Filtering by Subject: Geology

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

Architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Coralline Limestone formation, Malta – implications for Eastern Mediterranean restriction prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

Or M. Bialik, Raymond Zammit, Aaron Micallef

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Eastern and Western Mediterranean are separated by an elevated plateau that regulates water exchange between these two basins. The Maltese archipelago, situated atop this topographic high, offers a unique window into the evolution of this plateau in the lead up to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Upper Coralline Limestone formation was deposited between the late Tortonian and the [...]

Boron isotopic signatures of melt inclusions from North Iceland reveal recycled material in the Icelandic mantle source

Margaret Hartley, Oliver Shorttle, Cees-Jan de Hoog

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Trace element and volatile heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle is inuenced by the recycling of oceanic lithosphere through subduction. Oceanic island basalts commonly have high concentrations of volatiles compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, but the extent to which this enrichment is linked to recycled mantle domains remains unclear. Boron is an ideal tracer of recycled subducted material, [...]

Segment tip geometry of sheet intrusions, II: Field observations of tip geometries and a model for evolving emplacement mechanisms

Tara Louise Stephens, Richard J Walker, David Healy, Alodie Bubeck

Published: 2020-11-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

Igneous sheet intrusions are segmented across several orders of magnitude, with segment tip geometry commonly considered indicative of the propagation mechanism (brittle or non-brittle). Proposed propagation mechanisms are inferred to represent host rock mechanical properties during initial magma emplacement; typically, these models do not account for segment sets that show a range of tip [...]

Influence of ductile substrates and layer thickness on the spacing and topology of layer bound fault systems

Mark Ireland, Chris K Morley, Richard Davies

Published: 2020-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Polygonal fault systems are extraordinary features of many fine grained sedimentary succession and have been described from a significant number of deepwater sedimentary basins over the last two decades. Their formation represents an important mechanism by which fine grained sediments compact often resulting in a variety of complex patterns for which several controlling factors have been [...]

Salt-magma interactions influence intrusion distribution and salt tectonics in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

Craig Magee, Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Amber Madden-Nadeau, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Webster Mohriak

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Many sedimentary basins host thick evaporite (salt) deposits. Some of these basins also host extensive igneous intrusion networks. It thus seems inevitable that, in some locations, magma will interact with salt. Yet how interaction between these materials may influence salt tectonics or magma emplacement, particularly at the basin-scale, remains poorly understood. We use 3D seismic reflection [...]

A single multi-scale and multi-sourced semi-automated lineament detection technique for detailed structural mapping with applications to geothermal energy exploration

Christopher Mark Yeomans, Hester Claridge, Alexander Hudson, Robin K Shail, Cees Willems, Matthew Eyre, Chris Harker

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

A multitude of semi-automated algorithms, many incorporating multi-sourced datasets into a single analysis, now exist. However, these operate at a fixed pixel resolution resulting in multi-sourced methods being limited by the largest input pixel size. Multi-scale lineament detection circumvents this issue and allows increased levels of detail to be captured. In this study we present a [...]

Modeling the impact of bioturbation and species abundance upon discrete-depth individual foraminifera analysis used in ENSO-type climate reconstructions.

Bryan C. Lougheed, Brett Metcalfe

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology

We use a single foraminifera enabled, holistic hydroclimate-to-sediment transient modelling approach to fundamentally evaluate the efficacy of discrete-depth individual foraminifera analysis (IFA) for reconstructing past sea surface temperature (SST) distribution, a method that has been used for reconstructing El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The computer model environment allows us to [...]

River Planform Extraction From High-Resolution SAR Images Via Generalised Gamma Distribution Superpixel Classification

Odysseas Pappas, Nantheera Anantrasirichai, Alin Achim, Byron Adams

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Computer Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology

The extraction of river planforms from remotely sensed satellite images is a task of crucial importance to many applications such as land planning, water resource monitoring or flood prediction. In this paper we present a novel framework for the extraction of rivers from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, based on superpixel segmentation and subsequent classification. Superpixel segmentation [...]

Global Systematics of Copper in Arc Magmas: A Big Data Approach

Nicholas Dewitt Barber, Marie Edmonds, Frances Jenner, Andreas Audétat, Helen Williams

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Copper, sourced from porphyry deposits formed in arc settings, is an increasingly scarce yet critical resource. The processes that shape the copper contents of magmas remain poorly understood. One theory is that magmas must be copper-rich in order to form porphyry deposits. Mature arcs have up to now played an outsized role in shaping existing models of copper systematics in magmas. Here we take [...]

Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning

Lucas Pereira, Max Frenzel, Duong Huu Hoang, Raimon Tolosana-Delgado, Martin Rudolph, Jens Gutzmer

Published: 2020-08-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Mining Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Flotation kinetic studies are essential for predicting, understanding, and optimizing the selective recovery of an ore through flotation. Recently, much effort has been put into incorporating intrinsic ore properties in the understanding of their flotation behavior. Particle-based characterization systems (e.g. automated mineralogy) drove much of this development. However, the currently available [...]

Apatite fission-track dating by LA-Q-ICP-MS mapping

Claire Ansberque, David Chew, Kerstin Drost

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Obtaining accurate and precise apatite fission-track (AFT) ages is dependent on producing plentiful high-quality apatite grains from a sample, ideally with high spontaneous fission-track densities (c. >105 Many natural samples, such as bedrock samples from young orogenic belts or low-grade metamorphic samples with low U contents yield low spontaneous fission-track densities. Such [...]

Fernandes and Roberts (2020) - preprint

Victoria Milanez Fernandes, Gareth Roberts

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

There are many geoscience problems for which constraining histories of uplift or subsidence of Earth’s surface is of direct or indirect importance, for example reconstructing tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, sedimentary and chemical flux, biodiversity, glacio-eustasy and climate change. The least equivocal constraints on timing and amplitude of vertical motions on geological [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]


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