Filtering by Subject: Geophysics and Seismology

Kathmandu Basin as a local modulator of seismic waves: 2D modelling of nonlinear site response under obliquely incident waves

Elif Oral, Peyman Ayoubi, Jean-Paul Ampuero, et al.

Published: 2021-10-14
Subjects: Civil Engineering, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering

The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is the largest event to have struck the capital city of Kathmandu in recent times. One of its surprising features was the frequency content of the recorded ground motion, exhibiting a notable amplification at low frequencies (< 2 Hz) and a contrasting depletion at higher frequencies. The latter has been partially attributed to the damper behaviour of the [...]

Foraminiferal Analysis of Holocene Sea Level Rise within Trinity River Incised Paleo-Valley, Offshore Galveston Bay, Texas

Patricia Standring, Christopher Lowery, Jacob Burstein, et al.

Published: 2021-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleontology

Sea-level is expected to continue to rise in the next century, and as society prepares to deal with this hazard it is critically important to understand how coastal systems will respond, especially in regions with rapid rates of coastal erosion and relative sea-level rise like the Gulf of Mexico Texas coast. Tide gauge records in Galveston Bay, Texas, indicate that local sea level rise rates are [...]

A Mixed, Unified Forward/Inverse Framework for Earthquake Problems: Fault Implementation and Coseismic Slip Estimate

Simone Puel, Eldar Khattatov, Umberto Villa, et al.

Published: 2021-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We introduce a new finite-element (FE) based computational framework to solve forward and inverse elastic deformation problems for earthquake faulting via the adjoint method. Based on two advanced computational libraries, FEniCS and hIPPYlib for the forward and inverse problems, respectively, this framework is flexible, transparent, and easily extensible. We represent a fault discontinuity [...]

Improved Seismic Monitoring with OBS Deployment in the Arctic: A Pilot Study from Offshore Western Svalbard

Zeinab Jeddi, Lars Ottemöller, Mathilde Bøttger Sørensen, et al.

Published: 2021-10-04
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

The mid-ocean ridge system is the main source of earthquakes within the Arctic region. The earthquakes are recorded on the permanent land-based stations in the region, although smaller earthquakes remain undetected. In this study, we make use of three Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) that were deployed offshore western Svalbard, along the spreading ridges. The OBS arrival times were used to [...]

Seismic and Acoustic Monitoring of Submarine Landslides: Ongoing Challenges, Recent Successes and Future Opportunities

Michael Clare, D. Gwyn Lintern, Ed Pope, et al.

Published: 2021-10-04
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography, Sedimentology

Submarine landslides pose a hazard to coastal communities due to the tsunamis they can generate, and can damage critical seafloor infrastructure, such as the network of cables that underpin global data transfer and communications. These mass movements can be orders of magnitude larger than their onshore equivalents and are found on all of the world’s continental margins; from coastal zones to [...]

Oblique convergence causes both thrust and strike-slip ruptures during the 2021 M 7.2 Haiti earthquake

Ryo Okuwaki, Wenyuan Fan

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A devastating magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck Southern Haiti on 14 August 2021. The earthquake caused severe damages and over 2000 casualties. Resolving the earthquake rupture process can provide critical insights into hazard mitigation. Here we use integrated seismological analyses to obtain the rupture history of the 2021 earthquake. We find the earthquake first broke a blind thrust fault and [...]

Rapid characterisation of the extremely large landslide threatening the Rules Reservoir (Southern Spain)

Cristina Reyes-Carmona, Jorge P Galve, Marcos Moreno-Sánchez, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology

When an active landslide is first identified in an artificial reservoir, a comprehensive study has to be quickly conducted to analyse the possible hazard that it may represent to such a critical infrastructure. This paper presents the case of the El Arrecife Landslide, located in a slope of the Rules Reservoir (Southern Spain), as an example of geological and motion data integration for [...]

