Filtering by Subject: Geology

Nature and timing of anatectic event of the Hida Belt (Japan): Constraints from titanite geochemistry and U-Pb age of clinopyroxene-bearing leucogranite

Hironobu Harada, Tatsuki Tsujimori, Yoshiaki Kon, Shogo Aoki, Kazumasa Aoki

Published: 2021-05-17
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology

The Hida Belt, central Japan, is a continental fragment, which was once a part of the crustal basement of the East Asian continental margin. It consists mainly of Permo-Triassic granite-gneiss complexes with both syn-to-late-metamorphic migmatite or granite bodies. Clinopyroxene-bearing leucogranite, locally called as 'Inishi'-type migmatite, occurs characteristically in the migmatite zone [...]

AMS and rock magnetism in the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (Southern Andes): emission center, flow dynamics, and implications to the emplacement of non-welded PDCs

Mauricio Barcelos Haag, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Jairo Fransciso Savian, Alberto Tomás Caselli, Thiago Ribas Moncinhatto, Gelvam André Hartmann, Michael Ort, Wilbor Poletti, Ricardo Ivan Ferreira da Trindade

Published: 2021-05-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Pyroclastic deposits can cover significant areas and register major geological events. Despite their importance, understanding depositional dynamics of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) and linking explosive deposits to their emission centers is still a challenge, especially in the case of non-welded, massive ignimbrites. Located in the Southern Andes, the Caviahue Copahue Volcanic Complex [...]

A damage model for the frictional shear failure of brittle materials in compression

Simon Philip Gill

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computational Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Damage models have been successfully employed for many decades in the modelling of tensile failure, where the crack surfaces separate as a crack grows. The advantage of this approach is that crack trajectories can be computed simply and efficiently on a fixed finite element mesh without explicit tracking. The development of damage models for shear failure in compression, where the crack faces [...]

Geochemical signatures of rare earth elements and yttrium in the vicinity of an ion-adsorption type deposit: roles of source sediment control

Haiyan Liu, Huaming Guo, Olivier Pourret, Maohan Liu, Zhen Wang, Weimin Zhang, Zebing Li, Bai Gao, Zhanxue Sun, Pierre Laine

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geochemistry, Geology, Hydrology

The elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium (REE+Y) in acid mine drainage (AMD) constitute an opportunity for REE+Y recovery. However, the source and control of REE+Y signatures in AMD remains uncertain. Water, rock, sediment and sludge samples were collected from an ion-adsorption rare earth mining area to investigate REE+Y concentration and fractionation patterns in [...]

Coupling between shallow and deep fault populations governs along-strike variations in fault reactivation and structural inheritance, the Laminaria High, NW Shelf of Australia

Thomas Brian Phillips, Ken McCaffrey, Luke Magarinos

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

When extension events are greatly separated in time, older faults may be buried and stratigraphically separated from newly developing faults at shallower depths. During rifting, the buried structures may reactivate and propagate upwards to be expressed within the shallow system. The degree of linkage between structural levels determines the influence that the deeper structures can exert over the [...]

The influence of rock uplift rate on the formation and preservation of individual marine terraces during multiple sea level stands

Luca Malatesta, Noah J. Finnegan, Kimberly L. Huppert, Emily I. Carreño

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Climate, Geology, Geomorphology

Marine terraces are a cornerstone for the study of paleo sea level and crustal deformation. Commonly, individual erosive marine terraces are attributed to unique sea level high-stands. This stems from early reasoning that erosive marine platforms could only be significantly widened at the beginning of an interglacial. However, this implies that wave erosion is insignificant during the vast [...]

The influence of crustal strength on rift geometry and development – Insights from 3D numerical modelling

Thomas Brian Phillips, John Naliboff, Ken McCaffrey, Sophie Pan, Jeroen van Hunen

Published: 2021-05-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The lateral distribution of strength within the crust is highly variable. When subject to extension, lithologically and rheologically distinct areas of crust manifest strain differently, influencing the structural style, geometry and evolution of the associated rift system. Here, we use 3D thermo-mechanical models of continental extension to explore how pre-rift upper crustal strength variations [...]

