Filtering by Subject: Engineering

Changes in deep groundwater flow patterns related to oil and gas

Keegan Jellicoe, Jennifer C McIntosh, Grant Ferguson

Published: 2021-09-17
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Large volumes of saline formation water are both produced from and injected into sedimentary basins as a by-product of oil and gas production. Despite this, the location of production and injection wells has not been studied in detail at the regional scale and the effects on deep groundwater flow patterns (i.e. below the base of groundwater protection) possibly driving fluid flow towards shallow [...]

Three-dimensional fluid-driven stable frictional ruptures

Alexis Sáez, Brice Lecampion, Pathikrit Bhattacharya, et al.

Published: 2021-09-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

We investigate the quasi-static growth of a fluid-driven frictional shear crack that propagates in mixed mode (II+III) on a planar fault interface that separates two identical half-spaces of a three-dimensional solid. The fault interface is characterized by a shear strength equal to the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. Fluid is injected into the [...]

Streambed pollution: A comprehensive review of its sources, eco-hydro-geo-chemical impacts, assessment, and mitigation strategies

Aadhityaa Mohanavelu, Shivansh Shrivastava, Sujay Raghavendra Naganna

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Streambeds are among the important components of stream ecosystems and support several critical ecosystem services such as transformation of organic matter and nutrients and provide habitat for aquatic organisms. Increasing anthropogenic influence introduces multiple stressors to the stream networks resulting in pollution of streambeds, which in turn, could have detrimental effects on overall [...]

Comprehensive aerial survey quantifies high methane emissions from the New Mexico Permian Basin

Yuanlei Chen, Evan D Sherwin, Elena S.F. Berman, et al.

Published: 2021-08-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Limiting emissions of climate-warming methane from oil and gas (O&G) is a major opportunity for short-term climate benefits. We deploy a basin-wide airborne survey of the New Mexico Permian Basin, spanning 35,923 km^2, 26,292 active wells, and over 15,000 km of natural gas pipelines using an independently-validated hyperspectral methane point source detection and quantification system. We [...]

On the overlooked impact of river dams on beach erosion worldwide

Marcan Graffin, Vincent Regard, Sébastien Carretier, et al.

Published: 2021-08-04
Subjects: Engineering

The current retreat of the world's coastline has a profound impact on human activities and ecosystems. The scientific community has primarily focused on the potential impact of sea level rise. At the global scale, the contribution of river sand loads to coastal erosion has been overlooked. Here we present the first global sand pathway model from land to sea. Our model reveals that sand tends to [...]

Combining shallow-water and analytical wake models for tidal array micro-siting

Connor Jordan, Davor Dundovic, Anastasia Fragkou, et al.

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Oceanography

Array optimisation is critical for improving power performance and reducing infrastructure costs thereby helping enable tidal-stream energy to become a competitive renewable energy source. However, ascertaining an optimal array layout is a highly complex problem, subject to the specific site hydrodynamics characterisation and multiple inter-disciplinary constrains. In this work, we present a [...]

Rapid prediction of alongshore run-up distribution from near-field tsunamis

Jun-Whan Lee, Jennifer Irish, Robert Weiss

Published: 2021-07-27
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rapid prediction of the spatial distribution of the run-up from near- field tsunamis is critically important for tsunami hazard characterization. Even though significant advances have been made over the last decade, physics- based numerical models are still computationally intensive. Here, we present a response surface methodology (RSM)-based model called the tsunami run-up response function [...]

Rapid prediction of peak storm surge from tropical cyclone track time series using machine learning

Jun-Whan Lee, Jennifer Irish, Michelle Bensi, et al.

Published: 2021-07-27
Subjects: Engineering

Rapid and accurate prediction of peak storm surges across an extensive coastal region is necessary to inform assessments used to design the systems that protect coastal communities’ life and property. Significant advances in high-fidelity, physics-based numerical models have been made in recent years, but use of these models for probabilistic forecasting and probabilistic hazard assessment is [...]

Integrating Scientific Knowledge into Machine Learning using Interactive Decision Trees

Georgios Sarailidis, Thorsten Wagener, Francesca Pianosi

Published: 2021-07-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

Decision Trees (DT) is a machine learning method that has been widely used in the environmental sciences to automatically extract patterns from complex and high dimensional data. However, like any data-based method, is hindered by data limitations and potentially physically unrealistic results. We develop interactive DT (iDT) that put the human in the loop and integrate the power of experts’ [...]

An open-source package with interactive Jupyter Notebooks to enhance the accessibility of reservoir operations simulation and optimisation

Andres Peñuela, Christopher Hutton, Francesca Pianosi

Published: 2021-07-13
Subjects: Engineering

In this paper we present the interactive Reservoir Operations Notebooks and Software (iRONS) toolbox for reservoir modelling and optimisation. The toolbox is meant to serve the research and professional community in hydrology and water resource management and contribute to bridge the gaps between them. iRONS is composed of a package of Python core functions and a set of interactive Jupyter [...]

HydroLang: An Open-Source Web-Based Programming Framework for Hydrological Sciences

Carlos Erazo Ramirez, Yusuf Sermet, Frank Molkenthin, et al.

Published: 2021-07-03
Subjects: Engineering

This paper presents HydroLang, an open-source and integrated community-driven computational web framework to support research and education in hydrology and water resources. HydroLang uses client-side web technologies and standards to perform different routines which aim towards the acquisition, management, transformation, analysis and visualization of hydrological datasets. HydroLang is [...]

On the Efficacy of Compact Radar Transponders for InSAR Geodesy: Results of Multi-year Field Tests

Richard Czikhardt, Hans van der Marel, Juraj Papco, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Compact and low-cost radar transponders are an attractive alternative to corner reflectors (CR) for SAR interferometric (InSAR) deformation monitoring, datum connection, and geodetic data integration. Recently, such transponders have become commercially available for C-band sensors, which poses relevant questions on their characteristics in terms of radiometric, geometric, and phase stability. [...]

Phosphorus Retention in Lakes: A Critical Reassessment of Hypotheses and Static Models

Hamed Khorasani, Zhenduo Zhu

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Various hypotheses and models for phosphorus (P) retention in lakes are reviewed and 39 predictive models are assessed in three categories, namely mechanistic, semi-mechanistic, and strictly-empirical models. A large database consisting of 738 data points is gathered for the analyses. Assessing four pairs of competing hypotheses used in mechanistic models, we found that (i) simulating lakes as [...]

Impact of injection rate ramp-up on nucleation and arrest of dynamic fault slip

Federico Ciardo, Antonio Pio Rinaldi

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Engineering

Fluid injection into underground formations reactivates preexisting geological discontinuities such as faults or fractures. In this work, we investigate the impact of injection rate ramp-up present in many standard injection protocols on the nucleation and potential arrest of dynamic slip along a planar pressurized fault. We assume a linear increasing function of injection rate with time, up to a [...]

Mapping carbon stocks in Central and South America with SMAP vegetation optical depth

David Chaparro, Grégory Duveiller, María Piles, et al.

Published: 2021-06-11
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences

Mapping carbon stocks in the tropics is essential for climate change mitigation. Passive microwave remote sensing allows estimating carbon from deep canopy layers through the Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) parameter. Although their spatial resolution is coarser than that of optical vegetation indices or airborne Lidar data, microwaves present a higher penetration capacity at low frequencies [...]


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