Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Environmental Monitoring

Reconstruction of satellite time series with a dynamic smoother

Jordan Graesser, Radost Stanimirova, Mark A Friedl

Published: 2021-08-20
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series

Time series reconstruction methods---used to generate gap-free time series of satellite observations---were historically designed for sensors with frequent image acquisitions. Since 2008, interest in leveraging time series methods has shifted from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS to Landsat because of free, higher-resolution data availability and improved access to high-performance compute [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Toward automating post processing of aquatic sensor data

Amber S Jones, Tanner Lex Jones, Jeffery S Horsburgh

Published: 2021-07-23
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Hydrology

Sensors measuring environmental phenomena at high frequency commonly report anomalies related to fouling, sensor drift and calibration, and datalogging and transmission issues. Suitability of data for analyses and decision making often depends on manual review and adjustment of data. Machine learning techniques have potential to automate identification and correction of anomalies, streamlining [...]

Ten Simple Rules for Researchers Who Want to Develop Web Apps

Sheila M. Saia, Natalie G. Nelson, Sierra N. Young, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Applied Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Environmental Monitoring, Graphics and Human Computer Interfaces, Natural Resources and Conservation, Software Engineering, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Growing interest in data-driven, decision-support tools across the life sciences and physical sciences has motivated development of web applications, also known as web apps. Web apps can help disseminate research findings and present research outputs in ways that are more accessible and meaningful to the general public--from individuals, to governments, to companies. Specifically, web apps enable [...]

Airborne methane surveys pay for themselves: An economic case study of increased revenue from emissions control

Forrest Johnson, Andrew Wlazlo, Ryan Keys, et al.

Published: 2021-07-15
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Remote Sensing

We present an economic analysis of an emissions monitoring and capture program for a mid-sized Permian Basin operator, Triple Crown Resources (“Triple Crown”). Data from this campaign was gathered using repeat airborne surveys provided by Kairos Aerospace (“Kairos”). Key findings include: - The total volume of detected emissions from Triple Crown operations decreased by 70% from the first to the [...]

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

A field guide for monitoring riverine macroplastic entrapment in water hyacinths

Louise Schreyers, Tim van Emmerik, Thanh Luan Nguyen, et al.

Published: 2021-06-01
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Remote Sensing

River plastic pollution is an environmental challenge of growing concern. However, there are still many unknowns related to the principal drivers of river plastic transport. Floating aquatic vegetation, such as water hyacinths, have been found to aggregate and carry large amounts of plastic debris in tropical river systems. Monitoring the entrapment of plastics in hyacinths is therefore crucial [...]

Defining a Sustainable Development Target Space for 2030 and 2050

Detlef van Vuuren, Caroline Zimm, Sebastian Busch, et al.

Published: 2021-05-24
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Natural Resource Economics, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sustainability

By adopting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), countries worldwide agreed to an agenda for achieving a prosperous, socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable future for all1. This ambition, however, also exposes a critical knowledge gap since science-based insights on how to achieve the 17 SDGs simultaneously are lacking. Quantitative goal-seeking scenario studies could enable [...]

The carbon cycle of southeast Australia during 2019-2020: Drought, fires and subsequent recovery

Brendan Byrne, Junjie Liu, Meemong Lee, et al.

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

2019 was the hottest and driest year on record for southeast Australia leading to bushfires of unprecedented extent. Ecosystem carbon losses due to drought and fire are believed to have been substantial, but have not been well quantified. Here, we utilize space-based measurements of trace gases (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument XCO, Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 XCO2) and up-scaled GPP (FluxSat [...]

What you net depends on if you grab: A meta-analysis of sampling method's impact on measured aquatic microplastic concentration

Lisa Watkins, Patrick J. Sullivan, M. Todd Walter

Published: 2021-05-08
Subjects: Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys, Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Other Environmental Sciences

Microplastic pollution is measured with a variety of sampling methods. Field experiments indicate that commonly used sampling methods, including net, pump and grab samples, do not always result in equivalent measured concentration. We investigate the comparability of these methods through a meta-analysis of over one hundred surface water microplastic studies. We find systematic relationships [...]

The gap between atmospheric nitrogen deposition experiments and reality

Daniel Patrick Bebber

Published: 2021-05-05
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Forest Biology, Other Environmental Sciences, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Soil Science, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Anthropogenic activities have dramatically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Atmospheric N deposition, primarily from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, has caused acidification of precipitation and freshwater and triggered intense research into ecosystem responses to this pollutant. Experimental simulations of N deposition have been the main scientific tool to understand ecosystem [...]

Coulomb Threshold Rate-and-State Model for Fault Reactivation: Application to induced seismicity at Groningen

Elias Rafn Heimisson, Jonathan D Smith, Jean-Philippe Avouac, et al.

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

A number of recent modeling studies of induced seismicity have used the rate-and-state friction model of Dieterich (1994) to account for the fact that earthquake nucleation is not instantaneous. Notably, the model assumes a population of seismic sources accelerating towards instability with a distribution of intial slip speeds such that they would produce earthquakes steadily in absence of any [...]

High resolution, annual maps of the characteristics of smallholder-dominated croplands at national scales

Lyndon D Estes, Su Ye, Lei Song, et al.

Published: 2021-03-12
Subjects: Agriculture, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science, Sustainability

Mapping the changing characteristics of Africa's smallholder-dominated agricultural systems, including the sizes and numbers of fields, is crucial for understanding food security and a range of other socioeconomic and environmental concerns. However, accurately mapping these systems is difficult because of 1) the spatial and temporal mismatch between satellite sensors and smallholder fields, and [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Towards underwater plastic monitoring using echo sounding

Sophie Broere, Tim van Emmerik, Daniel González-Fernández, et al.

Published: 2021-01-25
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology

Plastics originating from land are mainly transported to the oceans by rivers. The total plastic transport from land to seas remains uncertain because of difficulties in measuring and the lack of standard observation techniques. A large focus in observations is on plastics floating on the water surface. However, an increasing number of observations suggest that large quantities of plastics are [...]

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