Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Geology

Stalagmite evidence for Early Holocene multidecadal hydroclimate variability in Ethiopia

Asfawossen Asrat, Andy Baker, Wuhui Duan, et al.

Published: 2021-09-22
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Speleology

A multiproxy oxygen and carbon isotope (d13C and d18O), growth rate and trace element stalagmite paleoenvironmental record is presented for the Early Holocene from Achere Cave, Ethiopia. The annually laminated stalagmite grew from 10.6 to 10.4 ka, and from 9.7 to 9.0 ka with a short hiatus at ~9.25 ka. Using oxygen and carbon isotopic, and cave monitoring data, we demonstrate that the stalagmite [...]

Analogue modelling of the interplay between gravity gliding and spreading across complex rift topography in the Santos Basin

Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Oriol Ferrer, Christopher A-L Jackson, et al.

Published: 2021-09-17
Subjects: Geology, Tectonics and Structure

The Santos Basin presents a complex and controversial evolution and distribution of salt tectonics domains. The controversies revolve mainly around the kinematically- linked Albian Gap and São Paulo Plateau. The Albian Gap is a ~450 km long and 60 km wide feature characterized by a post-Albian counter-regional rollover overlying depleted Aptian salt and in which the Albian is absent. The São [...]

High interstadial sea levels over the past 420ka from Huon terraces (Papua New Guinea)

Gino de Gelder, Laurent Husson, Anne-Morwenn Pastier, et al.

Published: 2021-09-06
Subjects: Climate, Geology, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Tectonics and Structure

The history of sea level across the Quaternary is essential for assessing past and future climate and geodynamics. Global sea-level reconstructions are typically derived from oxygen isotope curves, but require calibration with geological constraints that are particularly scarce prior to the last glacial cycle (>130 ka). The exceptionally well-preserved coral reef terrace sequence in the Huon [...]

Oxidized Mantle Sources of HIMU and EM-type Ocean Island Basalts

Robert William Nicklas, Rachel K M Hahn, Lori N Willhite, et al.

Published: 2021-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology

Oxygen fugacity (fO2) is a fundamental variable in igneous petrology with utility as a potential tracer of recycled surficial materials in the sources of mantle-derived lavas. It has been postulated that ocean island basalts (OIB) have elevated fO2 relative to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) owing to more oxidized source regions. To clarify this issue, trace-element systematics of olivine grains [...]

Fault rock heterogeneity produces fault weakness and promotes unstable slip

John Bedford, Daniel Faulkner, Nadia Lapusta

Published: 2021-08-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Geological heterogeneity is abundant in crustal fault zones; however, its role in controlling the mechanical behaviour of faults is poorly constrained. Here, we present laboratory friction experiments on laterally heterogeneous faults, with patches of strong, rate-weakening quartz gouge and weak, rate-strengthening clay gouge. The experiments show that the heterogeneity leads to a significant [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Reflection Seismic Thermometry

Arka Dyuti Sarkar, Mads Huuse

Published: 2021-08-12
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

The North Viking Graben (NVG) is part of the mature North Sea Basin petroleum province and designated as a major carbon storage basin for NW Europe. It has been extensively drilled over five decades with an abundance of well and seismic data in the public domain. As such it serves as an excellent setting to demonstrate the efficacy of a reflection seismic data led approach to predicting [...]

The role of surface processes in basin inversion and breakup unconformity

Luke Mondy, Patrice Rey, Guillaume Duclaux

Published: 2021-08-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

At divergent plate boundaries, extensional tectonics lead to subsidence, continental rifting and the formation of continental margins. Yet, within this extensional context, transient compressional structures (stress inversion) and phases of uplift (depth inversion) are frequently recorded with no corresponding change in plate motion. Changes in gravitational potential energy during the rifting [...]

SALT WELDING DURING CANOPY ADVANCE AND SHORTENING IN THE GREEN CANYON AREA, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

Christopher A-L Jackson, Sian Evans, Turki Alshammasi

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Welds form due to the tectonically-induced thinning and/or dissolution of salt, with their composition and completeness thought to at least partly reflect their structural position within the salt-tectonic system. Despite their importance as seals or migration pathways for accumulations of hydrocarbons and CO2, we have relatively few examples of drilled subsurface welds; such examples would allow [...]

The world’s second-largest, recorded landslide event: lessons learnt from the landslides triggered during and after the 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake

Hakan Tanyas, Kevin Hill, Luke Mahoney, et al.

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Other Earth Sciences

Widespread landslide events provide rare but valuable opportunities to investigate the spatial and size distributions of landslides in relation to seismic, climatic, geological and morphological factors. This study presents a unique event inventory for the co-seismic landslides induced by the February 25, 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake as well as its post-seismic counterparts including [...]

Characterizing and Correcting Phase Biases in Short-Term, Multilooked Interferograms

Yasser Maghsoudi, Andy Hooper, Tim J Wright, et al.

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is widely used to measure deformation of the Earth’s surface over large areas and long time periods. A common strategy to overcome coherence loss in long-term interferograms is to use multiple multilooked shorter interferograms, which can cover the same time period but maintain coherence. However, it has recently been shown that using this strategy [...]

Strengths and limitations of in situ U-Pb titanite petrochronology in polymetamorphic rocks: An example from western Maine, USA.

Jesse B Walters, Alicia M Cruz-Uribe, Won Joon Song, et al.

Published: 2021-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Titanite is a potentially powerful U-Pb petrochronometer that may record metamorphism, metasomatism, and deformation. Titanite may also incorporate significant inherited Pb, the correction for which may introduce inaccuracies and result in geologically ambiguous U-Pb dates. Here we present laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)-derived titanite U-Pb dates and trace [...]

Kyanite petrogenesis in migmatites: Resolving melting and metamorphic signatures

Stacy Elizabeth Phillips, Tom Argles, Clare Warren, et al.

Published: 2021-07-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology

Aluminosilicates (kyanite, sillimanite and andalusite) are useful pressure-temperature (P-T) indicators that can form in a range of rock types through different mineral reactions, including those that involve partial melting. Their involvement in melting reactions means that the presence of aluminosilicates in migmatite mineral assemblages can help to (broadly) constrain the P-T conditions of [...]

VESIcal Part II: A critical approach to volatile solubility modelling using an open-source Python3 engine

Penny E Wieser, Kayla Iacovino, Simon Matthews, et al.

Published: 2021-07-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

Accurate models of H2O and CO2 solubility in silicate melts are vital for understanding volcanic plumbing systems. These models are used to estimate the depths of magma storage regions from melt inclusion volatile contents, investigate the role of volatile exsolution as a driver of volcanic eruptions, and track the degassing paths followed by magma ascending to the surface. However, despite the [...]

Creating a Diamond Open Access community journal for Seismology and Earthquake Science

Martijn van den Ende, Lucile Bruhat, Gareth Funning, et al.

Published: 2021-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

On 24 November 2020, the Springer Nature publishing group announced the introduction of Open Access (OA) articles in Nature and its sibling journals. The corresponding OA publication fee (charged directly to the authors) was set to €9,500/$11,390/£8,290, an amount that may be well out of reach for many researchers. This is especially a problem for researchers in developing countries, early-career [...]

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