Filtering by Subject: Geochemistry

Using computer-aided image processing to estimate chemical composition of igneous rocks: A potential tool for large-scale compositional mapping

Julin Zhang, Cin-Ty A. Lee, Michael Farner

Published: 2020-02-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Digital cameras, particularly on smartphones, have led to the proliferation of amateur photographers. Of interest here is the use of smartphone cameras to conduct rapid, low-cost compositional mapping of geologic bedrock, such as plutons and batholiths, in combination with chemical analyses of rocks in the laboratory. This paper discusses some of the challenges in geochemical mapping using image [...]

Chalcophile elements track the fate of sulfur at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

Penny E Wieser, Frances Jenner, Marie Edmonds, John Maclennan, Barbara Kunz

Published: 2020-02-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Chalcophile element concentrations in melt inclusions and matrix glasses may be used to investigate low pressure degassing processes, as well as sulfide saturation during crustal fractionation, and mantle melting. Erupted products from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, record three stages of sulfide saturation (in the mantle, crust, and within lava lakes), separated by episodes of sulfide resorption [...]

Novel insights from Fe-isotopes into the lithological heterogeneity of Ocean Island Basalts and plume-influenced MORBs

Matthew Gleeson, Sally A Gibson, Helen Wiliams

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The extent of lithological heterogeneity in the Earth’s convecting mantle is highly debated. Whilst the presence of pyroxenite in the mantle source regions of Ocean Island Basalts (OIBs) has traditionally been constrained using the minor-element chemistry of olivine phenocrysts, recent studies have shown that the Ni and Mn contents of primitive olivines are influenced by the conditions of mantle [...]

Integrating suspended sediment flux in large alluvial river channels: Application of a synoptic Rouse-based model to the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers

J. Jotautas Baronas, Emily I. Stevenson, Christopher R. Hackney, Stephen Darby, Michael J. Bickle, Robert G. Hilton, Christina S. Larkin, Daniel R. Parsons, Aung Myo Khaing, Edward T. Tipper

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

A large portion of freshwater and sediment is exported to the ocean by a small number of major rivers. Many of these mega-rivers are subject to substantial anthropogenic pressures, which are having a major impact on water and sediment delivery to deltaic ecosystems. Due to hydrodynamic sorting, sediment grain size and composition varies strongly with depth and across the channel in large rivers, [...]

High Attenuation Recycled Materials as landfill liners (the HARM project) – A new concept for improved landfill liner design

Mercedes Regadío, Alex Cargill, Jonathan A. Black, Steven F Thornton

Published: 2020-01-28
Subjects: Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Education, Engineering, Engineering Science and Materials, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geotechnical Engineering, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Soil Science

A new approach in landfill liner design which combines hydraulic containment of leachate with contaminant attenuation to improve the performance of these environmental control systems at landfills is described. The idea is to re-use readily available industrial waste residues (construction and biomass waste) as additives for natural clay liners, wherein the additives have specific properties [...]

Pleistocene - Holocene volcanism at the Karkar geothermal prospect, Armenia

Khachatur Meliksetian, Iain Neill, Dan N. Barfod, Eilidh Milne, Emma Waters, Gevorg Navasardyan, Edmond Grigoryan, Valerie Olive, Nicholas Odling, Arkady Karakhanian

Published: 2020-01-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Quaternary volcanic centres north of the Bitlis-Zagros suture in Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus represent both volcanic hazards and potential or actual geothermal energy resources. Such challenges and opportunities cannot be fully quantified without understanding these volcanoes’ petrogenesis, geochronology and magmatic, tectonic or other eruption triggers. In this preliminary study, we discuss [...]

The role of natural clays in the sustainability of landfill liners

Mercedes Regadío, Jonathan A. Black, Steven F Thornton

Published: 2020-01-10
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geotechnical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Engineered synthetic liners on their own are not the ideal solution to protect land, water and living beings against landfill leachate pollution. Despite their impermeability, engineered liners are susceptible to fail during installation and after a few years of landfill operation, and have no attenuation properties. Conversely, natural clay liners can attenuate leachate pollutants by reactions [...]

Magnetite biomineralization in ferruginous waters and early Earth evolution

Kohen Bauer, James Byrne, Paul Kenward, Rachel Simister, Celine Michiels, Andre Friese, Aurele Vuillemin, Cynthia Henny, Sulung Nomosatryo, Jens Kallmeyer

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Burial of large quantities of magnetite (Fe(II)Fe(III)2O4) in iron formations (IFs) likely contributed to the protracted oxidation of Earth’s surface during the Precambrian Eons. Magnetite can form through a diversity of biological and abiotic pathways and its preservation in IFs may thus be variably interpreted as the result of some combination of these processes. Such interpretations thus give [...]

