Filtering by Subject: Geochemistry

The ‘europium anomaly’ in plants: facts and fiction

Olivier Pourret, Antony van der Ent, Andrew Hursthouse, et al.

Published: 2021-09-08
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Rare earth elements (REEs) and normalized REE pattern determined in plant and soil samples represent powerful tools to trace biogeochemical processes during weathering, soil genesis and processes in the rhizosphere, and thus publications reporting rare earth elements and normalized REE pattern in soil systems and plants are increasing rapidly. Generally, a normalized REE pattern allow for the [...]

Assessing pyrite-derived sulfate in the Mississippi River with four years of sulfur and triple-oxygen isotope data

Bryan Killingsworth, Huiming Bao, Issaku Kohl

Published: 2021-09-02
Subjects: Geochemistry

Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO42−) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO42− reduction and re-oxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO42− isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO42− sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and [...]

Centennial- and orbital-scale erosion beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet

Allie Balter-Kennedy, Nicolás E. Young, Jason P. Briner, et al.

Published: 2021-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Glaciology

Erosion beneath glaciers and ice sheets is a fundamental Earth-surface process dictating landscape development, which in turn influences ice-flow dynamics and the climate sensitivity of ice masses. The rate at which subglacial erosion takes place, however, is notoriously difficult to observe because it occurs beneath modern glaciers in a largely inaccessible environment. Here, we present 1) [...]

Oxidized Mantle Sources of HIMU and EM-type Ocean Island Basalts

Robert William Nicklas, Rachel K M Hahn, Lori N Willhite, et al.

Published: 2021-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology

Oxygen fugacity (fO2) is a fundamental variable in igneous petrology with utility as a potential tracer of recycled surficial materials in the sources of mantle-derived lavas. It has been postulated that ocean island basalts (OIB) have elevated fO2 relative to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) owing to more oxidized source regions. To clarify this issue, trace-element systematics of olivine grains [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Dissolution precipitation creep as a process for the strain localisation in mafic rocks

Amicia Lisbeth Lee, Holger Stünitz, Mathieu Soret, et al.

Published: 2021-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Tectonics and Structure

Unaltered mafic rocks consist of mechanically strong minerals (e.g. pyroxene, plagioclase and garnet) that can be deformed by crystal plastic mechanisms only at high temperatures (>800°C). Yet, many mafic rocks do show extensive deformation by non-brittle mechanisms when they have been subjected to lower temperature conditions. In such cases, the deformation typically is assisted by mineral [...]

A strontium isoscape of Italy for provenance studies

Federico Lugli, Anna Cipriani, Luigi Bruno, et al.

Published: 2021-08-06
Subjects: Geochemistry

We present a novel database of environmental and geological 87Sr/86Sr values (n = 1920) from Italy, using literature data and newly analysed samples, for provenance purposes. We collected both bioavailable and non-bioavailable (i.e. rocks and bulk soils) data to attain a broader view of the Sr isotope variability of the Italian peninsula. These data were used to build isotope variability maps, [...]

Impact of Zn Substitution on Fe(II)-induced Ferrihydrite Transformation Pathways

Jinshu Yan, Andrew J. Frierdich, Jeff Catalano

Published: 2021-07-29
Subjects: Geochemistry

Iron oxide minerals are ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and aquatic systems and influence the fate and availability of trace metals. Ferrihydrite is a common iron oxide of nanoparticulate size and poor crystallinity, serving as a thermodynamically unstable precursor to more crystalline phases. While aging induces such phase transformations, these are accelerated by the presence of dissolved [...]

Strengths and limitations of in situ U-Pb titanite petrochronology in polymetamorphic rocks: An example from western Maine, USA.

Jesse B Walters, Alicia M Cruz-Uribe, Won Joon Song, et al.

Published: 2021-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Titanite is a potentially powerful U-Pb petrochronometer that may record metamorphism, metasomatism, and deformation. Titanite may also incorporate significant inherited Pb, the correction for which may introduce inaccuracies and result in geologically ambiguous U-Pb dates. Here we present laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)-derived titanite U-Pb dates and trace [...]

Kyanite petrogenesis in migmatites: Resolving melting and metamorphic signatures

Stacy Elizabeth Phillips, Tom Argles, Clare Warren, et al.

Published: 2021-07-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology

Aluminosilicates (kyanite, sillimanite and andalusite) are useful pressure-temperature (P-T) indicators that can form in a range of rock types through different mineral reactions, including those that involve partial melting. Their involvement in melting reactions means that the presence of aluminosilicates in migmatite mineral assemblages can help to (broadly) constrain the P-T conditions of [...]

Creating a Diamond Open Access community journal for Seismology and Earthquake Science

Martijn van den Ende, Lucile Bruhat, Gareth Funning, et al.

Published: 2021-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

On 24 November 2020, the Springer Nature publishing group announced the introduction of Open Access (OA) articles in Nature and its sibling journals. The corresponding OA publication fee (charged directly to the authors) was set to €9,500/$11,390/£8,290, an amount that may be well out of reach for many researchers. This is especially a problem for researchers in developing countries, early-career [...]

Created by the Monte Peron rock avalanche: Lago di Vedana (Dolomites, Italy) and its sediment record of landscape evolution after a mass wasting event

Bernd Zolitschka, Irene Sophie Polgar, Hermann Behling

Published: 2021-07-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology

The timing of the Monte Peron Landslide is revised to 2890 cal. BP based on a radiocarbon-dated sediment stratigraphy of Lago di Vedana. This age fosters the importance of hydroclimatic triggers in the light of accelerating global warming with a predicted increase of precipitation enhancing the regional predisposition to large landslides. Moreover, a layer enriched in allochthonous organic and [...]

Carbonate polymorphism controlled by microbial iron redox dynamics at a natural CO2 leakage site (Crystal Geyser, Utah)

Julie Cosmidis, Shane O'Reilly, Eric T. Ellison, et al.

Published: 2021-07-07
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology

Crystal Geyser (Utah, USA) is a CO2-rich low-temperature geyser that is studied as a natural analog for CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites. In order to better constrain the biogeochemical processes influencing CaCO3 precipitation at geological CO2 escape sites, we characterized fast-forming iron-rich calcium carbonate pisoids and travertines precipitating from the fluids [...]

Cosmogenic 3He in terrestrial rocks: a review

Pierre-Henri BLARD

Published: 2021-07-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Other Earth Sciences

This review article summarizes the state of the art of cosmogenic 3He (3Hec), with a focus on the most efficient methods for measuring this cosmogenic noble gas in terrestrial samples. After briefly reviewing the scientific applications and production pathways of cosmogenic 3He, I summarize the most important theoretical and practical aspects of 3He analyses and describe the best strategies for [...]

Machine learning thermobarometry and chemometry using amphibole and clinopyroxene: a window into the roots of an arc volcano (Mount Liamuiga, Saint Kitts)

Oliver John Higgins, Tom Sheldrake, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-07-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineral Physics, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The physical and chemical properties of magma govern the eruptive style and behaviour of volcanoes. Many of these parameters are linked to the storage pressure and temperature of the erupted magma, and melt chemistry. However, reliable single-phase thermobarometers and chemometers which can recover this information, particularly using amphibole chemistry, remain elusive. We present a suite of [...]


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