An anisotropic equation of state for high pressure, high temperature applications

Robert Myhill

Published: 2021-09-25
Subjects: Condensed Matter Physics, Geophysics and Seismology, Materials Science and Engineering, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Mineral Physics

This paper presents a strategy for consistently extending isotropic equations of state to model anisotropic materials over a wide range of pressures and temperatures under nearly hydrostatic conditions. The method can be applied to materials of arbitrary symmetry. The paper provides expressions for the deformation gradient tensor, the lattice parameters, the isothermal elastic compliance tensor [...]

Structural controls on earthquake rupture revealed by the 2020 Mw 6.0 Jiashi earthquake (Kepingtag belt, SW Tian Shan, China)

Siyu Wang, Edwin Nissen, Timothy J Craig, et al.

Published: 2021-09-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

The Kepingtag (Kalpin) fold-and-thrust belt of the southern Chinese Tian Shan is characterized by active shortening and intense seismic activity. Geological cross-sections and seismic reflection profiles suggest thin-skinned, northward-dipping thrust sheets detached in an Upper Cambrian décollement. The January 19 2020 Mw 6.0 Jiashi earthquake provides an opportunity to investigate how coseismic [...]

Deep Deconvolution for Traffic Analysis with Distributed Acoustic Sensing Data

Martijn van den Ende, André Ferrari, Anthony Sladen, et al.

Published: 2021-09-23
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geophysics and Seismology, Transportation Engineering

Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is a novel vibration sensing technology that can be employed to detect vehicles and to analyse traffic flows using existing telecommunication cables. DAS therefore has great potential in future "smart city" developments, such as real-time traffic incident detection. Though previous studies have considered vehicle detection under relatively light traffic [...]

Imaging an Underwater Basin and its Resonance Modes using Optical Fiber Distributed Acoustic Sensing

Itzhak Lior, Diego E Mercerat, Diane Rivet, et al.

Published: 2021-09-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Distributed acoustic sensing is an ideal tool for ambient noise tomography owing to the dense spatial measurements and the ability to continuously record in harsh environments, such as underwater. We demonstrate the ability to image a complex underwater basin using ambient noise recorded on a fiber deployed offshore Greece. A two-dimensional shear-wave velocity model was derived by analyzing [...]

Shear-wave Anisotropy in the Earth’s Inner Core

Sheng Wang, Hrvoje Tkalčić

Published: 2021-09-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Earth’s inner core anisotropy is widely used to infer the deep Earth's evolution and present dynamics. Many compressional-wave anisotropy models have been proposed based on seismological observations. In contrast, inner-core shear-wave (J-wave) anisotropy – on a par with the compressional-wave anisotropy – has been elusive. Here we present a new class of the J-wave anisotropy observations [...]

Stress-based forecasting of induced seismicity with instantaneous earthquake failure functions: Applications to the Groningen Gas Reservoir.

Jonathan Daniel Smith, Elias Rafn Heimisson, Stephen Bourne, et al.

Published: 2021-09-15
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

The Groningen gas field is a natural laboratory to test stress-based forecasting models of induced seismicity due to the detailed knowledge of the reservoir geometry and production history, as well as the availability of surface subsidence measurements and high quality seismicity data. A specific feature of that case example is the exponential rise of seismicity that was detected nearly 30 years [...]

Three-dimensional fluid-driven stable frictional ruptures

Alexis Sáez, Brice Lecampion, Pathikrit Bhattacharya, et al.

Published: 2021-09-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

We investigate the quasi-static growth of a fluid-driven frictional shear crack that propagates in mixed mode (II+III) on a planar fault interface that separates two identical half-spaces of a three-dimensional solid. The fault interface is characterized by a shear strength equal to the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. Fluid is injected into the [...]

Assessment pebble virtual velocity from combined active RFID fixed stations and geophones

Mathieu Cassel, Hervé Piégay, Oldrich Navratil, et al.

Published: 2021-09-06
Subjects: Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology

The monitoring of coarse sediment transport is a domain teeming with technical innovations and methodological developments aimed at improving the characterization of bedload processes at different spatial and temporal scales. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has improved sediment tracking experiments, allowing the characterization of processes at the individual particle and [...]


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