Fracture distribution in a folded fluvial succession: the Puig-reig anticline (South-eastern Pyrenees)

Xiaolong Sun, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Juan Alcalde, Juan Diego Martín-Martín, Cunfei Ma, Daniel Muñoz-López, David Cruset, Irene Cantarero, Albert Griera, Anna Travé

Published: 2021-05-07
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Sedimentary rocks of foreland fold-and-thrust belts typically undergo intensive fracturing as fold grows. The resulting fracture networks can present significant variations depending on the distribution of sedimentary facies and the complex structural characteristics of fold-and-thrust belts. The Puig-reig anticline, located in the south-eastern Pyrenees, mainly exposes proximal fluvial deposits [...]

Syn- to post-rift alluvial basin fill: seismic stratigraphic analysis of Permian-Triassic deposition in the Horda Platform, Norway

Camilla Würtzen, Johnathon Lee Osmond, Jan Inge Faleide, Johan Petter Nystuen, Ingrid Margareta Anell, Ivar Midtkandal

Published: 2021-05-02
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Discrepancies in models of continental rift-basin dynamics and stratigraphic response calls on further investigation on the subject. Geometric- and lithological trends between stages of faulting is studied in the Permian- Triassic continental rift succession in the Horda Platform. The Horda Platform occupies the northeastern margin of the North Sea aulacogen where Late Permian-Early Triassic [...]

Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic granitoids in the Khangay–Khentey basin, Central Mongolia: Implication for the tectonic evolution of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean margin

Ariuntsetseg Ganbat, Tatsuki Tsujimori, Laicheng Miao, Inna Safonova, Daniel Pastor-Galán, Chimedtseren Anaad, Munkhtsengel Baatar, Shogo Aoki, Kazumasa Aoki, Ilya Savinskiy

Published: 2021-04-26
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology

The Mongol–Okhotsk Belt is the youngest segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which is the venue of the massive juvenile crust emplacement, and it is formation and evolutions are still pending problems. This paper presents the first up-to-date U-Pb zircon ages, Hf-in-zircon isotope, geochemical and whole-rock Nd isotope data from igneous rocks of the Khangay–Khentey basin, Central Mongolia. [...]

Bridging spatiotemporal scales of normal fault growth using numerical models of continental extension

Sophie Pan, John Naliboff, Rebecca E. Bell, Chris Jackson

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Continental extension is accommodated by the development of kilometre-scale normal faults, which grow by accumulating metre-scale earthquake slip over millions of years. Reconstructing the entire lifespan of a fault remains challenging due to a lack of observational data of appropriate scale, particularly over intermediate timescales (10^4-10^6 yrs). Using 3D numerical simulations of continental [...]

Go with the flow: the role of gateway and straits on plastic distribution

Domenico Chiarella, Francisco Javier Hernández-Molina

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology

Plastic pollution is widespread throughout the marine environments representing a risk for ecosystems and human health when plastic enters the food chain. Understanding factors and processes controlling plastic distribution and accumulation is crucial to identify plastic hotspots. Gateways and straits can play an important role on transferring plastic debris at superficial and sea bottom level [...]

Integrated multi-proxy source-to-sink analysis of the Lower Cretaceous of the Essaouira-Agadir Basin.

Emmanuel Roquette, James Lovell Kennedy, Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Stefan Schröder, Remi J.G. Charton, Ian Millar, Jonathan Redfern

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology

This study investigates the Provenance of the Barremian-Aptian fluvial clastics exposed in the Essaouira-Agadir Basin which bears an important potential in terms of offshore feeding of reservoir sands. Thin section petrography and SEM, heavy minerals analysis, and detrital zircon dating were conducted and integrated with a large dataset of published low-temperature thermochronology studies to [...]

Subdivide and Conquer: Adapting Non-Manifold Subdivision Surfaces Method to Represent and Approximate Complex Geological and Reservoir Structures

S.Mohammad Moulaeifard, Florian Wellmann, Miguel de la Varga, David Bommes

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Mining Engineering

Computer graphics have gradually developed practical techniques to address models with the complex topology, in particular, by parametric surface-based modeling approach. Also, geologists have used this approach because it provides significant gains over grid-based modeling (e.g., implicit modeling) by using grid-free surfaces. However, since this approach originates from computer graphics, not [...]

A global hydrothermal reactor triggered prebiotic synthesis on Earth

Chiara Boschi, Andrea Dini, Gretchen L. Früh-Green, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-04-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Planetary Geology

Biosignatures in the rock record limit the time available for life to start on Earth to 600-800 million years1 (4.5-3.7 Ga; Hadean-Archean). Whether the conditions for the synthesis of complex organic molecules were unique to this time or remain present today is unclear, but understanding these conditions is essential for the search of life on other planets. The outer portion of the Hadean Earth [...]


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