Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Geochemistry

A machine learning approach for prioritizing groundwater testing for per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)

Sarabeth George, Atray Dixit

Published: 2020-10-19
Subjects: Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Risk Analysis, Water Resource Management

Regulatory agencies are beginning to recognize per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) as concerning and bioaccumulative compounds of which the use and environmental burden must be reduced. In the specific context of groundwater management, testing and mitigation strategies are desirable but can be time and cost-intensive processes. As a result, only a fraction of all groundwater wells has had [...]

The composition and weathering of the continents over geologic time

Alex Lipp, Oliver Shorttle, Erik Sperling, Jochen J Brocks, Devon Cole, Peter Crockford, Lucas Del Mouro, Keith Dewing, Stephen Q Dornbos, Joseph F. Emmings

Published: 2020-08-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The composition of continental crust records a history of construction by tectonics and destruction by physical and chemical erosion. Quantitative constraints on how both igneous addition and chemical weathering have modified the continents bulk composition are essential for understanding the evolution of geodynamics and climate. We have extracted temporal trends in sediments protolith [...]

Apatite fission-track dating by LA-Q-ICP-MS mapping

Claire Ansberque, David Chew, Kerstin Drost

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Obtaining accurate and precise apatite fission-track (AFT) ages is dependent on producing plentiful high-quality apatite grains from a sample, ideally with high spontaneous fission-track densities (c. >105 tracks.cm-2). Many natural samples, such as bedrock samples from young orogenic belts or low-grade metamorphic samples with low U contents yield low spontaneous fission-track densities. Such [...]

Marine mineral-catalyzed NO and N2O formation on the anoxic early Earth

Steffen Buessecker, Hiroshi Imanaka, Tucker Ely, Renyu Hu, Stephen J. Romaniello, Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Microbial metabolisms were limited by available terminal electron acceptors in the anoxic environment of the early Archean. However, iron mineral phases in Fe2+-rich (ferruginous) oceans could have catalyzed reactions with abiotically fixed nitrogen leading to the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potentially favorable terminal electron acceptor. We experimentally simulated anoxic [...]

Hydrogeologic and Geochemical Distinctions in Salar Freshwater Brine Systems

Lee Ann Munk, David Boutt, Brendan J. Moran, Sarah McKnight, Jordan Jenckes

Published: 2020-08-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Salar de Atacama contains one of the world’s most important lithium resources and hosts unique and fragile desert ecosystems. Water use issues of the hyper-arid region have placed it at the center of global attention. This investigation is the first robust assessment of a salar system to incorporate geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry of the aquifer system in the inflow, transition zone [...]

Whats down there? The structures, materials and environment of deep-seated tremor and slip

Whitney Maria Behr, Roland Bürgmann

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events occur downdip of the seismogenic zone of numerous subduction megathrusts and plate boundary strike-slip faults. These events represent a fascinating and perplexing mode of fault failure that has greatly broadened our view of earthquake dynamics. In this contribution, we review constraints on the ETS deformation process from both geophysical observations [...]

Fingerprinting fluid source in calcite veins: combining LA-ICP-MS U-Pb calcite dating with trace elements and clumped isotope palaeothermometry

John MacDonald, Jacob Van Der Wal, John Faithfull, Adrian Boyce, Nick Roberts, Ian Winkelstern

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Application of geochemical proxies to vein minerals - particularly calcite - can fingerprint the source of fluids controlling various important geological processes from seismicity to geothermal systems. Determining fluid source, e.g. meteoric, marine, magmatic or metamorphic waters, can be challenging when using only trace elements and stable isotopes as different fluids can have overlapping [...]

Alkenone isotopes show evidence of active carbon concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores as aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations fall below 7 µmolL-1

Marcus Peter Sebastian Badger

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Coccolithophores and other haptophyte algae acquire the carbon required for metabolic processes from the water in which they live. Whether carbon is actively moved across the cell membrane via a carbon concentrating mechanism, or passively through diffusion, is important for haptophyte biochemistry. The possible utilisation of carbon concentrating mechanisms also has the potential to overprint [...]

