Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Environmental Monitoring

A Review of Satellite Remote Sensing Techniques of River Delta Morphology Change

Dinuke Munasinghe, Sagy Cohen, Krishna Gadiraju

Published: 2020-06-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

River deltas are important coastal depositional systems that are home to almost half a billion people worldwide. Understanding morphology changes in deltas is important in identifying vulnerabilities to natural disasters and improving sustainable planning and management. Satellite remote sensing has shown to be a useful technology for analyzing these morphology changes owing largely to its [...]

Sensing earth and environment dynamics by telecommunication fiber-optic sensors: An urban experiment in Pennsylvania USA

Tieyuan Zhu, Junzhu Shen, Eileen R Martin

Published: 2020-06-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Continuous seismic monitoring of the Earths near surface (top 100 meters), especially with improving the resolution and extent of data both in space and time, would yield more accurate insights about the effect of extreme weather events (e.g. flooding or drought) and climate change on the Earths surface and subsurface systems. However, continuous long-term seismic monitoring, especially in urban [...]

Methane concentrations in streams reveal gas leak discharges in regions of oil, gas, and coal development

Josh Woda, Tao Wen, Jacob Lemon, Virginia Marcon, Charles M. Keeports, Fred Zelt, Luanne Y. Steffy, Susan L. Brantley

Published: 2020-06-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

As natural gas has grown in importance as a global energy source, leakage of methane (CH4) from wells has sometimes been noted. Leakage of this greenhouse gas is important because it affects groundwater quality and, when emitted to the atmosphere, climate. We hypothesized that streams might be most contaminated by CH4 in the northern Appalachian Basin in regions with the longest history of [...]

The sustainability of beach nourishments: A review of nourishment and environmental monitoring practice

Franziska Staudt, Rik Gijsman, Caroline Ganal, Finn Mielck, Johanna Wolbring, H. Christian Hass, Nils Goseberg, Holger Schüttrumpf, Torsten Schlurmann, Stefan Schimmels

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Beach nourishments are a widely used method to mitigate erosion along flood-prone sandy shorelines. In contrast to hard coastal protection structures, nourishments are considered as soft engineering, although little is known about the cumulative, long-term environmental effects of both marine sediment extraction and nourishment activities. Recent endeavours to sustain the marine ecosystem and [...]

The New Era of Regional Coastal Bathymetry from Space: A Showcase for West Africa using Sentinel-2 Imagery

Christopher J Daly, Wassim Baba, Erwin Bergsma, Rafael Almar, Thierry Garlan

Published: 2020-06-04
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Large-scale coastal bathymetry is an essential data product for use in coastal research and governance. Traditional methods of measuring bathymetry, using sonar deployed from ships, take an enormous amount of time to collect and process, and thus prevent the gathering of data at high spatial and temporal resolution at a regional scale. Space-borne missions, such as the European Space Agencys [...]

Evaluating single and multi-date Landsat classifications of land-cover in a seasonally dry tropical forest

João Maria de Andrade, John Elton Brito Leite Cunha, João Nailson de Castro Silva, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Carlos de Oliveira Galvão

Published: 2020-05-28
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurate information on the land cover is crucial for efficient monitoring and development of environmental studies in the Brazilian Caatinga forest. It is the largest tropical seasonal forest in South America, presenting high biodiversity and is under intense anthropogenic disturbance. Caatingas land cover is heterogeneous, and rainfall is its primary phenological regulator, presenting mainly [...]

Unrealistic phytoplankton bloom trends in global lakes derived from Landsat measurements

Lian Feng, Xuejiao Hou, Junguo Liu, Chunmiao Zheng

Published: 2020-05-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

Given its advantages for synoptic and large-scale observations, satellite remote sensing has been widely used to effectively monitor the water quality of inland and coastal environments. Using satellite-derived reflectance data from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (L5TM) as a proxy for algal bloom intensity, Ho et al. 1 showed an increase in peak summertime bloom intensity in 68% of the 71 large [...]

