Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Environmental Studies

Flood Susceptibility Mapping using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process for Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Beyza Atiye Cikmaz, Enes Yildirim, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies

Floods affect over 2.2 billion people worldwide, and their frequency is increasing at an alarming rate compared to other natural disasters. Presidential disaster declarations have issued increasingly almost every year in Iowa for the past 30 years, indicating that the state is on the rise of flood risk. While significant scientific and technological advancement is becoming available for many [...]

Centering Equity in the Nation's Weather, Water and Climate Services

Aradhna Tripati, Marshall Shepherd, Vernon Morris, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Water, weather, and climate affect everyone. However, their impacts on various communities can be very different based on who has access to essential services and environmental knowledge. At the same time, structural discrimination, including racism and other forms of privileging and exclusion, affects people's lives and health, with ripples across all sectors of society. In the United States, [...]

The quest for the missing plastics: Large uncertainties in river plastic export into the sea

Caspar Roebroek, Tim van Emmerik, Daniel González-Fernández, et al.

Published: 2022-05-16
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Studies, Hydrology

Plastic pollution in the natural environment is causing increasing concern at both the local and global scale. Understanding the dispersion of plastic through the environment is of key importance for the effective implementation of preventive measures and cleanup strategies. Over the past few years, various models have been developed to estimate the transport of plastics in rivers, using limited [...]

Cutting down trees does not build prosperity: On the continued decoupling of Amazon deforestation and economic development in 21st century Brazil

DARREN NORRIS, Terciane Sabadini Carvalho, Angela M. Guerrero, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Forest Management, Life Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Remote Sensing

Background and aims: We present evidence examining spatial and temporal patterns in forest cover changes and economic progress in Brazilian Amazonia. Specifically we tested two predictions embedded in arguments used by influential interest groups: i) where there is less forest cover economic progress should increase and ii) areas with most recent deforestation should have increased economic [...]

A mid-20th century estimate of global vegetation carbon stocks based on inventory statistics

Manan Bhan, Patrick Meyfroidt, Sarah Matej, et al.

Published: 2022-03-28
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Forest Sciences, Geography

Biomass carbon stocks (BCS) play a vital role in the climate system, but benchmarked estimates prior to the late 20th century remain scarce. Here, by making use of an early global forest resource assessment and harmonizing information on land use and carbon densities, we establish a global BCS account for the year 1950. Our best-guess BCS estimate is 450.7 PgC (median of all modulations: 518.3 [...]

The long-run welfare impact of hydrological extremes in sub-Saharan Africa

Ahmed T. Hammad, Giacomo Falchetta

Published: 2022-03-25
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Human Geography, Hydrology

The economic impact of dry and wet spells is increasingly investigated, also relative to anthropogenic climate change. Combining high-resolution wealth estimates and long-run (1901-2018) hydrological records for nearly one million settlements , here we empirically estimate the long-run welfare impact of hydrological events in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To achieve causal identification, we adopt a [...]

Investment needs to achieve SDGs: an overview

Shridhar Kulkarni, Andries Hof, Geanderson Ambrósio, et al.

Published: 2022-03-18
Subjects: Environmental Studies

Estimating the investments needed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is key to mobilising the financial resources to achieve them. Despite an increasing body of research to estimate the capital and operational costs towards achieving various related SDG targets individually and collectively, an overview of the total estimated investment needs at the global scale has not been [...]

An operational framework for large-area mapping of active cropland and short-term fallows in smallholder landscapes using PlanetScope data

Philippe Rufin, Adia Bey, Michelle Picoli, et al.

Published: 2022-03-17
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

Cropland mapping in complex smallholder landscapes is challenged by complex and fragmented landscapes, labor-intensive and unmechanized land management causing high within-field variability, rapid dynamics in shifting cultivation systems, and substantial proportions of short-term fallows. To overcome these challenges, we here present a large-area mapping framework to identify active cropland and [...]

Acting on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) synergies and trade-offs requires policy-focused systems tools

Enayat A. Moallemi, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Sibel Eker, et al.

Published: 2022-03-04
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Systems Engineering

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is contingent on managing complex interactions that create synergies and trade-offs between different goals. Given the importance of interactions, it is necessary to understand the system mechanisms underpinning them to provide insight into their non-linear behaviours such as side-effects, delay, and acceleration. Prominent methods of SDG [...]

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for probabilistic weather and climate risk modelling: an implementation in CLIMADA v.3.1.

Chahan M. Kropf, Alessio Ciullo, Laura Otth, et al.

Published: 2022-02-23
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys, Earth Sciences, Environmental Studies, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Risk Analysis, Statistical Methodology

Modelling the risk of natural hazards for society, ecosystems, and the economy is subject to strong uncertainties, even more so in the context of a changing climate, evolving societies, growing economies, and declining ecosystems. Here we present a new feature of the climate risk modelling platform CLIMADA which allows to carry out global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. CLIMADA underpins [...]

Analyzing the uncertainty of the CORINE Land Cover time series (1990-2018) for Spain

David García-Álvarez, María Teresa Camacho Olmedo

Published: 2022-02-10
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Other Geography, Physical and Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

CORINE Land Cover is one of the most relevant Land Use Cover (LUC) databases in Europe because of its degree of detail and long time series. Although some studies have assessed the uncertainty of the database for specific years and periods, no work has been found that analyses all the available CORINE time series (1990-2018). In this study, we analyze the uncertainties of the CORINE time series [...]

Structural uncertainty and uncertainty management in four common Land Use Cover Change (LUCC) model software packages. A comparison

David García-Álvarez, María Teresa Camacho Olmedo, Hedwig Van Delden, et al.

Published: 2022-02-10
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Other Geography, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

Research on the uncertainty of Land Use Cover Change (LUCC) models is still limited. Through this paper, we aim to globally characterize the structural uncertainty of four common software packages (CA_Markov, Dinamica EGO, Land Change Modeler, Metronamica) and analyse the options that they offer for uncertainty management. The models have been compared qualitatively, based on their structures [...]

Setting up a Land Use Cover Change model application for Greater Sydney. Lessons learnt and challenges ahead

David García-Álvarez, Chris Pettit, Simone Zarpelon Leao, et al.

Published: 2022-02-09
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Other Geography, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

This chapter presents a Land Use Cover Change (LUCC) model application developed for Greater Sydney. It aims to help decision making in the context of the strategic and spatial planning of Greater Sydney. To this end, the model simulates the dynamics of industrial, low density residential and medium-high density residential areas at spatial resolution of 100x100 m. A series of three Land Use [...]

A framework for scalably quantifying field-level agricultural carbon outcomes

Kaiyu Guan, Zhenong Jin, Evan H. DeLucia, et al.

Published: 2022-01-01
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Physical and Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Wildfire Smoke Exposure Worsens Learning Outcomes

Jeff Wen, Marshall Burke

Published: 2021-12-09
Subjects: Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Statistical Models

Wildfires have increased in frequency and severity over the past two decades, threatening to undo substantial air quality improvements. We investigate the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on learning outcomes across the US using standardized test scores from 2009-2016 for nearly 11,700 school districts and satellite-derived estimates of daily smoke exposure. Relative to a school year with no [...]

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