Filtering by Subject: Geomorphology

Volume estimation from planform characteristics of washover morphology

Eli Lazarus, Hannah Williams, Evan B Goldstein

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Geomorphology

Overwash is the cross-shore transport of water and sediment from a waterbody over the crest of a sand or gravel barrier beach, and washover is the resulting sedimentary deposit. Washover volume, and alongshore patterns of washover distribution, are fundamental components of sediment budgets for low-lying coastal barrier systems. Accurate sediment budgets are essential to forecasting barrier [...]

Standing on the shoulder of a giant landslide: an InSAR look at a slow-moving hillslope under melting glaciers in the western Karakoram

Said Mukhtar Ahmad, Nitheshnirmal Sadhasivam, Mona Lisa, et al.

Published: 2022-06-16
Subjects: Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding the cascading effects of glacier melting in terms of large slope deformation in high mountainous areas could come from the use of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques. In this work, we investigate a slow moving, extremely large landslide (~20 km2) in the Chitral region in Northern Pakistan, which threatens several villages. Our InSAR analyses, using Sentinel-1 [...]

Space-time landslide hazard modeling via Ensemble Neural Networks

Ashok Dahal, Hakan Tanyas, Cees J. van Westen, et al.

Published: 2022-06-02
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

For decades, a full numerical description of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a landslide could be achieved only via physics-based models. The part of the geomorphology community focusing on data-driven model has instead focused on predicting where landslides may occur via susceptibility models. Moreover, they have estimated when landslides may occur via models that belong to the [...]

Surging vs. streaming: the dual fast ice flow response to variations in efficiency of the subglacial drainage landsystem

Ravier Edouard, Thomas Lelandais, Jean Vérité, et al.

Published: 2022-05-24
Subjects: Geomorphology, Glaciology

Observation and modelling have long contributed to associate surging and streaming of glaciers with glacier thermal regime, variations in meltwater availability and pressure and mechanical coupling at their beds. Using experimental modelling and palaeoglaciological mapping, we explore how the development of subglacial drainage landsystems controls variations in drainage efficiency and ice flow [...]

Quantifying excess heavy metal concentrations in drainage basins using conservative mixing modelling

Jonas Alexander Eschenfelder, Alex G. Lipp, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-05-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

High concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants in river sediments can have detrimental effects on the health of ecosystems and humans. As such, determining the composition of river sediments throughout drainage basins is an essential aspect of environmental monitoring. Well characterised natural baseline concentrations are important information with which observations can be compared [...]

The CREp 36Cl exposure age calculator: development version “dev”

Irene Schimmelpfennig, Pierre-Henri BLARD, Jim Tesson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is currently the only in situ cosmogenic nuclide applicable in carbonates, Ca- and K-rich feldspars and aphyric silicate rocks. Because the production reactions of 36Cl are more numerous and complex than those of other cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 3He), comprehensive and user-friendly calculators are essential for routine application of 36Cl to Earth surface research [...]

21st-century stagnation in sand-sea activity

Andrew Gunn, Amy East, Douglas J Jerolmack

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Climate, Geomorphology

Sand seas are vast expanses of Earth’s surface containing large areas of aeolian dunes—topographic patterns manifest from above-threshold winds and a supply of loose sand. Predictions of the role of future climate change for sand-sea activity are sparse and contradictory. Here we examine the impact of climate on all of Earth’s presently-unvegetated sand seas, using ensemble runs of an Earth [...]

Turbulence structure and the development of secondary outer-bank flow cells at multiple discharges in a meander bend

Chris Hackney, Dan Parsons

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

The erosion of the outer-banks of meander bends is mediated by the form roughness of the bank topography, which has been shown to affect near bank three-dimension flow structures and shear stresses. As the scales of bank roughness is known to vary vertically from bank toe to bank edge variations in flow discharge are likely to driver changes in near-bank flow velocities and turbulent structures [...]

Modeling the size of co-seismic landslides via data-driven models: the Kaikōura's example

Mateo Moreno, Stefan Steger, Hakan Tanyas, et al.

Published: 2022-04-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

The last three decades have witnessed a substantial methodical development of data-driven models for landslide prediction. However, this improvement has been dedicated almost exclusively to models designed to recognize locations where landslides may likely occur in the future. This notion is referred to as landslide susceptibility. However, the susceptibility is just one, albeit fundamental, [...]

Fluid-driven transport of round sediment particles: from discrete simulations to continuum modeling

Qiong Zhang, Eric Deal, J. Taylor Perron, et al.

Published: 2022-04-17
Subjects: Applied Mechanics, Geomorphology, Hydrology

Bedload sediment transport is ubiquitous in shaping natural and engineered landscapes, but the variability in the relation between sediment flux and driving factors is not well understood. At a given Shields number, the observed dimensionless transport rate can vary over a range in controlled systems and up to several orders of magnitude in natural streams. Here we (1) experimentally validate a [...]

Late Glacial and Holocene Palaeolake History of the Última Esperanza Region of Southern Patagonia

Stephen J Roberts, Robert D McCulloch, Joseph F Emmings, et al.

Published: 2022-03-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

We undertook multiproxy analyses on two sediment cores from Lago Pato, a small lake basin at 51°S topographically separated from Lago del Toro in Torres del Paine (TdP), to provide insights into glacier dynamics and lake level change in the TdP and Última Esperanza region over the last ~30,000 cal a BP (30 ka). Lago Pato is situated in a region overridden by the Southern Patagonian Icefield [...]

Coastal River Response to Transgression: A New Look at the Trinity Incised Valley Using Multi-Resolution Seismic Imaging

John Swartz, Patricia Standring, JOHN A GOFF, et al.

Published: 2022-03-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology

Modern lowland river systems show transitions in flow characteristics near coastlines that lead to systematic changes in sediment deposition and stratigraphic architecture. Sensitivity of fluvial morphodynamics to base-level has important implications for the prediction and interpretation of fluvial stratigraphy, particularly in deposits formed during periods of relative sea-level rise such as [...]

Inverting passive margin stratigraphy for marine sediment transport dynamics over geologic time

Charles Merritt Shobe, Jean Braun, XIAOPING YUAN, et al.

Published: 2022-03-09
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Passive margin stratigraphy contains time-integrated records of landscapes that have long since vanished. Quantitatively reading the stratigraphic record using coupled landscape evolution and stratigraphic forward models (SFMs) is a promising approach to extracting information about landscape history. However, the most commonly used SFM, which is based on an approximation of local, linear [...]

Climate controls on fluvial topography

Eyal Marder, Sean F Gallen

Published: 2022-03-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Conceptual and theoretical models for landscape evolution suggest that fluvial topography is sensitive to climate. However, it has remained challenging to demonstrate a compelling link between fluvial topography and climate state in natural landscapes. One possible reason is that many studies compare erosion rates to climate data, although theoretical studies note that, at steady-state, climate [...]

Fault slip-rates and Coulomb stress interactions in the intersection zone of the Hope, Kelly and Alpine Faults, South Island, New Zealand

Jessie L. Vermeer, Mark Quigley, Rob Langridge, et al.

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The Hope Fault is a major strike-slip plate boundary fault in the Marlborough Fault Zone of New Zealand’s South Island that transfers slip between the Alpine Fault and Hikurangi subduction zone. We use lidar-based geomorphic and fault mapping, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL; quartz) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL; feldspar) dating of fault-proximal sedimentary deposits to [...]


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