Filtering by Subject: Geomorphology

A heuristic approach for modeling the surface histories of cratons using apatite fission-track "super samples''

Kalin T. McDannell, Paul B. O'Sullivan, Kerry Gallagher, et al.

Published: 2022-01-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Understanding the long-term erosion and burial history of cratons is often challenging due to the incompleteness of the geologic record. Low-temperature thermochronology has been used to provide constraints on these histories and apatite fission-track dating has long been one of the preferred methods. In terms of analytical protocol the convention has been to measure ~100 confined track lengths [...]

How do tectonics influence the initiation and evolution of submarine canyons? A case study from the Otway Basin, SE Australia

Nan Wu, Harya Dwi Nugraha, Michael Steventon, et al.

Published: 2021-12-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The architecture of canyon-fills can provide a valuable record of the link between tectonics, sedimentation, and depositional processes in submarine settings. We integrate 3D and 2D seismic reflection data to investigate the dominant tectonics and sedimentary processes involved in the formation of two deeply buried (c. 500 m below seafloor), and large (c. 3-6 km wide, >35 km long) Late Miocene [...]

Tectonic controls on geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Argentina)

Fernanda Silva Santos, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Mauricio Barcelos Haag, et al.

Published: 2021-12-17
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanoes are among the most common volcanic landforms on Earth. The morphology and distribution of small volcanoes can provide important information about eruption dynamics and tectonics. The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (CSVZ) comprises one of the most active magmatic regions on Earth. Characterized by the presence of polygenetic volcanoes and calderas in a complex tectonic [...]

Components and Tidal Modulation of the Wave Field in a Semi-Enclosed Shallow Bay

Lukas WinklerPrins, John Largier, Ana Vila-Concejo, et al.

Published: 2021-12-10
Subjects: Environmental Engineering, Geomorphology, Oceanography

The wave field in coastal bays is comprised of waves generated by far-off storms and waves generated locally by winds inside the bay and regionally outside the bay. The resultant wave field varies spatially and temporally and is expected to control morphologic features, such as beaches in estuaries and bays (BEBs). However, neither the wave field nor the role of waves in shaping BEBs have been [...]

Catchment vegetation and erosion controls soil carbon cycling in south-eastern Australia during the last two Glacial-Interglacial cycles

Alexander Francke, Anthony Dosseto, Matt Forbes, et al.

Published: 2021-12-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

Improving Urban Seismic Risk Estimates for Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Incorporating Recent Geological Knowledge of Hazards

Ruth Amey, John Elliott, C. Scott Watson, et al.

Published: 2021-12-07
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Many cities are built on or near active faults, which pose seismic hazard and risk to the urban population. This risk is exacerbated by city expansion, which may obscure signs of active faulting. Here we estimate the risk to Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan, due to realistic earthquake scenarios based on historic earthquakes in the region and improved knowledge of the active faulting. We use previous [...]

Thresholds in road network functioning on US Atlantic and Gulf barrier islands

Sofia Aldabet, Evan B Goldstein, Eli Lazarus

Published: 2021-12-04
Subjects: Analysis, Geomorphology, Nature and Society Relations, Sustainability

Barrier islands predominate the Atlantic and Gulf coastlines of the USA, where development exceeds national trends. Forward-looking models of barrier island dynamics often include feedbacks with management practices – particularly those aimed at mitigating damage to buildings from natural hazards – and how real estate markets may be linked to barrier island dynamics. However, models thus far do [...]

Competing feedback in an idealized tide-influenced delta network

Niccolò Ragno, Nicoletta Tambroni, Michele Bolla Pittaluga

Published: 2021-12-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The morphodynamic evolution of river deltas is intimately tied to flow and sediment partitioning at bifurcations. In this work, we investigate the long-term equilibrium configuration of a simple delta network using an analytical model, which accounts for the effect of small tidal oscillations. Differently from individual bifurcations, where tidal action is always a stabilizing factor, in the [...]

Estuarine-deltaic controls on coastal carbon burial in the western Ganges-Brahmaputra delta over the last 5,000 years

Rory Patrick Flood, Margaret Georgina Milne, Graeme T Swindles, et al.

Published: 2021-11-26
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Statistics and Probability, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability, Water Resource Management

The Ganges–Brahmaputra fluvial system drains the Himalayas and is one of the largest sources of terrestrial biosphere carbon to the ocean. It represents a major continental reservoir of CO2 associated with c. 1–2 billion tons of sediment transported each year. Shallow coastal environments receive substantial inputs of terrestrial carbon (900 Tg C yr−1), with allochthonous carbon capture on [...]

Subglacial bedform sensitivity to bed characteristics across the deglaciated Northern Hemisphere

Marion A. McKenzie, Lauren Miller Simkins, Sarah Principato

Published: 2021-11-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology

Streamlined subglacial bedforms observed in deglaciated landscapes provide the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of ice dynamics to bed characteristics across broader spatiotemporal scales than is possible for contemporary glacial systems. While many studies of streamlined subglacial bedforms rely on manual mapping and qualitative (i.e., visual) assessment, we semi-automatically identify [...]

Mesophotic depth biogenic accumulations (“biogenic mounds”) offshore the Maltese Islands, central Mediterranean Sea

Or M. Bialik, Andrea Giulia Varzi, Ruth Duran Gallego, et al.

Published: 2021-10-28
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences

The mesophotic domain is a poorly explored part of the oceans, notably in the Mediterranean Sea. Benthic communities in these depths are not well documented and as such are under higher risk from anthropogenic impacts. Hard substrate habitats in this depth window are not common and are a key ecotope. The Malta Plateau in the central Mediterranean, which is characterised by low sedimentation [...]

Reproducibility in subsurface geoscience

Michael J. Steventon, Chris Jackson, Mark Ireland, et al.

Published: 2021-10-27
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Reproducibility, the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment or study is repeated, sits at the foundation of science. The aim of this process is to produce robust findings and knowledge, with reproducibility being the screening tool to benchmark how well we are implementing the scientific method. However, the re-examination of results from many disciplines has caused [...]

Multi-temporal relative landslide risk analysis for sustainable development of rapidly growing cities

Mariano Di Napoli, Pietro Miele, Luigi Guerriero, et al.

Published: 2021-10-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In the last decades, developing countries have experienced an increase in impact of natural disasters due to both the ongoing climate change and the sustained expansion of urban areas. Intrinsic vulnerability of settlements due to poverty and poor governance, as well as the lack of tools for urban occupation planning and mitigation protocols, have made such impact particularly severe. Cuenca [...]

Grain shape effects in bed load sediment transport

Eric Deal, Jeremy G. Venditti, Santiago J. Benavides, et al.

Published: 2021-10-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geomorphology

Bed load sediment transport, in which wind or water flowing over a bed of sediment causes grains to roll or hop along the bed, is a critically important mechanism in contexts ranging from river restoration to planetary exploration. Despite its widespread occurrence, predictions of bed load sediment flux are notoriously imprecise. Many studies have focused on grain size variability as a source of [...]

The Effect of Formation Processes on The Frequency of Palaeolithic Cave Sites in Semi-Arid Zones: Insights From Kazakhstan

Aristeidis Varis, Christopher Miller, Patrick Cuthbertson, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Speleology, Stratigraphy

Central Asian caves with Palaeolithic deposits are few but they provide a rich record of human fossils and cultural assemblages that has been used to model Late Pleistocene hominin dispersals. However, previous research has not yet systematically evaluated the formation processes that influence the frequency of Palaeolithic cave sites in the region. To address this deficiency, we combined field [...]


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