Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

The signature of lithospheric anisotropy at post-subduction continental margins: new insight from XKS splitting analysis in northern Borneo

Conor Andrew Bacon, Nicholas Rawlinson, Simone Pilia, et al.

Published: 2022-05-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The relative paucity of recent post-subduction environments globally has meant that, so far, little is known about tectonic processes that occur during and after subduction termination, as previously convergent tectonic plates adjust to the new stress regime. The region of Southeast Asia that now encompasses northern Borneo has been host to two sequential episodes of subduction—both now [...]

Radiogenic isotope: not just about words

Olivier Pourret, Karen Johannesson

Published: 2022-04-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

This viewpoint is a short comment on gender issues with isotope terminology. The terms "parent"/"daughter" should be avoided in favor of the more descriptive "precursor ion" and "product ion" terms.

Magnetic fabrics reveal three-dimensional flow processes within elongate magma fingers near the Shonkin Sag laccolith (MT, USA)

Jonas Köpping, Alexander R. Cruden, Craig Magee, et al.

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Unravelling magma flow in ancient sheet intrusions is critical to understanding how magma pathways develop and feed volcanic eruptions. Analyzing the shape preferred orientation of minerals in intrusive rocks can provide information on magma flow, because crystals may align parallel to the primary flow direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is an established method to quantify [...]

Uncertainty quantification of multi-modal surface wave inversion using artificial neural networks

Alexandr Yablokov, Yevgeniya Lugovtsova, Aleksander Serdyukov

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An inversion of surface waves dispersion curves is a non-unique and ill-conditioned problem. The inversion result has a probabilistic nature, what becomes apparent when simultaneously restoring the shear wave (S-wave) velocity and layer thickness. Therefore, the problem of uncertainty quantification is relevant. Existing methods through deterministic or global optimization approaches of [...]

Global dynamics of the offshore wind energy sector monitored with Sentinel-1: Turbine count, installed capacity and site specifications

Thorsten Hoeser, Claudia Kuenzer

Published: 2022-04-26
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Statistics and Probability

With the promotion of renewable energy production and a planned phaseout of fossil fuels until 2040, the offshore wind energy sector has started to expand and will continue to increase its capacity in the upcoming decades. This study presents how the installed capacity can be derived from radar imagery provided by the Sentinel-1 mission for all offshore wind turbines on the entire Earth. By [...]

Fluorescence microscopy versus Raman spectroscopy for direct identification of small (< 2 µm) microplastics in soils

Nick Krekelbergh, Jie Li, Junwei Hu, et al.

Published: 2022-04-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Soil Science

Research on microplastics (MP) in soils is much complicated due to the lack of dedicated (extraction) methodologies and the strong matrix interferences for MP detection, and there is almost no research on the dynamics of the smallest MP in soil. Here we compared the possible detection of the smallest MP fraction (1-2 µm) by µ-Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy in matrices of highly [...]

The relation between European heat waves and North Atlantic SSTs: a two-sided composite analysis

Julian Krüger, Joakim Kjellsson, Robin Pilch Kedzierski, et al.

Published: 2022-04-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The occurrence of European heat waves has increased during the two last decades. European heat waves are responsible for social, economic and environmental damage and are projected to increase in magnitude, frequency and duration under global warming, heightening the interest about the contribution of different drivers. By using the ERA5 Re-analysis product, we performed a two-sided composite [...]

Voyage to the west: pumice raft from the Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba in the northwest Pacific drifted over the South China Sea to Thailand

Kenta Yoshida, Yoshihiko Tamura, Tomoki Sato, et al.

Published: 2022-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The 2021 eruption of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (FOB) in the northwest Pacific on 13 August 2021 produced a large volume of pumice that drifted westward for ~1300 km to the Nansei Islands, Japan. Some pumice clasts were transported farther southwest to Taiwan and the Philippines or northeast to the Kanto district of Japan by the Kuroshio current. In February 2022, pumice with similar characteristics to [...]

New maps of global geologic provinces and tectonic plates

Derrick Hasterok, Jacqueline A Halpin, Alan S. Collins, et al.

Published: 2022-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Accurate spatial models of tectonic plates and geological terranes are important for analyzing and interpreting a wide variety of geoscientific data and developing compositional and physical models of the lithosphere. We present a global compilation of active plate boundaries and geological provinces in a shapefile format with interpretive attributes (e.g., crust type, plate type, province type, [...]

GEDI Launches a New Era of Biomass Inference from Space

Ralph Dubayah, John Armston, Sean Healey, et al.

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Other Forestry and Forest Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass stocks is required to assess the impacts of land use changes such as deforestation and subsequent regrowth on concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a lidar mission launched by NASA to the International Space Station in 2018. GEDI was specifically designed to retrieve vegetation structure within a [...]

Democratizing Deep Learning Applications in Earth and Climate Sciences on the Web: EarthAIHub

Muhammed Sit, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences

Most deep learning application studies have limited accessibility and reproducibility for researchers and students in many domains, especially in earth and climate sciences. In order to provide a step towards improving accessibility to deep learning models in such disciplines, this study presents a community-driven framework and repository, EarthAIHub, that is powered by TensorFlow.js, where deep [...]

Exploring the depositional, diagenetic and carbon-oxygen isotope record of an evolving Ordovician carbonate system, Tarim Basin, China

Yuefeng Shen, Fritz Neuweiler, Adrian Immenhauser

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Bulk-rock based carbon-oxygen chemostratigraphy should be combined with a detailed understanding of depositional facies (mineralogy, porosity), its 2D-chronostratigraphic architecture, and diagenesis. The Ordovician of the western Tarim Basin recorded a peculiar litho-biostratigraphic succession. The Darriwilian Yijianfang Formation formed part of a carbonate ramp dominated by filter feeders. [...]

Turbulence structure and the development of secondary outer-bank flow cells at multiple discharges in a meander bend

Chris Hackney, Dan Parsons

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

The erosion of the outer-banks of meander bends is mediated by the form roughness of the bank topography, which has been shown to affect near bank three-dimension flow structures and shear stresses. As the scales of bank roughness is known to vary vertically from bank toe to bank edge variations in flow discharge are likely to driver changes in near-bank flow velocities and turbulent structures [...]

Modeling the size of co-seismic landslides via data-driven models: the Kaikōura's example

Mateo Moreno, Stefan Steger, Hakan Tanyas, et al.

Published: 2022-04-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

The last three decades have witnessed a substantial methodical development of data-driven models for landslide prediction. However, this improvement has been dedicated almost exclusively to models designed to recognize locations where landslides may likely occur in the future. This notion is referred to as landslide susceptibility. However, the susceptibility is just one, albeit fundamental, [...]


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