Filtering by Subject: Geophysics and Seismology

Multivariate statistical appraisal of regional susceptibility to induced seismicity: application to the Permian Basin, SW United States

Stephen Paul Hicks, Saskia Goes, Alexander C Whittaker, et al.

Published: 2021-07-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Induced earthquake sequences are typically interpreted through causal triggering mechanisms. However, studies of causality rarely consider large regions and why some regions experiencing similar anthropogenic activities remain largely aseismic. Therefore, it can be difficult to forecast seismic hazard at a regional scale. In contrast, multivariate statistical methods allow us to find the [...]

A reappraisal of active tectonics along the Fethiye-Burdur trend, southwestern Turkey

Edwin Nissen, Mussaver Didem Cambaz, Élyse Gaudreau, et al.

Published: 2021-07-07
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

We investigate active tectonics in southwestern Turkey along the trend between Fethiye, near the eastern end of the Hellenic subduction zone, and Burdur, on the Anatolian plateau. Previously, regional GPS velocity data have been used to propose either (1) a NE-trending zone of strike-slip faulting coined the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, or (2) a mix of uniaxial and radial extension accommodated by [...]

Excitation of back-arc tsunamis from megathrust ruptures: The underdog hazard in the Sea of Japan

Amir Salaree, Yihe Huang

Published: 2021-07-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake created a moderate tsunami in the back-arc Sea of Japan basin. This tsunami went largely unnoticed due to its small size and the significant coverage of the large fore-arc waves. We present a physical dislocation model for the excitation of back-arc tsunamis and identify fault dip as the main geometrical contributor to the propagation of back-arc tsunamis. Using [...]

Subduction earthquakes controlled by incoming plate geometry: The 2020 M>7.5 Shumagin, Alaska, earthquake doublet

Yu Jiang, Pablo J. González, Roland Bürgmann

Published: 2021-07-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In 2020, an earthquake doublet, a M7.8 on July 22nd and a M7.6 on October 19th, struck the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone beneath the Shumagin Islands. This is the first documented earthquake doublet, of considerable size, involving a megathrust event and a strike-slip event, with both events producing deeply buried ruptures. The first event partially ruptured a seismic gap, which has not hosted [...]

Interplay of seismic and a-seismic deformation during the 2020 sequence of Atacama, Chile.

Emilied Klein, Bertrand Potin, Francisco Pasten-Araya, et al.

Published: 2021-07-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An earthquake sequence occurred in the Atacama region of Chile throughout September 2020. The sequence initiated by a mainshock of magnitude Mw6.9, followed 17 hours later by a Mw6.4 aftershock. The sequence lasted several weeks, during which more than a thousand events larger than Ml 1 occurred, including several larger earthquakes of magnitudes between 5.5 and 6.4. Using a dense network that [...]

Deglaciation-enhanced mantle CO2 fluxes at Yellowstone imply positive climate feedback

Fiona Clerc, Mark Behn, Brent Minchew

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The generation of mantle melts in response to decompression by glacial unloading has been linked to enhanced volcanic activity and volatile release in Iceland and in global eruptive records. However, it is unclear whether this process is also important in magmatically-active systems that do not show evidence of enhanced eruption rates. For example, the deglaciation of the Yellowstone ice cap did [...]

Rift kinematics preserved in deep-time erosional landscape below the northern North Sea

Thilo Wrona, Alexander C Whittaker, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Our understanding of continental rifting is largely derived from the stratigraphic record. This archive is, however, incomplete as it does not capture the geomorphic and erosional record of rifting. New 3D seismic reflection data reveals a Late Permian-Early Triassic landscape incised into the pre-rift basement of the northern North Sea. This landscape, which covers at least 542 km2, preserves a [...]

A Multiphysics approach to constrain the dynamics of the Altiplano-Puna magmatic system

Arne Spang, Tobias S. Baumann, Boris J. P. Kaus

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Volcanology

Continuous Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) monitoring (> 25 years) has revealed a concentric surface deformation pattern above the Altiplano-Puna magma body (APMB) in the central Andes. Here, we use a joint interpretation of seismic imaging, gravity anomalies and InSAR data to constrain location, 3D geometry and density of the magma body. By combining gravity modelling, [...]

