Filtering by Subject: Fluid Dynamics

The dynamics of the Campi Flegrei caldera magma chamber.

Chiara Paola Montagna, Paolo Papale, Antonella Longo

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Volcanology

The Campi Flegrei volcanic system is certainly a remarkable case study for what concerns magma chamber dynamics. In fact, its magmatic and volcanic history appears to have been largely driven by chamber processes like fractional crystallization, magma mixing, and volatile degassing. These processes have been intensely investigated with a variety of approaches that are described in many chapters [...]

Calibration, inversion and sensitivity analysis for hydro-morphodynamic models

Mariana C A Clare, Stephan C Kramer, Colin J Cotter, et al.

Published: 2021-08-03
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Partial Differential Equations, Programming Languages and Compilers

The development of reliable, sophisticated hydro-morphodynamic models is essential for protecting the coastal environment against hazards such as flooding and erosion. There exists a high degree of uncertainty associated with the application of these models, in part due to incomplete knowledge of various physical, empirical and numerical closure related parameters in both the hydrodynamic and [...]

Evaluating Short-Term Spatio-Temporal Tropospheric Variability in Multi-Temporal SAR Interferograms Using LES Models

Fengming Hu, Ramon F. Hanssen, Pier Siebesma, et al.

Published: 2021-07-13
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Atmospheric Sciences, Computational Engineering, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Multivariate Analysis, Signal Processing

Atmospheric delay has a significant impact on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, inducing spatial phase errors and decorrelation in extreme weather condition. For Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SAR missions, the atmosphere can be considered as being spatio-temporally frozen due to the short integration time. Geosynchronous (GEO) SAR missions, however, have short revisit times and extensive [...]

Fluid invasion dynamics in porous media with complex wettability and connectivity

Arjen Mascini, Marijn Boone, Stefanie Van Offenwert, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Complex Fluids, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Hydrology, Materials Science and Engineering, Other Materials Science and Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Transport Phenomena

Fluid invasion into porous materials is very common in natural and industrial processes. The fluid invasion dynamics in simple pore networks are governed by a global balance of capillary, viscous and inertial forces. However, significant local variability in this balance may exist inside natural, heterogeneous porous materials. Here, we imaged slow fluid intrusion in two sister samples of a [...]

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

Turbulent flow effects in hydraulic fracture propagation in permeable rock

Evgenii Kanin, Dmitry Garagash, Andrei Osiptsov

Published: 2021-06-14
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy

This chapter considers a model for a radial hydraulic fracture propagation in a permeable, linear elastic rock formation driven by a point source fluid injection. The linear elastic fracture mechanics theory controls the quasi-static propagation. The hydraulic fracturing fluid is slickwater -- pure water solution with polymeric additives which allow reducing the fluid flow friction in the [...]

The importance of threshold in alluvial river channel geometry and dynamics

Colin Phillips, Claire Masteller, Louise Slater, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Water Resource Management

Many cities and settlements are organized around alluvial rivers, which are self-formed channels composed of gravel, sand and mud. Much of the time alluvial river channels are oversized, in that they could accommodate greater water flow; yet during extreme storms they are woefully undersized, and potentially catastrophic flooding can occur. Considering widely varying hydroclimates, sediment [...]

A radial hydraulic fracture driven by a Herschel–Bulkley fluid

Evgenii Kanin, Egor Dontsov, Dmitry Garagash, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Volcanology

We analyse the influence of fluid yield stress on propagation of a radial (penny-shaped) hydraulic fracture in a permeable reservoir. In particular, the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is adopted that includes yield stress and non-linearity of the shear stress. The rock is assumed to be linear elastic, and the fracture is driven by the point source fluid injection with a constant volumetric [...]

The Rayleigh-Haring-Tayfun distribution of wave heights in deep water

Saulo Mendes, Alberto Scotti

Published: 2021-01-17
Subjects: Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Oceanography, Statistical Models

Regarding wave statistics, nearly every known exceeding probability distribution applied to rogue waves has shown disagreement with its peers. More often than not, models and experiments have shown a fair agreement with the Rayleigh distribution whereas others show that the latter underpredicts extreme heights by almost one order of magnitude. Virtually all previous results seem to be [...]

Anatomy of Strike Slip Fault Tsunami-genesis

Ahmed Elbanna, Mohamed Abdelmeguid, Xiao Ma, et al.

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Tsunami generation from earthquake induced seafloor deformations has long been recognized as a major hazard to coastal areas. Strike-slip faulting has generally been believed as insufficient for triggering large tsunamis, except through the generation of submarine landslides. Herein, we demonstrate that ground motions due to strike-slip earthquakes can contribute to the emergence of large [...]

Structure-from-Motion on shallow reefs and beaches: potential and limitations of consumer-grade drones to reconstruct topography and bathymetry

C. Gabriel David, Nina Kohl, Elisa Casella, et al.

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Civil Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Studies, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Hydraulic Engineering, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Environmental Sciences, Remote Sensing

Reconstructing the topography of shallow underwater environments using Structure-from-Motion – Multi View Stereo (SfM-MVS) techniques applied to aerial imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging problem, as it involves non-linear distortions caused by water refraction. This study presents an experiment with aerial photographs collected with a consumer-grade UAV on the [...]

An analytical solution to the Navier–Stokes equation for incompressible flow around a solid sphere

Ahmad Talaei, Timothy J. Garrett

Published: 2020-08-25
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Mechanical Engineering, Other Mechanical Engineering, Partial Differential Equations, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Special Functions

This paper is concerned with obtaining a formulation for the flow past a sphere in a viscous and incompressible fluid, building upon previously obtained well-known solutions that were limited to small Reynolds numbers. Using a method based on a summation of separation of variables, we develop a general analytical solution to the Navier--Stokes equation for the special case of axially symmetric [...]

Rapid heat discharge during deep-sea eruptions generates megaplumes and disperses tephra

Samuel Pegler, David Ferguson

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Volcanology

Deep-marine volcanism drives Earth’s most energetic transfers of heat and mass between the crust and the oceans. Seafloor magmatic activity has been correlated in time with the appearance of massive enigmatic plumes of hydrothermal fluid, known as megaplumes, yet little is known of the primary source and intensity of the hydrothermal energy release that occurs during [...]

Deep spatial transformers for autoregressive data-driven forecasting of geophysical turbulence

Ashesh Kumar Chattopadhyay, Mustafa Mustafa, Pedram Hassanzadeh, et al.

Published: 2020-07-05
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Computer Sciences, Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Mathematics, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

A deep spatial transformer based encoder-decoder model has been developed to autoregressively predict the time evolution of the upper layers stream function of a two-layered quasi-geostrophic (QG) system without any information about the lower layers stream function. The spatio-temporal complexity of QG flow is comparable to the complexity of 500hPa Geopotential Height (Z500) of fully coupled [...]

Nonlinear stochastic dissipation in turbulent geophysical flows

Jean-Michel Brankart

Published: 2020-06-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

The purpose of this study is to further investigate the assumption that geophysical flows can be described and simulated by direct sampling from a dynamically constrained probability distribution, with a reversible formulation of dissipation. This is done by making the probability of the flow decrease with the deviation of the Lagrangian with respect to local equilibrium, and by assuming that [...]


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