Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Geomorphology

Structural and stratigraphic development of Offshore NW Sulawesi, Indonesia

Herwin Tiranda, Robert Hall

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The area of the Offshore NW Sulawesi lies between eastern Sundaland (Borneo) and the North Arm of Sulawesi. Possible influences on the basins include Paleogene rifting in the Celebes Sea and Makassar Strait, Neogene subsidence and uplift in Borneo, late Neogene subduction at the present-day North Sulawesi Trench, and displacements related to the Palu-Koro Fault. This study presents the results of [...]

Numerical modeling of Earth's dynamic surface: a community approach

Gregory E Tucker, Eric Hutton, Mark Piper, Benjamin Campforts, Tian Gan, Katherine R Barnhart, Albert Kettner, Irina Overeem, Scott D Peckham, Lynn McCready, Jaia Syvitski

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy

Computational modelling occupies a unique niche in Earth environmental sciences. Models serve not just as scientific technology and infrastructure, but also as digital containers of the scientific community's understanding of the natural world. As this understanding improves, so too must the associated software. This dual nature---models as both infrastructure and hypotheses---means that [...]

The impact of intermittency on bed load sediment transport

Santiago J. Benavides, Eric A. Deal, Matthew Rushlow, Jeremy G. Venditti, Qiong Zhang, Ken Kamrin, J. Taylor Perron

Published: 2021-02-09
Subjects: Dynamical Systems, Geomorphology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

Sediment transport by wind or water near the threshold of grain motion is dominated by rare transport events. This intermittency makes it difficult to calibrate sediment transport laws, or to define an unambiguous threshold for grain entrainment, both of which are crucial for predicting sediment transport rates. Intermittency in sediment transport has been observed in many contexts, but few [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Upper Mississippi River Flow and Sediment Characteristics and Their Effect on a Harbor Siltation Case

Roberto Fernández, Marcelo H Garcia, Gary Parker

Published: 2021-01-28
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geomorphology, Hydraulic Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Upper Mississippi River flow and sediment characteristics downstream of St. Louis are presented in this study. Available and measured data were used to assess a harbor siltation case and dredging needs. Such data are also useful to researchers and engineers conducting work in the Mississippi River and large rivers in general. Flows were characterized in terms of the mean annual hydrograph, flow [...]

Fault Throw and Regional Uplift Histories from Drainage Analysis: Evolution of Southern Italy

Jennifer Quye-Sawyer, Alexander C Whittaker, Gareth Roberts, Dylan H. Rood

Published: 2021-01-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Landscapes can record elevation changes caused by multiple tectonic processes. Here we show how coeval histories of spatially coincident normal faulting and regional uplift can be deconvolved from river networks. We focus on Calabria, a tectonically active region incised by rivers containing knickpoints and knickzones. Marine fauna indicate that Calabria has been uplifted by >1 km since [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, Simon Stephenson

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

Evidence confirms an anthropic origin of Amazonian Dark Earths

Umberto Lombardo, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Hans Huisman, Wenceslau Geraldes Teixeira, Charles R Clement, Carlos Francisco Brazão Vieira Alho, Fernando Almeida, Lucia Helena Cunha Anjos, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, George Brown, Marcondes Costa, Luis Cunha, William M Denevan, Ademir Fontana, Bruno Glaser, Susanna Hecht, Klaus A Jarosch, André Braga Junqueira, Thiago Kater, Thomas W Kuyper, Johannes Lehmann, Helena Pinto Lima, Rodrigo Santana Macedo, Marco Madella, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Francis E Mayle, Doyle McKEY, Claide de Paula Moraes, Gaspar Morcote-Ríos, Eduardo Neves, Francisco Pugliese, Fabiano Pupim, Marco F Raczka, Anne Rapp Py-Daniel, Philip Riris, Leonor Rodrigues, Stéphen Rostain, Morgan Schmidt, Myrtle P Shock, Tobias Sprafke, Eduardo Kazuo Tamanaha, Pablo Vidal-Torrado, Ximena S Villagran, Jennifer Watling, Sadie L Weber

Published: 2021-01-22
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

First described over 120 years ago in Brazil, Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are expanses of dark soil that are exceptionally fertile and contain large quantities of archaeological artefacts. The elevated fertility of the dark and often deep A horizon of ADEs is widely regarded as an outcome of pre-Columbian human influence1. Controversially, in their recent paper Silva et al.2argue that the higher [...]

Earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in Italy by means of Artificial Neural Network

Gabriele Amato, Matteo Fiorucci, Salvatore Martino, Luigi Lombardo, Lorenzo Palombi

Published: 2021-01-18
Subjects: Geomorphology

The use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches has gained a significant role over the last decade in the field of predicting the distribution of effects triggered by natural forcing, this being particularly relevant for the development of adequate risk mitigation strategies. Among the most critical features of these approaches, there are the accurate geolocation of the available data as [...]

Temporal monitoring of vast sand mining in NW Turkey: Implications on environmental/social impacts

Hilal OKUR, Mehmet Korhan Erturaç

Published: 2021-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Sedimentology

Loose sand has a wide variety (over 200) of industrial usage where most of the sand is used in infrastructure. Due to its low cost / high benefit nature and international high demand, worldwide examples of excessive sand mining caused complete destruction of habitats and forcing natives change living practices or even to migrate. Sand mining is one of the most controversial and rapidly growing [...]

Assessing erosion and flood risk in the coastal zone through the application of the multilevel Monte Carlo method

Mariana C A Clare, Matthew Piggott, Colin J Cotter

Published: 2021-01-07
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Risk Analysis, Statistics and Probability

The risk from erosion and flooding in the coastal zone has the potential to increase in a changing climate. The development and use of coupled hydro-morphodynamic models is therefore becoming an ever higher priority. However, their use as decision support tools suffers from the high degree of uncertainty associated with them, due to incomplete knowledge as well as natural variability in the [...]

The UK needs an open data portal dedicated to coastal flood and erosion hazard risk and resilience

Eli Lazarus, Sofia Aldabet, Charlotte E L Thompson, Chris T Hill, Robert J Nicholls, Jon R French, Sally Brown, Emma L Tompkins, Ivan D Haigh, Ian H Townend, Edmund C Penning-Rowsell

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geomorphology, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Sustainability

In the UK, coastal flooding and erosion are two of the primary climate-related hazards to communities, businesses, and infrastructure. To better address the ramifications of those hazards, now and into the future, the UK needs to transform its scattered, fragmented coastal data resources into a systematic, integrated, quality-controlled, openly accessible data portal. Such a portal would support [...]

Mechanisms for avulsion on alluvial fans: insights from high-frequency topographic data

Anya Leenman, Brett Eaton

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Avulsion is a key process in building alluvial fans, but it is also a formidable natural hazard. Based on laboratory experiments monitored with novel high-frequency photogrammetry, we present a new model for avulsion on widely graded gravel fans. Previous experimental studies of alluvial fans have suggested that avulsion occurs in a periodic autogenic cycle, that is thought to be mediated by the [...]

Chevrons: origin and relevance for the reconstruction of past wind regimes

Lucas Erouan Vimpere, Pascal Kindler, Sébastien Castelltort

Published: 2020-12-15
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Meteorology, Other Life Sciences, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Since its first use in the late 80’s, the term chevron has been employed in numerous studies to describe large U- and V-shaped ridges found in or near shorelines worldwide. Most studies have so far focused on Bahamian chevrons that are exclusively of Late Pleistocene age, and on the supposed Holocene chevrons found in S-Madagascar and Australia. In the Bahamas, these deposits have been [...]

Mapping Landslides With a Generalized Convolutional Neural Network

Nikhil Prakash, Andrea Manconi, Simon Loew

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Risk Analysis

Landslides are a common secondary hazard triggered by major earthquakes or extreme rainfall events in steep terrains. Rapid mapping of event landslides is crucial to identify the areas affected by damages as well as for effective disaster response. Traditionally, such maps are generated with visual interpretation of remote sensing imagery (manned/unmanned airborne systems or spaceborne sensors) [...]

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