Filtering by Subject: Geology

A heuristic approach for modeling the surface histories of cratons using apatite fission-track "super samples''

Kalin T. McDannell, Paul B. O'Sullivan, Kerry Gallagher, et al.

Published: 2022-01-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Understanding the long-term erosion and burial history of cratons is often challenging due to the incompleteness of the geologic record. Low-temperature thermochronology has been used to provide constraints on these histories and apatite fission-track dating has long been one of the preferred methods. In terms of analytical protocol the convention has been to measure ~100 confined track lengths [...]

Insights into Magma Storage Beneath a Frequently Erupting Arc Volcano (Villarrica, Chile) from Unsupervised Machine Learning Analysis of Mineral Compositions

Felix Boschetty, David Ferguson, Joaquín Cortés, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

A key method to investigate magma dynamics is the analysis of the crystal cargoes carried by erupted magmas. These cargoes may comprise crystals that crystallize in different parts of the magmatic system (throughout the crust) and/or different times. While an individual eruption likely provides a partial view of the sub-volcanic plumbing system, compiling data from multiple eruptions builds a [...]

Experimental multiblast craters and ejecta — seismo-acoustics, jet characteristics, craters, and ejecta deposits and implications for volcanic explosions

Ingo Sonder, Alison H. Graettinger, Tracianne B. Neilsen, et al.

Published: 2022-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Blasting experiments were performed that investigate multiple explosions that occur in quick succession in the ground and their effects on host material and atmosphere. Such processes are known to occur during volcanic eruptions at various depths, lateral locations, and energies. The experiments follow a multi-instrument approach in order to observe phenomena in the atmosphere and in the ground, [...]

Calibrating the temporal and spatial dynamics of the Ediacaran - Cambrian radiation of animals

Fred Toby Bowyer, Andrey Yu Zhuravlev, Rachel Wood, et al.

Published: 2021-12-31
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Paleontology, Stratigraphy

The Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, which incorporates the radiation of animals, lacks a robust global temporal and spatial framework, resulting in major uncertainty in the evolutionary dynamics of this critical radiation and its relationship to changes in palaeoenvironmental geochemistry. We first present a new δ13Ccarb composite reference curve for the Ediacaran Nama Group of southern Namibia, [...]

Structural traps and seals for expanding CO2 storage in the northern Horda Platform, North Sea

Johnathon Lee Osmond, Mark Joseph Mulrooney, Nora Holden, et al.

Published: 2021-12-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The maturation of geological CCS along the Norwegian Continental Shelf is ongoing in the Norwegian North Sea, however, more storage sites are needed to reach climate mitigation goals by 2050. In order to augment the Aurora site and expand CO2 storage in the northern Horda Platform, regional traps and seals must be assessed to better understand the area’s potential. Here, we leverage wellbore and [...]

GANSim-3D for conditional geomodelling: theory and field application

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou, et al.

Published: 2021-12-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computational Engineering, Geology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Theory and Algorithms, Water Resource Management

Geomodelling of subsurface reservoirs is important for water resources, hydrocarbon exploitation, and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Traditional geostatistics-based approaches cannot abstract complex geological patterns and are thus not able to simulate very realistic earth models. We present a Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)-based 3D reservoir simulation framework, GANSim-3D, which can [...]

A snapshot of the earliest stages of normal fault development

Ahmed Alghuraybi, Rebecca E. Bell, Chris Jackson

Published: 2021-12-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Despite decades of study, models for the growth of normal faults lack a temporal framework within which to understand how these structures accumulate displacement and lengthen through time. Here, we use borehole and high-quality 3D seismic reflection data from offshore Norway to quantify the lateral (0.2-1.8 mmyr-1) and vertical (0.004-0.02 mmyr-1) propagation rates (averaged over 12-44 Myr) for [...]

Tectonic controls on geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Argentina)

Fernanda Silva Santos, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Mauricio Barcelos Haag, et al.

