Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Geochemistry

Evidence for crustal removal, tectonic erosion and flare-ups from the Japanese evolving forearc sediment provenance

Daniel Pastor-Galán, Christopher Spencer, Tan Furukawa, Tatsuki Tsujimori

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Forearc basins preserve the geologic record relating strictly to arc magmatism. The provenance of forearc sediment can be used to differentiate periods of crustal growth, accretion, and destruction, enhanced magmatism, advancing and retreating subduction slabs, delamination, etc. All these tectonic events systems predict differing degrees of sedimentary reworking of the older forearc units. [...]

Insights into the nature of plume-ridge interaction and outflux of H2O from the Galápagos Spreading Centre

Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson, Sally Gibson

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The flow of high-temperature and compositionally-enriched material between mantle plumes and nearby spreading centres influences up to 30% of the global mid-ocean ridge system and represents a significant, but currently unconstrained, flux of volatiles out of the mantle. Here we present new analyses of H2O, F, Cl and S in basaltic glass chips from an archetypal region of plume-ridge interaction, [...]

234U/230Th coral growth dating yields reliable ages in restricted basins despite anomalous δ234Ui values

Jenni Robertson, Diana Sahy, Gerald P Roberts, Marco Meschis

Published: 2021-02-10
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Late Quaternary coral growth ages from uplifted coastal regions, such as marine terraces and associated palaeoshorelines, are an essential tool used to derive tectonic and fault controlled uplift and deformation rates, and thus contribute to seismic hazard analysis and constrain past global sea levels. Fossil coral growth ages are assessed for reliability based upon whether the δ234Ui (or [...]

Classification, segmentation and correlation of zoned minerals

Tom Sheldrake, Oliver John Higgins

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

Minerals exhibit zoning patterns that can be related to changes in the environment in which they grew. Using statistical methods that have been designed to segment optical images, we have developed a procedure to segment zonation within minerals and correlate these zones between multiple crystals using elemental maps. This allows us to quantify the complexity and variability of chemical zoning [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Quantitative chemical mapping of plagioclase as a tool for the interpretation of volcanic stratigraphy: an example from Saint Kitts, Lesser Antilles

Oliver John Higgins, Tom Sheldrake, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Establishing a quantitative link between magmatic processes occurring at depth and volcanic eruption dynamics is essential to forecast the future behaviour of volcanoes, and to correctly interpret monitoring signals at active centres. Chemical zoning in minerals, which captures successive events or states within a magmatic system, can be exploited for such a purpose. However, to develop a [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, Simon Stephenson

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

Evidence confirms an anthropic origin of Amazonian Dark Earths

Umberto Lombardo, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Hans Huisman, Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira, Charles R Clement, Carlos Francisco Brazão Vieira Alho, Fernando Almeida, Lucia Helena Cunha Anjos, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, George Brown, Marcondes Costa, Luis Cunha, William M Denevan, Ademir Fontana, Bruno Glaser, Susanna Hecht, Klaus A Jarosch, André Braga Junqueira, Thiago Kater, Thomas W Kuyper, Johannes Lehmann, Helena Pinto Lima, Rodrigo Santana Macedo, Marco Madella, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Francis E Mayle, Doyle McKEY, Claide de Paula Moraes, Gaspar Morcote-Ríos, Eduardo Neves, Francisco Pugliese, Fabiano Pupim, Marco F Raczka, Anne Rapp Py-Daniel, Philip Riris, Leonor Rodrigues, Stéphen Rostain, Morgan Schmidt, Myrtle P Shock, Tobias Sprafke, Eduardo Kazuo Tamanaha, Pablo Vidal-Torrado, Ximena S Villagran, Jennifer Watling, Sadie L Weber

Published: 2021-01-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

First described over 120 years ago in Brazil, Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are expanses of dark soil that are exceptionally fertile and contain large quantities of archaeological artefacts. The elevated fertility of the dark and often deep A horizon of ADEs is widely regarded as an outcome of pre-Columbian human influence1. Controversially, in their recent paper Silva et al.2argue that the higher [...]

Integrated magnetotelluric and petrological analysis of felsic magma reservoirs: Insights from Ethiopian rift volcanoes

Friedemann Samrock, Alexander V. Grayver, Olivier Bachmann, Özge Karakas, Martin O Saar

Published: 2021-01-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Geophysical and petrological probes are key to understanding the structure and the thermochemical state of active magmatic systems. Recent advances in laboratory analyses, field investigations and numerical methods have allowed increasingly complex data-constraint models with new insights into magma plumbing systems and melt evolution. However, there is still a need for methods to quantitatively [...]

Mixing-induced chemical disequilibrium creates and modifies basaltic crystal cargoes

David Axford Neave, Philipp Beckmann, Harald Behrens, Francois Holtz

Published: 2021-01-13
Subjects: Geochemistry

Crystal cargoes of oceanic basalts often preserve records of mantle-derived chemical variability that are erased from their carrier melts by magma mixing. However, the impacts of mixing between similarly primitive but chemically variable magmas remain poorly understood despite ubiquitous evidence of chemical variability in primary melt compositions and chemical disequilibrium in erupted crystal [...]

Differences in carbon isotope discrimination between angiosperm and gymnosperm woody plants, and their relationship to atmospheric O2:CO2 ratio, physiology, and environment

Vincent John Hare, Aliénor Lavergne

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology

For most of the Phanerozoic Eon, Earth’s woody vegetation has been dominated by C3 plants – predominantly gymnosperms - with angiosperms only emerging as the dominant plant group as CO2 declined during the Cenozoic (66 Ma onward). At present, differences in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) between angiosperm and gymnosperm plants are relatively small (2–3 ‰), but an increasing body of [...]

VESIcal Part I: An open-source thermodynamic model engine for mixed volatile (H2O-CO2) solubility in silicate melts

Kayla Iacovino, Simon Matthews, Penny E Wieser, Gordon Moore, Florence Bégué

Published: 2020-12-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences, Volcanology

Thermodynamics has been fundamental to the interpretation of geologic data and modeling of geologic systems for decades. However, more recent advancements in computational capabilities and a marked increase in researchers’ accessibility to computing tools has outpaced the functionality and extensibility of currently available modeling tools. Here we present VESIcal (Volatile Equilibria and [...]

Stalagmite carbon isotopes suggest deglacial increase in soil respiration in Western Europe driven by temperature change

Franziska Lechleitner, Christopher C. Day, Oliver Kost, Micah Wilhelm, Negar Haghipour, Gideon M. Henderson, Heather M. Stoll

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Speleology

The temperate region of Western Europe underwent dramatic climatic and environmental change during the last deglaciation. Much of what is known about the terrestrial ecosystem response to deglacial warming stems from pollen preserved in sediment sequences, providing information on vegetation composition. Other ecosystem processes, such as soil respiration, remain poorly constrained over past [...]

Chemistry speedup in reactive transport simulations: purely data-driven and physics-based surrogates

Marco De Lucia, Michael Kühn

Published: 2020-11-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

The computational costs associated with coupled reactive transport simulations are mostly due to the chemical subsystem: replacing it with a pre-trained statistical surrogate is a promising strategy to achieve decisive speedups at price of small accuracy losses and thus to extend the scale of problems which can be handled. We introduce a hierarchical coupling scheme in which ``full [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

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