear is an integral deformation process in orogeny. The scale of the consequent [...]

Surface damage from perpendicular and oblique bullet impacts in stone

Oliver Campbell, Tom Blenkinsop, Oscar Gilbert, et al.

Published: 2022-01-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Controlled experiments were conducted to investigate the surface damage caused by perpendicular and oblique impacts of bullets into sandstone and limestone targets. Individual bullets fired in conditions simulating modern rifles at typical combat distances excavated craters with diameters from 22 to 74 mm and depths from 4 to 24 mm. Limestone target craters were up to twice as large and deep as [...]

Global and regional drivers of power plant CO2 emissions over the last three decades

Xinying Qin, Dan Tong, Fei Liu, et al.

Published: 2022-01-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The past three decades have witnessed the dramatic expansion of global biomass- and fossil fuel-fired power plants, but the tremendously diverse power infrastructure shapes different spatial and temporal CO2 emission characteristics. Here, by combining Global Power plant Emissions Database (GPED v1.1) constructed in this study and the previously developed China coal-fired power Plant Emissions [...]

Progressive weakening within the overriding plate during dual inward dipping subduction

ZHIBIN LEI, J. Huw Davies

Published: 2022-01-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Dual inward dipping subduction often produces complex deformation patterns in the overriding plate. However, the geodynamic process of how dual inward dipping subduction relates to this deformation is still poorly understood. Here we apply a composite viscosity, dependent on multiple parameters, e.g., temperature, pressure, strain rate etc., in 2-D thermo-mechanical numerical modelling to [...]

Experimental multiblast craters and ejecta — seismo-acoustics, jet characteristics, craters, and ejecta deposits and implications for volcanic explosions

Ingo Sonder, Alison H. Graettinger, Tracianne B. Neilsen, et al.

Published: 2022-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Blasting experiments were performed that investigate multiple explosions that occur in quick succession in the ground and their effects on host material and atmosphere. Such processes are known to occur during volcanic eruptions at various depths, lateral locations, and energies. The experiments follow a multi-instrument approach in order to observe phenomena in the atmosphere and in the ground, [...]

Dynamics of eddying abyssal mixing layers over rough topography

Henri Francois Drake, Xiaozhou Ruan, Raffaele Ferrari, et al.

Published: 2022-01-07
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The abyssal overturning circulation is thought to be primarily driven by small-scale turbulent mixing. Diagnosed watermass transformations are dominated by rough topography "hotspots", where the bottom-enhancement of mixing causes the diffusive buoyancy flux to diverge, driving widespread downwelling in the interior—only to be overwhelmed by an even stronger upwelling in a thin Bottom Boundary [...]

The DIC carbon isotope evolutions during CO2 bubbling: implications for ocean acidification laboratory culture

Hongrui Zhang, Ismael Torres-Romero, Pien Anjewierden, et al.

Published: 2022-01-05
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

Ocean acidification increases pCO2 and decreases pH of seawater and its impact on marine organisms has emerged as a key research focus. In addition to directly measured variables such as growth or calcification rate, stable isotopic tracers such as carbon isotopes have also been used to more completely understand the physiological processes contributing to the response of organisms to ocean [...]

Meltwater generation in ice stream shear margins: case study in Antarctic ice streams

Meghana Ranganathan, Jack-William Barotta, Colin R. Meyer, et al.

Published: 2022-01-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Liquid water within glacier ice and at the glacier beds exerts a significant control on ice flow and glacier stability through a number of processes, including altering the rheology of the ice and lubricating the bed. Some of this water is generated as melt in regions of rapid deformation, including shear margins, due to heating by viscous dissipation. However, how much meltwater is generated and [...]

Comment on: “Interseismic Strain Accumulation near Lisbon (Portugal) from Space Geodesy” by Fonseca et al. (2021)

Luis Manuel Matias

Published: 2021-12-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The paper by Fonseca et al. (2021), hereafter referred as FON21, published in Geophysical Research Letters2 make several conclusions that are not convincingly supported by the evidence of the data that is made available. In this comment we will address the following statements: 1) FON21 “provides new evidence of sinistral simple shear driven by a NNE-SSW first-order tectonic lineament; 2) [...]

A Comprehensive Web-based System for Flood Inundation Map Generation and Comparative Analysis Based on Height Above Nearest Drainage

Zhouyayan Li, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2021-12-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

It is critical to obtain accurate flood extent predictions in a timely manner in order to reduce flood-related casualties and economic losses. Running a real-time flood inundation mapping model is a critical step in supporting quick flood response decisions. Most inundation systems, on the other hand, are either overly demanding in terms of data and computing power or have limited interaction and [...]

WaterBench: A Large-scale Benchmark Dataset for Data-Driven Streamflow Forecasting

Ibrahim Demir, Zhongrun Xiang, Bekir Zahit Demiray, et al.

Published: 2021-12-31
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Hydrology

This study proposes a comprehensive benchmark dataset for streamflow forecasting, WaterBench, that follows FAIR data principles that is prepared with a focus on convenience for utilizing in data-driven and machine learning studies, and provides benchmark performance for state-of-art deep learning architectures on the dataset for comparative analysis. By aggregating the datasets of streamflow, [...]


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