Published: 2021-12-16
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanoes are among the most common volcanic landforms on Earth. The morphology and distribution of small volcanoes can provide important information about eruption dynamics and tectonics. The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (CSVZ) comprises one of the most active magmatic regions on Earth. Characterized by the presence of polygenetic volcanoes and calderas in a complex tectonic [...]

Hermann Löns’ “Quintär” – an early approach to the geological stratigraphy of the Age of Humans and its significance in geosciences

Jahn Jochen Hornung

Published: 2021-12-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Stratigraphy

In 1908, Hermann Löns outlined the concept of a Quintär” (“Quintary period”) to describe geological and biological manifestations of the Age of Humans. His definition of the “Quintary” consisted of two components: a lithostratigraphic (“Quintary deposits” or “Quintary stratum”), and a faunistic (“Quintary fauna”) one. With a view on the stratigraphic component, Löns already anticipated the [...]

Improving Urban Seismic Risk Estimates for Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Incorporating Recent Geological Knowledge of Hazards

Ruth Amey, John Elliott, C. Scott Watson, et al.

Published: 2021-12-07
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Many cities are built on or near active faults, which pose seismic hazard and risk to the urban population. This risk is exacerbated by city expansion, which may obscure signs of active faulting. Here we estimate the risk to Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan, due to realistic earthquake scenarios based on historic earthquakes in the region and improved knowledge of the active faulting. We use previous [...]

Developing an internally consistent methodology for K-feldspar MAAD TL thermochronology

Nathan David Brown, Edward John Rhodes

Published: 2021-12-06
Subjects: Geology

Luminescence thermochronology and thermometry can quantify recent changes in rock exhumation rates and rock surface temperatures, but these methods require accurate determination of several kinetic parameters. For K-feldspar thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves, which comprise overlapping signals of different thermal stability, it is challenging to develop measurements that capture these parameter [...]

Evaluating essential features of proppant transport at engineering scales combining field measurements with machine learning algorithms

Xiaoyu Wang, Lei Hou, Xueyu Geng, et al.

Published: 2021-12-06
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Hydraulic Engineering, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Sustainability

The characterization of the proppant transport at a field-engineering scale is still challenging due to the lack of direct subsurface measurements. Features that control the proppant transport may link the experimental and numerical observations to the practical operations at a field scale. To improve the numerical and laboratory simulations, we propose a machine-learning-based workflow to [...]

Can machine learning improve carbon storage? Synergies of deep learning, uncertainty quantification and intelligent process control

Thilo Wrona, Indranil Pan

Published: 2021-12-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sustainability

As we transition from fossil fuel to renewable energy, negative emission technologies, such ascarbon capture and storage (CCS), can help us reduce CO2 emissions. Effective CO2 storage requires: (1) detailed site characterization, (2) regular, integrated risk assessment, and (3) flexible design and operation. We believe that recent advances in machine learning coupled with uncertainty [...]

Shallow depth, substantial change: fluid-metasomatism causes major compositional modifications of subducted volcanics (Mariana forearc)

Elmar Albers, John W Shervais, Christian T Hansen, et al.

Published: 2021-12-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology

Mass transfer at shallow subduction levels and its ramifications for deeper processes remain incompletely constrained. New insights are provided by ocean island basalt (OIB) clasts from the Mariana forearc that experienced subduction to up to ~25–30 km depth and up to blueschist-facies metamorphism; thereafter, the clasts were recycled to the forearc seafloor via serpentinite mud volcanism. We [...]

Estuarine-deltaic controls on coastal carbon burial in the western Ganges-Brahmaputra delta over the last 5,000 years

Rory Patrick Flood, Margaret Georgina Milne, Graeme T Swindles, et al.

Published: 2021-11-26
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Statistics and Probability, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability, Water Resource Management

The Ganges–Brahmaputra fluvial system drains the Himalayas and is one of the largest sources of terrestrial biosphere carbon to the ocean. It represents a major continental reservoir of CO2 associated with c. 1–2 billion tons of sediment transported each year. Shallow coastal environments receive substantial inputs of terrestrial carbon (900 Tg C yr−1), with allochthonous carbon capture on [...]


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