Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Fluid Dynamics

A genetic model of the magnetite-apatite deposits on El Laco volcano by extrusion of iron-rich melt

Tobias Keller, Fernando Tornos, John M. Hanchar, et al.

Published: 2022-08-25
Subjects: Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Magnetite-apatite deposits are important sources of iron and other metals. A prominent exam- ple are the magnetite lavas at the El Laco volcano, Northern Chile. Their formation processes remain debated. Here, we test the genetic hypothesis that an Fe-rich melt separated from silicate magma and ascended along collapse-related fractures. We complement recent analy- ses with thermodynamic modelling [...]

A Simple Framework for Calibrating Hydraulic Flood Inundation Models using Crowd-sourced Water Levels

Antara Dasgupta, Stefania Grimaldi, RAAJ Ramsankaran, et al.

Published: 2022-08-23
Subjects: Civil Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Floods are the most commonly occurring natural disaster, with the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters 2021 report on “The Non-COVID Year in Disasters” estimating economic losses worth over USD 51 million and over 6000 fatalities in 2020. The hydrodynamic models which are used for flood forecasting need to be evaluated and constrained using observations of water depth and extent. [...]

Ascent rates of 3D fractures driven by a finite batch of buoyant fluid

Timothy Davis, Eleonora Rivalta, Delphine Smittarello, et al.

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Glaciology, Mechanics of Materials, Volcanology

Propagation of fluid-filled fractures by fluid buoyancy is important in a variety of settings, from magmatic dykes and veins to water-filled crevasses in glaciers. Industrial hydro-fracturing utilises fluid-driven fractures to increase the permeability of rock formations; the effect of buoyancy on fracture pathways in this context is typically neglected. Analytical approximations for the buoyant [...]

Tidal Turbine Array Modelling using Goal-Oriented Mesh Adaptation

Joseph Gregory Wallwork, Athanasios Angeloudis, Nicolas Barral, et al.

Published: 2022-04-30
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Partial Differential Equations

Purpose: To examine the accuracy and sensitivity of tidal array performance assessment by numerical techniques applying goal-oriented mesh adaptation. Methods: The goal-oriented framework is designed to give rise to adaptive meshes upon which a given diagnostic quantity of interest (QoI) can be accurately captured, whilst maintaining a low overall computational cost. We seek to improve the [...]

Diapycnal motion, diffusion, and stretching of tracers in the ocean

Henri Francois Drake, Xiaozhou Ruan, Raffaele Ferrari

Published: 2022-01-07
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Fluid Dynamics, Non-linear Dynamics, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Small-scale mixing drives the diabatic upwelling that closes the abyssal ocean overturning circulation. Measurements of in-situ turbulence reveal that mixing is bottom-enhanced over rough topography, implying downwelling in the interior and stronger upwelling in a sloping bottom boundary layer. However, in-situ mixing estimates are indirect and the inferred vertical velocities have not yet been [...]

External surface water influence on explosive eruption dynamics, with implications for stratospheric sulfur delivery and volcano-climate feedback

Colin Rowell, Mark Jellinek, Sahand Hajimirza, et al.

Published: 2021-12-09
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere to form aerosol particles that modify Earth’s radiation balance and drive surface cooling. Eruptions involving interactions with shallow layers (< 500 m) of surface water and ice modify the eruption dynamics that govern the delivery of SO2 to the stratosphere. External surface water potentially controls the [...]

The dynamics of the Campi Flegrei caldera magma chamber.

Chiara Paola Montagna, Paolo Papale, Antonella Longo

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Volcanology

The Campi Flegrei volcanic system is certainly a remarkable case study for what concerns magma chamber dynamics. In fact, its magmatic and volcanic history appears to have been largely driven by chamber processes like fractional crystallization, magma mixing, and volatile degassing. These processes have been intensely investigated with a variety of approaches that are described in many chapters [...]

Calibration, inversion and sensitivity analysis for hydro-morphodynamic models

Mariana C A Clare, Stephan C Kramer, Colin J Cotter, et al.

Published: 2021-08-03
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Partial Differential Equations, Programming Languages and Compilers

The development of reliable, sophisticated hydro-morphodynamic models is essential for protecting the coastal environment against hazards such as flooding and erosion. There exists a high degree of uncertainty associated with the application of these models, in part due to incomplete knowledge of various physical, empirical and numerical closure related parameters in both the hydrodynamic and [...]

Evaluating Short-Term Spatio-Temporal Tropospheric Variability in Multi-Temporal SAR Interferograms Using LES Models

Fengming Hu, Ramon Hanssen, Pier Siebesma, et al.

Published: 2021-07-13
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Atmospheric Sciences, Computational Engineering, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Multivariate Analysis, Signal Processing

Atmospheric delay has a significant impact on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, inducing spatial phase errors and decorrelation in extreme weather condition. For Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SAR missions, the atmosphere can be considered as being spatio-temporally frozen due to the short integration time. Geosynchronous (GEO) SAR missions, however, have short revisit times and extensive [...]

Fluid invasion dynamics in porous media with complex wettability and connectivity

Arjen Mascini, Marijn Boone, Stefanie Van Offenwert, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Complex Fluids, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Hydrology, Materials Science and Engineering, Other Materials Science and Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Transport Phenomena

Multiphase flow is important for many natural and engineered processes in subsurface geoscience. Pore-scale multiphase flow dynamics are commonly characterized by an average balance of driving forces. However, significant local variability in this balance may exist inside natural, heterogeneous porous materials, such as rocks and soils. Here, we investigate multiphase flow in heterogeneous rocks [...]

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

Turbulent flow effects in hydraulic fracture propagation in permeable rock

Evgenii Kanin, Dmitry Garagash, Andrei Osiptsov

Published: 2021-06-14
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy

This chapter considers a model for a radial hydraulic fracture propagation in a permeable, linear elastic rock formation driven by a point source fluid injection. The linear elastic fracture mechanics theory controls the quasi-static propagation. The hydraulic fracturing fluid is slickwater -- pure water solution with polymeric additives which allow reducing the fluid flow friction in the [...]

The importance of threshold in alluvial river channel geometry and dynamics

Colin Phillips, Claire Masteller, Louise Slater, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Water Resource Management

Many cities and settlements are organized around alluvial rivers, which are self-formed channels composed of gravel, sand and mud. Much of the time alluvial river channels are oversized, in that they could accommodate greater water flow; yet during extreme storms they are woefully undersized, and potentially catastrophic flooding can occur. Considering widely varying hydroclimates, sediment [...]

A radial hydraulic fracture driven by a Herschel–Bulkley fluid

Evgenii Kanin, Egor Dontsov, Dmitry Garagash, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Volcanology

We analyse the influence of fluid yield stress on propagation of a radial (penny-shaped) hydraulic fracture in a permeable reservoir. In particular, the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is adopted that includes yield stress and non-linearity of the shear stress. The rock is assumed to be linear elastic, and the fracture is driven by the point source fluid injection with a constant volumetric [...]

The Rayleigh-Haring-Tayfun distribution of wave heights in deep water

Saulo Matusalem da Silva Mendes, Alberto Scotti

Published: 2021-01-17
Subjects: Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Oceanography, Statistical Models

Regarding wave statistics, nearly every known exceeding probability distribution applied to rogue waves has shown disagreement with its peers. More often than not, models and experiments have shown a fair agreement with the Rayleigh distribution whereas others show that the latter underpredicts extreme heights by almost one order of magnitude. Virtually all previous results seem to be [...]

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