Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

How to drain a megalake: Comments on a study by Palcu et al. (2021) Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471.

Michal Šujan, Natália Hudáčková, Imre Magyar

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

In a recent paper by Palcu et al. (2021: Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471), the Cape Panagia section on the Taman peninsula (Russian Black Sea) was dated using magnetostratigraphy, in order to calibrate the timing of previously published regressions of the Paratethys megalake. The authors of the paper claim that this “largest megalake in the geological record” experienced four major [...]

Retrieving Chl-a and total suspended solids in in-land waters using EnMAP simulated data

Mohammadmehdi Saberioon, Vahid Khosravi, Jakub Brom, et al.

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences

The Environmental Mapping and analysis program (EnMAP) is a new Earth observation satellite which will use imaging spectroscopy to obtain a diagnostic characterisation of the Earth's surface and record changes. Since we hypothesis that imaging spectroscopy can significantly improve the accuracy of predicting and assessing water quality traits of small in-land waters, our study investigates the [...]

Where should hydrology go? An early-career perspective on the next IAHS Scientific Decade: 2023-2032

Theresa C van Hateren, Harro Joseph Jongen, Hadeel Al-Zawaidah, et al.

Published: 2022-05-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences

This paper shares an Early-Career Scientist (ECS) perspective on potential themes for the upcoming International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) scientific decade (SD). Six discussion sessions were organised in four countries in western Europe in spring 2022. Early-career hydrologists were invited to join the sessions to formulate potential SD themes, to provide feedback on themes [...]

Researching Natural Hazards: The Harmful Legacy of Colonialism in Geoscience.

Jazmin P. Scarlett

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Geoscience is a colonial science; its agenda was to survey and map landscapes in colonised nations which could be exploited to grow colonial empire's wealth at the expense of the local population. Natural hazard processes have been part of these landscapes, however their colonial legacy is sometimes neglected in discussions in how to live with them today. Former colonised nations' interactions [...]

Geometry and growth of syn-tectonic plutons emplaced in thrust shear zones: Insights from Abu Ziran Pluton, Egypt

Abdullah T. Mohammad, Yahia El Kazzaz

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Coupling of deformation and magmatism has been reported in several old orogenic belts, particularly along thrust faults and shear zones. The syn-kinematic plutons in exhumed shear zones offer the best opportunity to understand the complex relationship between magmatism and regional deformation. The present paper investigates the geometry and internal structure of granite plutons emplaced in [...]

Deep Compressed Seismic Learning for fast location and moment tensor inferences with natural and induced seismicity

Ismael Adan Vera Rodriguez, Erik B. Myklebust

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Fast detection and characterization of seismic sources is crucial for decision-making and warning systems that monitor natural and induced seismicity. However, besides the laying out of ever denser monitoring networks of seismic instruments, the incorporation of new sensor technologies such as Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) further challenges our processing capabilities to deliver short [...]

Probabilistic Assessment of Antarctic Thermomechanical Structure: Impacts on Ice Sheet Stability

James Alexander Nicholas Hazzard, Fred D. Richards, Saskia Goes, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistical Methodology

Uncertainty in present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) rates represent at least 44% of the total gravity-based ice mass balance signal over Antarctica. Meanwhile, physical couplings between solid Earth, sea level and ice dynamics enhance the dependency of the spatiotemporally varying GIA signal on three-dimensional variations in mantle rheology. Improved knowledge of thermomechanical [...]

Time-Dependent Decrease in Fault Strength in the 2011--2016 North Kanto Earthquake Sequence

Sam Wimpenny, Natalie Forrest, Alex Copley

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Two near-identical Mw 5.8 earthquakes in 2011 and 2016 ruptured the Mochiyama Fault in North Kanto, Japan. The unusually short repeat time between the Mochiyama earthquakes provides a rare opportunity estimate the evolution of stress on a fault through an earthquake cycle, as the stress drop in the first earthquake provides a reference from which we can infer variations through time in the [...]

Caravan - A global community dataset for large-sample hydrology

Frederik Kratzert, Grey Nearing, Nans Addor, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Hydrology relies on data, and high quality datasets are essential to support advances in hydrological process understanding and modelling. The past decade has seen the release of several large-sample hydrology (LSH) datasets. These datasets make available an easy-to-use combination of high-quality hydroclimatic time series (atmospheric and river flow data) plus biogeophysical attributes (e.g. [...]

Defining renewable groundwater use to improve groundwater management

Mark Olaf Cuthbert, Tom Gleeson, Grant Ferguson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Groundwater systems are commonly but variously defined as renewable or non-renewable based on natural fluxes of recharge or on estimates of aquifer storage and groundwater residence time. However, the principle of capture challenges simple definitions: groundwater pumping can alter the rates of groundwater recharge and/or discharge over a characteristic groundwater response time related to the [...]

A Practical Guide to Virtual Outcrop Photogrammetry in Earth Science

Matthew S Allison, Jonathan R Hall, Stephen M Jones

Published: 2022-05-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In 2021, a photogrammetric model of a 7 km coastal cliff section of the Tjörnes Peninsula, NE Iceland was constructed to provide a “virtual geological outcrop” at a spatial resolution of approximately 5 cm or less. Field expedition planning and post-expedition processing were somewhat hampered by a lack of freely accessible guiding resources. This document presents a first-hand case study of [...]

Sorption vs Adsorption: the words they are a-changin', not the phenomena

Olivier Pourret, Jean-Claude Bollinger, Andrew Hursthouse, et al.

Published: 2022-05-17
Subjects: Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

In this discussion, we highlight that the terms sorption and adsorption are often confused and misused in many articles. Even if one thought their formal definition is well known, this does not appear to be the case. We recommend encouragement to adopt the word adsorption only when fully supported by appropriate data and using the sorption terminology when it is more speculative, typically in [...]

Quantifying excess heavy metal concentrations in drainage basins using conservative mixing modelling

Jonas Alexander Eschenfelder, Alex G. Lipp, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

High concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants in river sediments can have detrimental effects on the health of ecosystems and humans. As such, determining the composition of river sediments throughout drainage basins is an essential aspect of environmental monitoring. Well characterised natural baseline concentrations are important information with which observations can be compared [...]

Hydraulic fracturing: Laboratory evidence of the brittle-to-ductile transition with depth

Runhua Feng, Shuo Liu, Joel Sarout, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Petroleum Engineering

Understand the propagation of hydraulic fracture (HF) is essential for effectively stimulating the hydrocarbon production of unconventional reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing may induce distinct failure modes within the formation, depending on the rheology of the solid and the in-situ stresses. A brittle-to-ductile transition of HF is thus anticipated with increasing depth, although only scarce [...]

Building New Tools Outside the Browser: A New Look at Custom Stand-Alone Applications for Earth Data Access and Visualization

Bruce R. Caron

Published: 2022-05-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Today, the debate between online services and installable applications is often characterized as an either-or, winner-take-all situation. In the earth sciences, how-ever, due to data handing and visualization needs, a combination of online, service-oriented architecture (SOA) tools and custom installable applications holds the most promise if these data resources are to be used by a greater and [...]


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