Filtering by Subject: Geophysics and Seismology

Anatomy of Strike Slip Fault Tsunami-genesis

Ahmed Elbanna, Mohamed Abdelmeguid, Xiao Ma, Faisal Amlani, Harsha S. Bhat, Costas Synolakis, Ares J. Rosakis

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Tsunami generation from earthquake induced seafloor deformations has long been recognized as a major hazard to coastal areas. Strike-slip faulting has generally been believed as insufficient for triggering large tsunamis, except through the generation of submarine landslides. Herein, we demonstrate that ground motions due to strike-slip earthquakes can contribute to the emergence of large [...]

Recording earthquakes for tomographic imaging of the mantle beneath the South Pacific by autonomous MERMAID floats

Joel D Simon, Jessica C. E. Irving, Frederik Simons

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

We present the first 16 months of data returned from a mobile array of 16 freely-floating diving instruments, named MERMAID for Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers, launched in French Polynesia in late 2018. Our 16 are a subset of the 50 MERMAIDs deployed over a number of subsequent cruises in this vast and understudied oceanic province as part of the collaborative [...]

Coordination Numbers in Natural Beach Sand

Vashan Wright, Amy Ferrick, Michael Manga

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Sedimentology

Coordination number controls elastic moduli, seismic velocity, and force transmission in sands and is thus a critical factor controlling the resistance of sands to deformation. Previous studies quantified relationships between coordination number, porosity, grain size, sphericity, and effective stress in pluviated or modeled sands. Here, we determine if these relationships hold in [...]

Earthquake clusters analysis in Central and East Java region, Indonesia, based on hypocenter determination and relocation with waveform cross-correlation

Faiz Muttaqy, Andri Dian Nugraha, Nanang T. Puspito, David P. Sahara, Zulfakriza Zulfakriza, Supriyanto Rohadi, Pepen Supendi

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

The Central and East Java region, which is part of Sunda Arc, has relatively high seismicity rates due to the convergence between two major tectonic plates in Indonesia region, the Indo-Australian plate that subducts under the Eurasian plate. Many devastating earthquakes in the study area occurred as results of these plates interaction, such as the 1994 Banyuwangi earthquake (Mw 7.6) and the 2006 [...]

Deformation memory in the lithosphere: A comparison of damage-dependent weakening and grain-size sensitive rheologies

Lukas Fuchs, Thorsten W. Becker

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Strain localization in the lithosphere and the formation, evolution, and maintenance of resulting plate boundaries play a crucial role in plate tectonics and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Previously activated lithospheric deformation zones often appear to maintain a “memory” of weakening, leading to tectonic inheritance within plate reorganizations including the Wilson cycle. Different [...]

Low significance of foreshock activity in Southern California

Luc Moutote, David Marsan, Olivier Lengliné, Zacharie Duputel

Published: 2020-11-20
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Earthquakes preceding large events are commonly referred as foreshocks. They are often considered as precursory signals reflecting the nucleation process of the main rupture. Such foreshock sequences may also be explained by cascades of triggered events. Recent advances in earthquake detection is a motivation to re-evaluate seismicity variations prior to mainshocks. Based on a highly complete [...]

Mantle earthquakes in recently thinned Neoproterozoic lithosphere: Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia

Alexander Robert Blanchette, Simon L Klemperer, Walter D Mooney, Hani M Zahran

Published: 2020-11-20
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

We use earthquake geothermometry, measured heat flow, and structural constraints from P-wave receiver functions to model the thermal evolution of the lithosphere beneath Harrat Lunayyir. We suggest that the lithosphere thinned to its present 60-km thickness in a second stage of lithospheric thinning at 15–12 Ma following initial Red Sea extension at ~27 Ma. Harrat Lunayyir is an active volcanic [...]