An autonomous petrological database for geodynamic simulations of magmatic systems

Lisa Rummel, Tobias S. Baumann, Boris J. P. Kaus

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Self-consistent modelling of magmatic systems is challenging as the melt continuously changes its chemical composition upon crystallization, which may affect the mechanical behaviour of the system. Melt extraction and subsequent crystallization create new rocks while depleting the source region. As the chemistry of the source rocks changes locally due to melt extraction, new calculations of the [...]

Insights into the compositional evolution of crustal magmatic systems from coupled petrological-geodynamical models

Lisa Rummel, Boris J. P. Kaus, Tobias S. Baumann, et al.

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The evolution of crustal magmatic systems is incompletely understood, as most studies are limited either by their temporal or spatial resolution. Exposed plutonic rocks represent the final stage of a long-term evolution punctuated by several magmatic events with different chemistry and generated under different mechanical conditions. Although the final state can be easily described, the nature of [...]

Paleomagnetism from multi-orogenic terranes is "not a simple game": Pyrenees' Paleozoic warning

Daniel Pastor-Galán, Oscar Groenhof, Emilio L. Pueyo, et al.

Published: 2021-06-21
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Paleomagnetism is a versatile tool in the Earth sciences: it provides critical input to geological time scales and plate tectonic reconstructions. Despite its undeniable perks, paleomagnetism is not without complications. Remagnetizations overprinting the original magnetic signature of rocks are frequent, especially in orogens which tend to be the areas with better rock exposure. Unraveling the [...]

Modeling P waves in seismic noise correlations: Advancing fault monitoring using train traffic sources

Korbinian Sager, Victor C. Tsai, Yixiao Sheng, et al.

Published: 2021-06-20
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physics

The theory of Green's function retrieval essentially requires homogeneously distributed noise sources. Even though these conditions are not fulfilled in nature, low-frequency (<1 Hz) surface waves generated by ocean-crust interactions have been used successfully to image the crust with unprecedented spatial resolution. In contrast to low-frequency surface waves, high-frequency (>1 Hz) body waves [...]

Geodynamic, geodetic, and seismic constraints favour deflated and dense-cored LLVPs

Fred Richards, Mark Hoggard, Siavash Ghelichkhan, et al.

Published: 2021-06-18
Subjects: Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Two continent-sized features in the deep mantle, the large low-velocity provinces (LLVPs), influence Earth's supercontinent cycles, mantle plume generation, and its geochemical budget. Seismological advances have steadily improved LLVP imaging, but several fundamental questions remain unanswered, including: What is their vertical extent? And, are they purely thermal anomalies, or are they also [...]

Constraining families of dynamic models using geological, geodetic and strong ground motion data: the Mw 6.5, October 30th, 2016, Norcia earthquake, Italy

Elisa Tinti, Emanuele Casarotti, Thomas Ulrich, et al.

Published: 2021-06-11
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

The 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence is characterized by remarkable rupture complexity, including highly heterogeneous slip across multiple faults in an extensional tectonic regime. The dense coverage and high quality of geodetic and seismic data allow to image intriguing details of the rupture kinematics of the largest earthquake of the sequence, the Mw 6.5 October 30th, 2016 Norcia [...]

A Reduced Order Approach for Probabilistic Inversions of 3D Magnetotelluric Data II: Joint inversion of 3D MT and Surface-Wave Data

Maria Constanza Manassero, Juan Carlos Afonso, Fabio Ivan Zyserman, et al.

Published: 2021-06-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Joint probabilistic inversions of magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic data has great potential for imaging the thermochemical structure of the lithosphere as well as mapping fluid/melt pathways and regions of mantle metasomatism. In this contribution we present a novel probabilistic (Bayesian) joint inversion scheme for 3D MT and surface-wave dispersion data particularly designed for large-scale [...]


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