Filtering by Subject: Engineering

Advecting Superspecies: Efficiently Modeling Transport of Organic Aerosol with a Mass-Conserving Dimensionality Reduction Method

Patrick Obin Sturm, Astrid Manders, Ruud Janssen, et al.

Published: 2022-06-26
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The chemical transport model LOTOS-EUROS uses a volatility basis set (VBS) approach to represent the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Inclusion of the VBS approximately doubles the dimensionality of LOTOS-EUROS and slows computation of the advection operator by a factor of two. This complexity limits SOA representation in operational forecasts. We develop a [...]

Mapping landslides through a temporal lens: An insight towards multi-temporal landslide mapping using the U-Net deep learning model

Kushanav Bhuyan, Sansar Raj Meena, Lorenzo Nava, et al.

Published: 2022-06-25
Subjects: Engineering

Repeated temporal mapping of landslides is essential for investigating changes in landslide movements, legacy effects of the landslide triggering events, and susceptibility changes in the area. However, in order to perform such investigations, multi-temporal (MT) inventories of landslides are required. The traditional approach of visual interpretation from cloud-free optical remote sensing [...]

A Comprehensive Review of Ontologies in the Hydrology Towards Guiding Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Applications

Özlem Baydaroğlu Yeşilköy, Serhan Yeşilköy, Muhammed Yusuf Sermet, et al.

Published: 2022-06-25
Subjects: Engineering

Open science presents a new approach for knowledge discovery, dissemination, and integrity. The idea behind open science is to reinforce research activities and create open knowledge networks by exploring, organizing, and sharing scientific data, as well as making research results transparent, open and integrated. Big data derived from remote sensing, ground-based measurements, models and [...]

A spatial framework for prioritizing biochar application to arable land: a case study for Sweden

Shivesh Kishore Karan, Fabian Osslund, Elias Sebastian Azzi, et al.

Published: 2022-06-21
Subjects: Engineering

The biochar-agriculture nexus can potentially generate several benefits ranging from soil carbon sequestration to reduction in nutrient leaching from arable soils. However, leveraging these benefits for a particular objective requires spatially-explicit information on suitable locations for biochar application. This study provides a flexible multi-criteria framework that delivers spatial [...]

Regionalized life cycle assessment of present and future lithium production for Li-ion batteries

Vanessa Schenker, Christopher Oberschelp, Stephan Pfister

Published: 2022-06-21
Subjects: Engineering

Existing life cycle assessments (LCA) of lithium carbonate production from brines are mainly based on one single brine operation site, while many different lithium carbonate production routes have been developed in the past. Hence, current life cycle inventories do not capture the variability of brine sites and misestimate life cycle impacts. This study presents a systematic approach for LCA of [...]

Flood Susceptibility Mapping using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process for Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Beyza Atiye Cikmaz, Enes Yildirim, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies

Floods affect over 2.2 billion people worldwide, and their frequency is increasing at an alarming rate compared to other natural disasters. Presidential disaster declarations have issued increasingly almost every year in Iowa for the past 30 years, indicating that the state is on the rise of flood risk. While significant scientific and technological advancement is becoming available for many [...]

Variational and numerical modelling strategies for cost-effective simulations of driven free-surface waves

Floriane Gidel, Yang Lu, Onno Bokhove, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A new, cost-effective and widely applicable tool is developed for simulating three-dimensional (3D) water-wave motion in the context of the maritime-engineering sector, with specific focus on the formation and analysis of extreme waves generated within in-house experimental wave tanks. The resulting ``numerical wave tank'' is able to emulate realistic sea states in which complex wave-wave or [...]

Notes from the Oil Patch: Planning for a Worker-Focused Transition in the Oil and Gas Industry

Arvind Ravikumar, Timothy M Latimer

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Engineering

The energy transition portends major disruption to livelihoods of oil and gas workers and communities dependent on the fossil fuel industry. Managing this transition smoothly will require coordinated policy planning, community and place-based incentives, and structural reforms and support structures that carefully map the skills of the worker to opportunities in the clean energy economy.

Quantifying baseline costs and cataloging potential optimization strategies for kelp aquaculture carbon dioxide removal

Struan Coleman, Tobias Dewhurst, David W. Fredriksson, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

To keep global surface warming below 1.5 °C by 2100, the portfolio of cost-effective CDR technologies must expand. To evaluate the potential of macroalgae CDR, we developed a kelp aquaculture bio-techno-economic model in which large quantities of kelp would be farmed at an offshore site, transported to a deep water "sink site", and then deposited below the sequestration horizon (1,000 m). We [...]

Hotspots of mining-related biodiversity loss in global supply chains and the potential for reduction by renewable electricity

Livia Cabernard, Stephan Pfister

Published: 2022-06-15
Subjects: Engineering

The expected growth in infrastructure and energy transition may exacerbate biodiversity loss by the rising demand for mining products. Many mining products are extracted in the Global South and exported to the global North for further processing and final consumption, where a link to the devastating environmental effects is often missing. Based on an enhanced multi-regional input-output database, [...]

Inclination and heterogeneity of layered geological sequences influence dike-induced ground deformation

Matías Clunes, John Browning, Carlos Marquardt, et al.

Published: 2022-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Mining Engineering

Constraints on the amount and pattern of ground deformation induced by dike emplacement are important for assessing potential eruptions. The vast majority of ground deformation inversions made for volcano monitoring during volcanic unrest assume that dikes are emplaced in either an elastic-half space (a homogeneous crust) or a crust made of horizontal layers with different mechanical properties. [...]

Defining renewable groundwater use to improve groundwater management

Mark Olaf Cuthbert, Tom Gleeson, Grant Ferguson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Groundwater systems are commonly but variously defined as renewable or non-renewable based on natural fluxes of recharge or on estimates of aquifer storage and groundwater residence time. However, the principle of capture challenges simple definitions: groundwater pumping can alter the rates of groundwater recharge and/or discharge over a characteristic groundwater response time related to the [...]

Hydraulic fracturing: Laboratory evidence of the brittle-to-ductile transition with depth

Runhua Feng, Shuo Liu, Joel Sarout, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Petroleum Engineering

Understand the propagation of hydraulic fracture (HF) is essential for effectively stimulating the hydrocarbon production of unconventional reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing may induce distinct failure modes within the formation, depending on the rheology of the solid and the in-situ stresses. A brittle-to-ductile transition of HF is thus anticipated with increasing depth, although only scarce [...]

Experimental investigation of fire spread across a vegetative fuel bed incorporating the effect of wind velocity

Reza Ziazi, Abhinandan Singh, Ahmed O. Said, et al.

Published: 2022-05-10
Subjects: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering

Wind, moisture content, and density of fuel are three environmental factors that affect the rate of fire spread in wildland fires by changing the rate of convection, radiation, and conduction heat transfer from the flames and burned fuels to the unburned fuel. These effects have been experimentally investigated in the current study to further understand the complex phenomena of wildland fire [...]

Democratizing Deep Learning Applications in Earth and Climate Sciences on the Web: EarthAIHub

Muhammed Sit, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences

Most deep learning application studies have limited accessibility and reproducibility for researchers and students in many domains, especially in earth and climate sciences. In order to provide a step towards improving accessibility to deep learning models in such disciplines, this study presents a community-driven framework and repository, EarthAIHub, that is powered by TensorFlow.js, where deep [...]


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