Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Geology

INCORPORATING INFORMATION ON VARYING SEDIMENTATION RATES INTO PALEONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES

Niklas Hohmann

Published: 2021-02-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Stratigraphic changes in the clustering of first or last taxon occurrences are a joint expression of evolutionary, ecological, taphonomic, and sedimentological processes. Sedimentation rates control the degree of sedimentary dilution and condensation and thus alter the time contained in a given thickness of sediment. However, it remains poorly explored quantitatively how distinct the [...]

Shallow or deep? A reinterpretation of the Rifian Corridor’s unique sandy contourites

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood, Mohammed Najib Zaghloul, Michiel Arts, Fredrick Sarg

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

This study proposes that sandstone layers exposed in the Fez-Meknes region of Northern Morocco (Ben Allou (Sidi Chaded) and El Adergha localities), have been misinterpreted as unique examples of geostrophically-driven, deep marine (150 - 400 m water depth) sandy contourites. Instead, our independent paleontological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic analyses show that these sandstones represent [...]

Evidence for crustal removal, tectonic erosion and flare-ups from the Japanese evolving forearc sediment provenance

Daniel Pastor-Galán, Christopher Spencer, Tan Furukawa, Tatsuki Tsujimori

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Forearc basins preserve the geologic record relating strictly to arc magmatism. The provenance of forearc sediment can be used to differentiate periods of crustal growth, accretion, and destruction, enhanced magmatism, advancing and retreating subduction slabs, delamination, etc. All these tectonic events systems predict differing degrees of sedimentary reworking of the older forearc units. [...]

A record of plume-induced plate rotation triggering seafloor spreading and subduction initiation

Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen, Bernhard Steinberger, Carl Guilmette, Marco Maffione, Derya Gürer, Kalijn Peters, Alexis Plunder, Peter McPhee, Carmen Gaina, Eldert L. Advokaat, Reinoud L.M. Vissers, Wim Spakman

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

The formation of a global network of plate boundaries surrounding a mosaic of lithospheric fragments was a key step in the emergence of Earth’s plate tectonics. So far, propositions for plate boundary formation are regional in nature but how plate boundaries are being created over 1000s of km in short periods of geological time remains elusive. Here, we show from geological observations that a [...]

A database of submarine landslides offshore West and Southwest Iberia

Davide Gamboa, Rachid Omira, Pedro Terrinha

Published: 2021-02-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology

Submarine landslides are major geohazards occurring on distinct seabed domains ranging from shallow coastal areas to the deeper points of the ocean. The nature and relief of the seabed are key factors influencing the location and size of submarine landslides. Efforts have recently been made to compile databases of submarine landslide distribution and morphometry, a crucial task to assess [...]

The True Cost of Field Education is a Barrier to Diversifying Geosciences

Antoinette Abeyta, Anjali M. Fernandes, Robert Clyde Mahon, Travis Eric Swanson

Published: 2021-02-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Higher Education, Outdoor Education, Science and Mathematics Education

Fieldwork is considered critical to developing technical skills in geoscience education, and typical undergraduate degrees require >30 days in the field. Tuition costs of enrolling in field camp are acknowledged as a barrier to participation in geosciences; however, the cost of participation in field activities may also include the cost of personal field gear (hiking boots, backpacks, etc.), [...]

The surface deformation of the 2020 Doğanyol-Sivrice earthquake (Mw 6.8) and the earlier events suggest Mw˂7.0 earthquakes do not create significant surface slip along the East Anatolian Fault Zone

Kenan Akbayram, Kemal Kıranşan, Çağlar Özer, Sadık Varolgüneş

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

The 2020 Mw 6.8 Doğanyol-Sivrice earthquake occurred on the Pütürge Segment of the left-lateral East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). Our field investigation within 6 weeks after the earthquake suggests the following results. (1) The 2020 earthquake created a ~54-km-long surface deformation zone along the Pütürge Segment. (2) No co-seismic surface slip has been formed after the earthquake. (3) The [...]

Structural and stratigraphic development of Offshore NW Sulawesi, Indonesia

Herwin Tiranda, Robert Hall

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The area of the Offshore NW Sulawesi lies between eastern Sundaland (Borneo) and the North Arm of Sulawesi. Possible influences on the basins include Paleogene rifting in the Celebes Sea and Makassar Strait, Neogene subsidence and uplift in Borneo, late Neogene subduction at the present-day North Sulawesi Trench, and displacements related to the Palu-Koro Fault. This study presents the results of [...]

Numerical modeling of Earth's dynamic surface: a community approach

Gregory E Tucker, Eric Hutton, Mark Piper, Benjamin Campforts, Tian Gan, Katherine R Barnhart, Albert Kettner, Irina Overeem, Scott D Peckham, Lynn McCready, Jaia Syvitski

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy

Computational modelling occupies a unique niche in Earth environmental sciences. Models serve not just as scientific technology and infrastructure, but also as digital containers of the scientific community's understanding of the natural world. As this understanding improves, so too must the associated software. This dual nature---models as both infrastructure and hypotheses---means that [...]

234U/230Th coral growth dating yields reliable ages in restricted basins despite anomalous δ234Ui values

Jenni Robertson, Diana Sahy, Gerald P Roberts, Marco Meschis

Published: 2021-02-10
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Late Quaternary coral growth ages from uplifted coastal regions, such as marine terraces and associated palaeoshorelines, are an essential tool used to derive tectonic and fault controlled uplift and deformation rates, and thus contribute to seismic hazard analysis and constrain past global sea levels. Fossil coral growth ages are assessed for reliability based upon whether the δ234Ui (or [...]

Classification, segmentation and correlation of zoned minerals

Tom Sheldrake, Oliver John Higgins

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

Minerals exhibit zoning patterns that can be related to changes in the environment in which they grew. Using statistical methods that have been designed to segment optical images, we have developed a procedure to segment zonation within minerals and correlate these zones between multiple crystals using elemental maps. This allows us to quantify the complexity and variability of chemical zoning [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Quantitative chemical mapping of plagioclase as a tool for the interpretation of volcanic stratigraphy: an example from Saint Kitts, Lesser Antilles

Oliver John Higgins, Tom Sheldrake, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Establishing a quantitative link between magmatic processes occurring at depth and volcanic eruption dynamics is essential to forecast the future behaviour of volcanoes, and to correctly interpret monitoring signals at active centres. Chemical zoning in minerals, which captures successive events or states within a magmatic system, can be exploited for such a purpose. However, to develop a [...]

Fault Throw and Regional Uplift Histories from Drainage Analysis: Evolution of Southern Italy

Jennifer Quye-Sawyer, Alexander C Whittaker, Gareth Roberts, Dylan H. Rood

Published: 2021-01-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Landscapes can record elevation changes caused by multiple tectonic processes. Here we show how coeval histories of spatially coincident normal faulting and regional uplift can be deconvolved from river networks. We focus on Calabria, a tectonically active region incised by rivers containing knickpoints and knickzones. Marine fauna indicate that Calabria has been uplifted by >1 km since [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, Simon Stephenson

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

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