Seismological Expression of the Iron Spin Crossover in Ferropericlase in the Earth’s Lower Mantle

Grace E. Shephard, Christine Houser, John Hernlund, Juan J. Valencia-Cardona, Reidar Trønnes, Renata Wentzkovitch

Published: 2020-06-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Quantum Physics, Tectonics and Structure

The two most abundant minerals on Earth which together make up over 90% of the Earth’s lower mantle are (Mg,Fe)O-ferropericlase (Fp) and (Mg,Fe)SiO3-bridgmanite (Bm). Iron in Fp undergoes a high-spin to low-spin (HS-LS) crossover that influences density, viscosity, elasticity, thermal conductivity, and elemental partitioning, however, the predicted effects of this transition are not apparent in [...]

Ancient siderites reveal hot and humid super-greenhouse climate

Joep van Dijk, Alvaro Bremer Fernandez, Stefano M Bernasconi, Jeremy Caves-Rugenstein, Simon R Passey, Tim White

Published: 2020-06-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ancient siderites reveal hot and humid super-greenhouse climate

Methane concentrations in streams reveal gas leak discharges in regions of oil, gas, and coal development

Josh Woda, Tao Wen, Jacob Lemon, Virginia Marcon, Charles M. Keeports, Fred Zelt, Luanne Y. Steffy, Susan L. Brantley

Published: 2020-06-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

As natural gas has grown in importance as a global energy source, leakage of methane (CH4) from wells has sometimes been noted. Leakage of this greenhouse gas is important because it affects groundwater quality and, when emitted to the atmosphere, climate. We hypothesized that streams might be most contaminated by CH4 in the northern Appalachian Basin in regions with the longest history of [...]

Notes on statistical age dispersion in fission-track datasets: the chi-square test, annealing variability, and analytical considerations

Kalin T. McDannell

Published: 2020-06-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Notes on fission track statistics, the chi-square test, annealing (i.e. fission track age) variability, and analytical bias aimed at a general Earth scientist audience and for users of fission track data

Ancient siderites reveal hot and humid super-greenhouse climate

Joep van Dijk, Alvaro Bremer Fernandez, Stefano M Bernasconi, Jeremy Caves-Rugenstein, Simon R Passey, Tim White

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Earth’s climate is warming as the rise in atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) contributes to increased radiative forcing. State-of-the-art models calculate a wide range in Earth’s climate sensitivities due to increasing pCO2, and, in particular, the mechanisms responsible for amplification of high latitude temperatures remain highly debated. The geological record provides a means to evaluate the consequences [...]

Sediment redox dynamics in an oligotrophic deep-water lake in Tierra del Fuego: insights from Fe isotopes

Luis Ordóñez, Ina Neugebauer, Camille Thomas, Massimo Chiaradia, Nicolas Waldmann, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Fe speciation and Fe isotopes have been widely used to reconstruct past basin dynamics and water redox conditions. However, sedimentation and early diagenesis of such proxies eventually alter any primary climate signal. In this work, we disentangled the processes occurring at the redox front below the sediment-water interface of a ventilated deep-water lake (Lago Fagnano, Argentina/Chile). A [...]

Description of the continuous nature of organic matter in models of soil carbon dynamics

Julien Sainte-Marie, Matthieu Barrandon, Laurent Sainte-André, Eric Gelhaye, Francis Martin, Delphine Derrien

Published: 2020-05-29
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Geochemistry, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

The understanding of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics has considerably advanced in recent years. It was previously assumed that most SOM consisted of recalcitrant compounds, whereas the emerging view considers SOM as a range of polymers continuously processed into smaller molecules by decomposer enzymes. Mainstreaming these new insights in current models is challenging because of their [...]

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