The Origin of Continental Carbonates in Andean Salars: A Multi-Tracer Geochemical Approach in Laguna Pastos Grandes (Bolivia)

Elodie Muller, Eric C. Gaucher, Christophe Durlet, Jean-Sébastien Moquet, Manuel Moreira, Virgile Rouchon, Pascale Louvat, Gérard Bardoux, Sonia Noirez, Cédric Bougeault

Published: 2020-01-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In continental volcanic settings, abundant carbonate precipitation can occur with atypical facies compared to marine settings. The (bio-)chemical processes responsible for their development and early diagenesis are typically complex and not fully understood. In the Bolivian Altiplano, Laguna Pastos Grandes hosts a 40-km2 carbonate platform with a great diversity of facies and provides an ideal [...]

Effects of aseismic ridge subduction on geochemistry of frontal arc magmas

Massimo Chiaradia

Published: 2019-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Aseismic ridge subduction is considered to exert major controls on volcanic activity, formation of porphyry Cu-Au deposits and the generation of juvenile Earth’s crust. Yet, there are almost no studies that have addressed in a systematic way the effects of this process on the geochemistry of arc magmas. Here we explore the role of the subducted aseismic Carnegie ridge on modulating frontal arc [...]

Open Access publishing practice in Geochemistry: current state and look to the future

Olivier Pourret, Andrew Hursthouse, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, Karen Johannesson, Haiyan Liu, Marc Poujol, Romain Tartèse, Eric D. van Hullebusch, Wiche O

Published: 2019-12-09
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Open Access (OA) describes the free, unrestricted access to and re-use of research articles. Recently, a new wave of interest, debate, and practice surrounding OA publishing has emerged. In this paper, we provide a simple overview of the trends in OA practice in the broad field of geochemistry. Characteristics of the approach such as whether or not an article processing charge (APC) exists, what [...]

U-Th dating of lake sediments: Lessons from the 700 kyr sediment record of Lake Junín, Peru

Christine Y Chen, David McGee, Arielle Woods, Liseth Pérez, Robert George Hatfield, R. Lawrence Edwards, Hai Cheng, Blas Lorenzo Valero-Garcés, Sophie Lehmann, Joseph S Stoner

Published: 2019-12-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

*----- NOTE: This is a peer reviewed preprint of a paper accepted in Quaternary Science Reviews as of June 8, 2020 -----* Deep sediment cores from long-lived lake basins are fundamental records of paleoenvironmental history, but the power of these reconstructions has often been limited by poor age control. Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating has the potential to fill a gap in current geochronological [...]

Ferruginous oceans during OAE1a and the collapse of the seawater sulphate reservoir

Kohen Bauer, Cinzia Bottini, Sergei Katsev, Mark Jellinek, Roger Francois, Elisabetta Erba, Sean Crowe

Published: 2019-12-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

At 28 mM seawater sulphate is one of the largest oxidant pools at Earth’s surface and its concentration in the oceans is generally assumed to have remained above 5 mM since the early Phanerozoic (400 Ma). Intermittent and potentially global oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are accompanied by changes in seawater sulphate concentrations and signal perturbations in the Earth system associated with major [...]

Abrupt Arctic Warming Repeatedly Led to Prolonged Drought and Glacial Retreat in the Tropical Andes During the Last Glacial Cycle

Arielle Woods, Don Rodbell, Mark Abbott, Robert George Hatfield, Christine Y Chen, Sophie Lehmann, David McGee, Nick Weidhaas, Pedro Tapia, Blas Lorenzo Valero-Garcés

Published: 2019-12-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

A sediment core spanning the last ~50 ka from Lake Junín (Peru) in the tropical Andes reveals abrupt climatic events on a centennial-millennial time scale. These events, which involved the near-complete disappearance of glaciers below 4700 masl in the eastern Andean cordillera and major reductions in the level of Peru’s second largest lake, occurred during the abrupt warmings recorded in [...]

Revised timing of Cenozoic Atlantic incursions and changing hinterland sediment sources during southern Patagonian orogenesis

Julie Fosdick, Rebecca A VanderLeest, Enrique J Bostelmann, Joel S Leonard, Raúl Ugalde Peralta, Michael Griffin, José Luis Oyarzún

Published: 2019-11-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology data from the Cenozoic Magallanes-Austral Basin in Argentina and Chile ~51°S establish a revised chronostratigraphy of Paleocene – Miocene foreland synorogenic strata and document the rise and subsequent isolation of hinterland sources in the Patagonian Andes from the continental margin. The upsection loss of zircons derived from the hinterland Paleozoic and [...]


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