Future magnitude 7.5 earthquake offshore Martinique: Spotlight on major source-related factors of ground-motion variability

Elif Oral, Claudio Satriano

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering

The eastern offshore of Martinique is one of the active areas of the Lesser Antilles Subduc tion Zone (LASZ). Although its seismicity is moderate compared to other subduction zones, LASZ is capable of generating a M 7+ interplate earthquake and recent studies and historical events, such as the M8 1839 and M 7-7.5 1946 earthquakes, confirm this possibility. Given the high risk that Martinique can [...]

International Meeting 40 years of the 1980 Azores Earthquake, 6th - 7th October 2020 - Conference Report

Joao Fontiela, Mourad Bezzeghoud, Carlos Sousa Oliveira, Mónica Amaral Ferreira, Joao Carlos Nunes

Published: 2020-11-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering

The main goal of the International Meeting “40 Years of the 1980 Azores Earthquake” was promoting a reflection of the earthquake of January 1st, 1980, and the advances since them on topics like seismology, seismic hazard, and risk, building rehabilitation and public policies. Nevertheless, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the organizing committee decided that the meeting should be online and [...]

On the use of rock physics models for studying the critical zone

Vashan Wright, Matt Hornbach

Published: 2020-11-12
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

How effective are rock physics models for relating seismic velocities to the physical properties of sediments, fluids, and cement within the critical zone, and what factors most substantially influence the models’ accuracies? We answer these questions by testing and analyzing the accuracies of seven rock physics models (Hertz-Mindlin, Walton, Jenkins, Digby, stiff sand, soft sand, and contact [...]

The effects of 180 years of aging on the physical and seismic properties of partially saturated sands

Vashan Wright, Matt Hornbach

Published: 2020-11-12
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Constraining how the physical properties and seismic responses of recently deposited sands change with time is important for understanding earthquake site response, subsurface fluid flow, and early stages lithification. Currently, however, there is no detailed (cm-scale) assessment of how sand physical properties and associated seismic velocities evolve over the first two centuries after [...]

Utilizing Distributed Acoustic Sensing and Ocean Bottom Fiber Optic Cables for Submarine Structural Characterization

Feng Cheng, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin, Benxin Chi, Nathaniel J. Lindsey, Craig T. Dawe

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography

The sparsity of permanent seismic instrumentation in marine environments often limits the availability of subsea information on geohazards, including active fault systems, in both time and space. One sensing resource that may provide observational access to the seafloor environment are existing networks of ocean bottom fiber optic cables; these cables, coupled to modern distributed acoustic [...]

An attempt at improving atmospheric corrections in InSAR using cycle-consistent adversarial networks

Guillaume Rongier, Cody M. Rude, Thomas Herring, Victor Pankratius

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Interferometry from satellite radar has thrived as a major asset to study surface deformations from earthquakes, volcanoes, aquifers, glaciers, landslides, etc. Most signals recorded in an interferogram have precise enough models to remove them almost completely. Yet, current models still fail to capture the full range and scales of variations of atmospheric perturbations. This work explores the [...]

Surface slip distributions and geometric complexity of intraplate reverse-faulting earthquakes

Haibin Yang, Mark Quigley, Tamarah King

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Earthquake ground surface ruptures provide insights into faulting mechanics and inform seismic hazard analyses. Surface ruptures for eleven historical (1968 to 2018) moment magnitude (Mw) 4.7 to 6.6 reverse earthquakes in Australia are analyzed using statistical techniques and compared to magnetic, gravity, and stress trajectory datasets. Of the total combined (summative) length of all surface [...]

Thickness of the Saudi Arabian Crust

Alexander Robert Blanchette, Simon L Klemperer, Walter D Mooney, Hani M Zahran

Published: 2020-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We analyzed P-wave receiver functions from seismic stations covering most of Saudi Arabia to map the thickness of the crust across the Arabian plate. We present an update of crustal-thickness estimates and fill in data gaps for the western shield and the rifted margin at the Red Sea, as well as the eastern Arabian platform. Our application of a conventional H-k stacking algorithm included [...]


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