Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Environmental Sciences

Centering Equity in the Nation's Weather, Water and Climate Services

Aradhna Tripati, Marshall Shepherd, Vernon Morris, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Water, weather, and climate affect everyone. However, their impacts on various communities can be very different based on who has access to essential services and environmental knowledge. At the same time, structural discrimination, including racism and other forms of privileging and exclusion, affects people's lives and health, with ripples across all sectors of society. In the United States, [...]

A Generalized Natural Hazard Risk Modelling Framework for Infrastructure Failure Cascades

Evelyn Mühlhofer, Elco E. Koks, Chahan M. Kropf, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Risk Analysis

Critical infrastructures are more exposed than ever to natural hazards in a chaning climate. To understand and manage risk, failure cascades across large, real-world infrastructure networks, caused by real-world hazards, and their impact on people, must be captured. Bridging established methods in both infrastructure and risk modelling communities, we develop an open-source modelling framework [...]

Defining renewable groundwater use to improve groundwater management

Mark Olaf Cuthbert, Tom Gleeson, Grant Ferguson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Groundwater systems are commonly but variously defined as renewable or non-renewable based on natural fluxes of recharge or on estimates of aquifer storage and groundwater residence time. However, the principle of capture challenges simple definitions: groundwater pumping can alter the rates of groundwater recharge and/or discharge over a characteristic groundwater response time related to the [...]

Sorption vs Adsorption: the words they are a-changin', not the phenomena

Olivier Pourret, Jean-Claude Bollinger, Andrew Hursthouse, et al.

Published: 2022-05-17
Subjects: Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

In this discussion, we highlight that the terms sorption and adsorption are often confused and misused in many articles. Even if one thought their formal definition is well known, this does not appear to be the case. We recommend encouragement to adopt the word adsorption only when fully supported by appropriate data and using the sorption terminology when it is more speculative, typically in [...]

Quantifying excess heavy metal concentrations in drainage basins using conservative mixing modelling

Jonas Alexander Eschenfelder, Alex G. Lipp, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

High concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants in river sediments can have detrimental effects on the health of ecosystems and humans. As such, determining the composition of river sediments throughout drainage basins is an essential aspect of environmental monitoring. Well characterised natural baseline concentrations are important information with which observations can be compared [...]

Global dynamics of the offshore wind energy sector monitored with Sentinel-1: Turbine count, installed capacity and site specifications

Thorsten Hoeser, Claudia Kuenzer

Published: 2022-04-26
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Statistics and Probability

With the promotion of renewable energy production and a planned phaseout of fossil fuels until 2040, the offshore wind energy sector has started to expand and will continue to increase its capacity in the upcoming decades. This study presents how the installed capacity can be derived from radar imagery provided by the Sentinel-1 mission for all offshore wind turbines on the entire Earth. By [...]

Democratizing Deep Learning Applications in Earth and Climate Sciences on the Web: EarthAIHub

Muhammed Sit, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences

Most deep learning application studies have limited accessibility and reproducibility for researchers and students in many domains, especially in earth and climate sciences. In order to provide a step towards improving accessibility to deep learning models in such disciplines, this study presents a community-driven framework and repository, EarthAIHub, that is powered by TensorFlow.js, where deep [...]

A machine learning approach to water quality forecasts and sensor network expansion: Case study in the Wabash River Basin, USA

Tyler Balson, Adam Scott Ward

Published: 2022-04-06
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

Midwestern cities require forecasts of surface nitrate loads to bring additional treatment processes online or activate alternative water supplies. Concurrently, networks of nitrate monitoring stations are being deployed in river basins, co-locating water quality observations with established stream gauges. However, tools to evaluate the future value of expanded networks to improve water quality [...]

Data from the drain: a sensor framework that captures multiple drivers of chronic floods

Adam Gold, Katherine Anarde, Lauren Grimley, et al.

Published: 2022-04-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tide gauge records are commonly used as proxies to detect coastal floods and project future flood frequencies. While these proxies clearly show that sea-level rise will increase the frequency of coastal flooding, tide gauges do not account for land-based sources of coastal flooding and therefore likely underestimate the current and future frequency of coastal flooding. Here we present a new [...]

Fencing farm dams to exclude livestock halves methane emissions and improves water quality.

Martino Edoardo Malerba, David B. Lindenmayer, Benjamin Scheele, et al.

Published: 2022-03-31
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Agricultural practices have created tens of millions of small artificial water bodies (“farm dams” or “agricultural ponds”) to provide water for domestic livestock worldwide. Among freshwater ecosystems, farm dams have some of the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per m2 due to fertilizer and manure run-off boosting methane production – an extremely potent GHG. However, management strategies [...]

Satellites detect a methane ultra-emission event from an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico

Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, Javier Gorroño, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, et al.

Published: 2022-03-31
Subjects: Environmental Sciences

Mitigation of methane emissions from fossil fuel extraction, processing and transport is one of the most effective ways to slow global warming. Satellite-based methods are being instrumental for the detection, characterization, and quantification of this type of emissions. However, despite the rapid development of satellite-based methane plume detection methods for terrestrial surfaces, there is [...]

Practical Reproducibility in Geography and Geosciences

Daniel Nüst, Edzer Pebesma

Published: 2022-03-28
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Higher Education

Reproducible research is often perceived as a technological challenge, but it is rooted in the challenge to improve scholarly communication in an age of digitisation. When computers become involved and researchers want to allow other scientists to inspect, understand, evaluate, and build upon their work, they need to create a research compendium that includes the code, data, computing [...]

Automated machine learning to evaluate the information content of tropospheric trace gas columns for fine particle estimates over India: a modeling testbed

Zhonghua Zheng, Arlene M. Fiore, Daniel M. Westervelt, et al.

Published: 2022-03-20
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

India is largely devoid of high-quality and reliable on-the-ground measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Ground-level PM2.5 concentrations are estimated from publicly available satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products combined with other information. Prior research has largely overlooked the possibility of gaining additional accuracy and insights into the sources of PM using [...]

On the estimation of landslide intensity, hazard and density via data-driven models

Mariano Di Napoli, Hakan Tanyas, Daniela Castro-Camilo, et al.

Published: 2022-03-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Maps that attempt to predict landslide occurrences have essentially stayed the same since Brabb, E.E., Pampeyan, E.H. and Bonilla, M.G. (1972) Landslide susceptibility in San Mateo County, California (No. 360), US Geological Survey. The tools have certainly changed in fifty years. But, the geomorphological community addressed and still addresses this issue by estimating whether a given slope is [...]

Seasonal trends and drivers of land surface variables in Indo-Gangetic river basins

Soner Uereyen, Felix Bachofer, Igor Klein, et al.

Published: 2022-03-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Statistics and Probability

High mountain Asia holds the largest glacier mass on Earth outside the polar regions. In combination with monsoonal rainfall, glacial meltwater provides the downstream Indo-Gangetic river basins with indispensable water resources. These rivers supply 1.2 billion people with water and their water resources are essential for many sectors including the world's largest connected irrigated cropland [...]

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