Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Geology

Controls on grain size distribution in an ancient sand sea

GABRIEL BERTOLINI, Adrian Hartley, Juliana Marques, et al.

Published: 2022-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Grain size distribution in deserts is driven by a combination of autogenic controls such as grain abrasion and sorting due to wind transport and allogenic controls such as provenance and spatial changes in wind-direction. Downwind grain-size trends in present day sand seas display contrasting results. For example, the Namib and Hexi Corridor sand seas show broad downwind fining and sorting [...]

Pervasive carbonation of peridotite to listvenite (Semail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman): clues from iron partitioning and chemical zoning

Thierry Decrausaz, Marguerite Godard, Manuel D. Menzel, et al.

Published: 2022-06-22
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology

Earth’s long-term cycling of carbon is regulated from mid-ocean ridges to convergent margins by mass transfers involving mantle rocks. Here we examine the conversion of peridotite into listvenite (magnesite+quartz) occurring along the basal thrust of the Semail Ophiolite (Fanja, Sultanate of Oman). At the outcrop scale, this transformation defines reaction fronts, from serpentinized peridotites, [...]

Ascent rates of 3D fractures driven by a finite batch of buoyant fluid

Timothy Davis, Eleonora Rivalta, Delphine Smittarello, et al.

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Glaciology, Mechanics of Materials, Volcanology

Propagation of fluid-filled fractures by fluid buoyancy is important in a variety of settings, from magmatic dykes and veins to water-filled crevasses in glaciers. Industrial hydro-fracturing utilises fluid-driven fractures to increase the permeability of rock formations; the effect of buoyancy on fracture pathways in this context is typically neglected. Analytical approximations for the buoyant [...]

Friction law for earthquake nucleation: size doesn’t matter

Yuntao Ji, André Niemeijer, Dawin Baden, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

A central question in modeling induced and natural earthquake nucleation is whether fault frictional properties measured in the laboratory are applicable to nature. A laboratory fault is generally just a few centimeters in length-width scale, while natural faults can be hundreds of meters to kilometers in extent. It is unknown whether laboratory fault friction data are applicable even to mesh [...]

Understanding Sampling Bias in the Global Heat Flow Compilation

Tobias Stål, Anya M. Reading, Sven Fuchs, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Geothermal heat flow is commonly inferred from the gradient of temperature values in boreholes. Such measurements are expensive and logistically challenging in remote locations and, therefore, often targeted to regions of economic interest. As a result, measurements are not distributed evenly. Some tectonic, geologic and even topographic settings are overrepresented in global heat flow [...]

Diagenetic priming of submarine landslides in ooze-rich substrates

Nan Wu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Michael Andrew Clare, et al.

Published: 2022-05-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology

Oozes are the most widespread deep-sea sediment in the global ocean, but very little is known about how changes in their physical properties impact slope stability and related geohazards. Characterisation of the conditions that prime ooze rich slides has been hindered, as physical properties of sediments are modified by the effects of mass wasting. We here use 3D seismic reflection, geochemical, [...]

Paleoclimate controls on lithium enrichment in Great Basin Pliocene-Pleistocene lacustrine clays

Catherine A Gagnon, Kristina Butler, Elizabeth Gaviria, et al.

Published: 2022-05-29
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Environmental Sciences, Sedimentology

Terminal lakes are important archives of continental hydroclimate and in some cases contain important economic resources. Here we present an ~3.6 Myr lacustrine carbonate carbon and oxygen stable isotope record from a Great Basin continental drill core. We pair these measurements with bulk lithium concentrations to reveal a relationship between past climate and lithium enrichment in authigenic [...]

How to drain a megalake: Comments on a study by Palcu et al. (2021) Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471.

Michal Šujan, Natália Hudáčková, Imre Magyar

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

In a recent paper by Palcu et al. (2021: Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471), the Cape Panagia section on the Taman peninsula (Russian Black Sea) was dated using magnetostratigraphy, in order to calibrate the timing of previously published regressions of the Paratethys megalake. The authors of the paper claim that this “largest megalake in the geological record” experienced four major [...]

Salt-detached strike-slip faulting, Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola

Aurio Erdi, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2022-05-25
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

We here use a 3D seismic reflection dataset from Outer Kwanza Basin, offshore Angola to examine the structure and growth of salt-detached strike-slip faults. The faults occur in four, up to 13.8 km-long, NE-trending arrays that are physically linked by restraining bend and releasing stepovers, and which presently overlie Aptian salt and base-salt relief related to pre-salt faulting. We suggest [...]

Using Synthetic Data Trained Convolutional Neural Network For Predicting Sub-Resolution Thin Layers From Seismic Data

Dongfang Qu, Klaus Mosegaard, Runhai Feng, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

A very unconventional hydrocarbon play: the Mesoproterozoic Velkerri Formation of Northern Australia

Grant Cox, Alan S. Collins, Amber J.M. Jarrett, et al.

Published: 2022-05-16
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The ca. 1.5–1.3 Ga Roper Group of the greater McArthur Basin is a component of one of the most extensive Precambrian hydrocarbon-bearing basins preserved in the geological record, recently assessed as containing 429 million barrels of oil and eight trillion cubic feet of gas (in place). It was deposited in an intra-cratonic sea, referred to here as the McArthur-Yanliao Gulf. The Velkerri [...]

Hydraulic fracturing: Laboratory evidence of the brittle-to-ductile transition with depth

Runhua Feng, Shuo Liu, Joel Sarout, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Petroleum Engineering

Understand the propagation of hydraulic fracture (HF) is essential for effectively stimulating the hydrocarbon production of unconventional reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing may induce distinct failure modes within the formation, depending on the rheology of the solid and the in-situ stresses. A brittle-to-ductile transition of HF is thus anticipated with increasing depth, although only scarce [...]

Complex fault system revealed from 3-D seismic reflection data with deep learning and fault network analysis

Thilo Wrona, Indranil Pan, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Understanding where normal faults are is critical to an accurate assessment of seismic hazard, the successful exploration for and production of natural (including low-carbon) resources, and for the safe subsurface storage of CO2. Our current knowledge of normal fault systems is largely derived from seismic reflection data imaging intra-continental rifts and continental margins. However, [...]

The CREp 36Cl exposure age calculator: development version “dev”

Irene Schimmelpfennig, Pierre-Henri BLARD, Jim Tesson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is currently the only in situ cosmogenic nuclide applicable in carbonates, Ca- and K-rich feldspars and aphyric silicate rocks. Because the production reactions of 36Cl are more numerous and complex than those of other cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 3He), comprehensive and user-friendly calculators are essential for routine application of 36Cl to Earth surface research [...]

Arctic sediment routing during the Triassic - sinking the Arctic Atlantis

Albina Gilmullina, Tore Grane Klausen, Anthony George Doré, et al.

Published: 2022-05-02
Subjects: Geology

Opening of the Arctic Ocean has been the subject of much debate, and the placement of terranes in Early Mesozoic remains a crucial part of this important discussion. Several continental terranes complicate the paleogeographic reconstruction. One such terrane is Crockerland, which has been inferred to explain sediment distribution in the Arctic throughout the Mesozoic. However, the Triassic [...]

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