Filtering by Subject: Geophysics and Seismology

Harnessing Distributed Acoustic Sensing for Earthquake Early Warning: Magnitude Estimation and Ground Motion Prediction

itzhak lior, Diane Rivet, Jean Paul Ampuero, et al.

Published: 2022-06-21
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems provide seconds to tens of seconds of warning time before potentially-damaging ground motions are felt. For optimal warning times, seismic sensors should be installed as close as possible to expected earthquake sources. However, while the most hazardous earthquakes on Earth occur underwater, most seismological stations are located on-land; precious seconds [...]

Links between soil moisture and InSAR data on a temperate raised peatland subjected to a wildfire

Alexis Hrysiewicz, Eoghan P. Holohan, Shane Donohue, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Soil Science

Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can potentially contribute to the cost-effective regional or global monitoring of the degradation and restoration of peatlands. However, there are uncertainties about the links between InSAR results and peatland ecohydrological parameters, especially soil moisture. Here, we analyse the relationships between the temporal evolutions of InSAR [...]

Friction law for earthquake nucleation: size doesn’t matter

Yuntao Ji, André Niemeijer, Dawin Baden, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

A central question in modeling induced and natural earthquake nucleation is whether fault frictional properties measured in the laboratory are applicable to nature. A laboratory fault is generally just a few centimeters in length-width scale, while natural faults can be hundreds of meters to kilometers in extent. It is unknown whether laboratory fault friction data are applicable even to mesh [...]

Advances in seismic imaging of magma and crystal mush

Michele Paulatto, Emilie Hooft, Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Seismic imaging methods have been used to constrain the subsurface structure at nearly one hundred arc, hotspot and continental rift volcanoes worldwide. The resulting detailed three-dimensional constraints on physical properties have provided invaluable insight into the storage, differentiation and dynamics of magma. These constraints have significantly contributed to our modern understanding of [...]

Visualizing Best and Worst Case Scenarios in Joint, Constrained, and Time-Dependent Inversions I: Null-Space Transfer and Image-Space Contradictions

Alex Hobé, Ari Tryggvason

Published: 2022-05-31
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Because geophysical inversion is used in many vital societal applications, it is unfortunate that some aspects of inverse methods are so abstract. The difficulty of identifying fundamental behaviors is exacerbated when investigating large non-linear problems which combine multiple datasets into a single model, or which produce multiple models with constraints between them. In this first of [...]

Salt-detached strike-slip faulting, Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola

Aurio Erdi, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2022-05-25
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

We here use a 3D seismic reflection dataset from Outer Kwanza Basin, offshore Angola to examine the structure and growth of salt-detached strike-slip faults. The faults occur in four, up to 13.8 km-long, NE-trending arrays that are physically linked by restraining bend and releasing stepovers, and which presently overlie Aptian salt and base-salt relief related to pre-salt faulting. We suggest [...]

Using Synthetic Data Trained Convolutional Neural Network For Predicting Sub-Resolution Thin Layers From Seismic Data

Dongfang Qu, Klaus Mosegaard, Runhai Feng, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

Deep Compressed Seismic Learning for fast location and moment tensor inferences with natural and induced seismicity

Ismael Adan Vera Rodriguez, Erik B. Myklebust

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Fast detection and characterization of seismic sources is crucial for decision-making and warning systems that monitor natural and induced seismicity. However, besides the laying out of ever denser monitoring networks of seismic instruments, the incorporation of new sensor technologies such as Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) further challenges our processing capabilities to deliver short [...]

Probabilistic Assessment of Antarctic Thermomechanical Structure: Impacts on Ice Sheet Stability

James Alexander Nicholas Hazzard, Fred D. Richards, Saskia Goes, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistical Methodology

Uncertainty in present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) rates represent at least 44% of the total gravity-based ice mass balance signal over Antarctica. Meanwhile, physical couplings between solid Earth, sea level and ice dynamics enhance the dependency of the spatiotemporally varying GIA signal on three-dimensional variations in mantle rheology. Improved knowledge of thermomechanical [...]

Complex fault system revealed from 3-D seismic reflection data with deep learning and fault network analysis

Thilo Wrona, Indranil Pan, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Understanding where normal faults are is critical to an accurate assessment of seismic hazard, the successful exploration for and production of natural (including low-carbon) resources, and for the safe subsurface storage of CO2. Our current knowledge of normal fault systems is largely derived from seismic reflection data imaging intra-continental rifts and continental margins. However, [...]

Broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometer Noise Properties

Helen A Janiszewski, Zachary Eilon, Joshua Russell, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

We present a new compilation and analysis of broadband ocean bottom seismometer noise properties from 15 years of seismic deployments. We compile a comprehensive dataset of representative four-component (seismometer and pressure gauge) noise spectra and cross-spectral properties (coherence, phase, and admittance) for 551 unique stations spanning 18 US-led experiments. This is matched with a [...]

Rheology of debris-flow materials is controlled by the distance from jamming

Robert P Kostynick, Hadis Matinpour, Shravan Pradeep, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Debris flows are dense and fast-moving complex suspensions of soil and water that threaten lives and infrastructure. Assessing the hazard potential of debris flows requires predicting yield and flow behavior. Reported measurements of rheology for debris-flow slurries are highly variable and sometimes contradictory, due to heterogeneity in grain size, shape, chemical composition, and solid-volume [...]

The signature of lithospheric anisotropy at post-subduction continental margins: new insight from XKS splitting analysis in northern Borneo

Conor Andrew Bacon, Nicholas Rawlinson, Simone Pilia, et al.

Published: 2022-05-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The relative paucity of recent post-subduction environments globally has meant that, so far, little is known about tectonic processes that occur during and after subduction termination, as previously convergent tectonic plates adjust to the new stress regime. The region of Southeast Asia that now encompasses northern Borneo has been host to two sequential episodes of subduction—both now [...]

Tidal Turbine Array Modelling using Goal-Oriented Mesh Adaptation

Joseph Gregory Wallwork, Athanasios Angeloudis, Nicolas Barral, et al.

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Partial Differential Equations

Purpose: To examine the accuracy and sensitivity of tidal array performance assessment by numerical techniques applying goal-oriented mesh adaptation. Methods: The goal-oriented framework is designed to give rise to adaptive meshes upon which a given diagnostic quantity of interest (QoI) can be accurately captured, whilst maintaining a low overall computational cost. We seek to improve the [...]

Uncertainty quantification of multi-modal surface wave inversion using artificial neural networks

Alexandr Yablokov, Yevgeniya Lugovtsova, Aleksander Serdyukov

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An inversion of surface waves dispersion curves is a non-unique and ill-conditioned problem. The inversion result has a probabilistic nature, what becomes apparent when simultaneously restoring the shear wave (S-wave) velocity and layer thickness. Therefore, the problem of uncertainty quantification is relevant. Existing methods through deterministic or global optimization approaches of [...]


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