Using large-scale NO2 data from citizen science for air quality compliance and policy support

Sam De Craemer, Jordy Vercauteren, Frans Fierens, Wouter Lefebvre, Filip Meysman

Published: 2020-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Citizen science projects that monitor air quality have recently drastically expanded in scale. Projects involving thousands of citizens generate spatially dense datasets using low-cost passive samplers for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which complement data from the sparse reference network operated by environmental agencies. However, there is a critical bottleneck in using these citizen-derived [...]

Lockdown caused by COVID-19 pandemic reduces air pollution in cities worldwide

Asheshwor Man Shrestha, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Roshan Sharma, Suraj Bhattarai, Hanh Ngoc Thi Tran, Maheswar Rupakheti

Published: 2020-04-18
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Drastic measures such as lockdown taken by countries worldwide to contain spread of COVID-19 have influenced air pollution dynamics substantially, at a planetary scale. Several media reported the lockdown induced air pollution reduction based on quickly assembled satellite observations. However, a global-scale analysis of such reduction in air pollution backed by quality data collected from [...]

Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China

Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Jian Gao, Bo Zheng, Derong Zhou, Ximeng Qi, Rong Tang, Chuanhua Ren, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

To control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. Despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China, raising [...]

Early evidence that COVID-19 government policies reduce urban air pollution

Marc Cadotte

Published: 2020-03-30
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Governments have a solemn responsibility to ensure the health and well-being of the populations they govern. The COVID-19 pandemic reveals just how serious governments take this responsibility and that restricting activity to limit pathogen spread can have other public health repercussions. Comparisons between February 2019 and 2020 air quality measures reveal that six cities that were impacted [...]

Rapid Tidal Marsh Development in Anthropogenic Backwaters

Brian Yellen, Jonathon Woodruff, David Ralston, Caroline Ladlow, Sarah Fernald, Waverly Lau

Published: 2020-03-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Tidal marsh restoration and creation has been proposed as a tool to build coastal resilience in the face of rising sea level and increasing intensity of coastal storms. However, it is unclear what conditions within constructed settings will lead to the successful establishment of tidal marsh. We used sediment cores and historical geospatial data in the tidal freshwater Hudson River to identify [...]

Tracking Flooding Phase Transitions and Establishing a Passive Hotline with AI-Enabled Social Media Data

Ruo-Qian Wang, Yingjie Hu, Zikai Zhou, Kevin Yang

Published: 2020-02-21
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

Flooding management requires collecting real-time onsite information widely and rapidly. As an emerging data source, social media demonstrates an advantage of providing in-time, rich data in the format of texts and photos and can be used to improve flooding situation awareness. The present study shows that social media data, with additional information processed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) [...]

Policy Bridge: Air Quality Impacts from Oil and Natural Gas Development in Colorado

Detlev Helmig

Published: 2019-12-12
Subjects: Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The rise of hydraulic fracturing techniques has fostered rapid growth of oil and natural gas extraction in areas across the United States. In the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB), which mostly overlaps with Weld County in the Northern Colorado Front Range (NCFR) north of the City of Denver Metropolitan Area (DMA), the well drilling has increasingly approached, and in many instances moved into urban [...]

Simultaneous measurement of aqueous redox sensitive elements and their species across soil-water interface

Zhao-Feng Yuan, Williamson Gustave, Raju Sekar, Jonathan Bridge, Jia-Yue Wang, Wei-Jia Feng, Bin Guo, Zheng Chen

Published: 2019-11-20
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Soil-water interface (SWI) hosts versatile elements speciation and controls elements cycling in flooded lands. However, the study on the element’s interaction along SWI is limited by the sampling and analytical methods available. Here with an optimized ICP-MS method and an updated porewater sampler, we succeeded in simultaneously mapping the elements of environmental concerns in every 1.7 mm [...]

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