Filtering by Subject: Geophysics and Seismology

An optimization method for paleomagnetic Euler pole analysis

Leandro Cesar Gallo, Facundo Sapienza, Mathew Domeier

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

Owing to the inherent axial symmetry of the Earth’s magnetic field, paleomagnetic data only directly record the latitudinal and azimuthal positions of crustal blocks in the past, but paleolongitude cannot be constrained. An ability to overcome this obstacle is fundamental to paleogeographic reconstruction. The paleomagnetic Euler pole (PEP) analysis presents a unique means to recover such [...]

Simultaneous Inference of Plate Boundary Stresses and Mantle Rheology Using Adjoints: Large-Scale Two-Dimensional Models

Johann Rudi, Michael Gurnis, Georg Stadler

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Plate motions are a primary surface constraint on plate and mantle dynamics and rheology, plate boundary stresses, and the occurrence of great earthquakes. Within an optimization method, we use plate motion data to better constrain uncertain mantle parameters. For the optimization problem characterizing the maximum a posteriori rheological parameters we derive gradients using adjoints and [...]

Subsurface temperature from seismic reflection data: application to the post break up sequence offshore Namibia

Arka Dyuti Sarkar, Mads Huuse

Published: 2021-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

Accurate estimations of present-day subsurface temperatures are of critical importance to the energy industry, in particular with regards to geothermal energy and petroleum exploration. This paper uses seismic reflection observations of bottom-simulating reflections and subsurface velocities coupled with an empirical velocity to thermal conductivity transform to estimate subsurface temperature in [...]

Persistent shallow micro-seismicity at Llaima volcano, Chile, with implications for long-term monitoring

Oliver Lamb, Jonathan M Lees, Luis Franco Marin, et al.

Published: 2021-11-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Identifying the source mechanisms of low-frequency earthquakes at ice-covered volcanoes can be challenging due to overlapping characteristics of glacially and magmatically derived seismicity. Here we present an analysis of two months of seismic data from Llaima volcano, Chile, recorded by the permanent monitoring network in 2019. We find over 2,000 repeating low-frequency events split across 82 [...]

Reproducibility in subsurface geoscience

Michael J. Steventon, Chris Jackson, Mark Ireland, et al.

Published: 2021-10-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Reproducibility, the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment or study is repeated, sits at the foundation of science. The aim of this process is to produce robust findings and knowledge, with reproducibility being the screening tool to benchmark how well we are implementing the scientific method. However, the re-examination of results from many disciplines has caused [...]

Kathmandu Basin as a local modulator of seismic waves: 2D modelling of nonlinear site response under obliquely incident waves

Elif Oral, Peyman Ayoubi, Jean Paul Ampuero, et al.

Published: 2021-10-14
Subjects: Civil Engineering, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering

The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is the largest event to have struck the capital city of Kathmandu in recent times. One of its surprising features was the frequency content of the recorded ground motion, exhibiting a notable amplification at low frequencies (< 2 Hz) and a contrasting depletion at higher frequencies. The latter has been partially attributed to the damper behaviour of the [...]

Foraminiferal Analysis of Holocene Sea Level Rise within Trinity River Incised Paleo-Valley, Offshore Galveston Bay, Texas

Patricia Standring, Christopher Michael Lowery, Jacob Burstein, et al.

Published: 2021-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleontology

Sea-level is expected to continue to rise in the next century, and as society prepares to deal with this hazard it is critically important to understand how coastal systems will respond, especially in regions with rapid rates of coastal erosion and relative sea-level rise like the Gulf of Mexico Texas coast. Tide gauge records in Galveston Bay, Texas, indicate that local sea level rise rates are [...]

A Mixed, Unified Forward/Inverse Framework for Earthquake Problems: Fault Implementation and Coseismic Slip Estimate

Simone Puel, Eldar Khattatov, Umberto Villa, et al.

Published: 2021-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We introduce a new finite-element (FE) based computational framework to solve forward and inverse elastic deformation problems for earthquake faulting via the adjoint method. Based on two advanced computational libraries, FEniCS and hIPPYlib for the forward and inverse problems, respectively, this framework is flexible, transparent, and easily extensible. We represent a fault discontinuity [...]

Improved Seismic Monitoring with OBS Deployment in the Arctic: A Pilot Study from Offshore Western Svalbard

Zeinab Jeddi, Lars Ottemöller, Mathilde Bøttger Sørensen, et al.

Published: 2021-10-04
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

The mid-ocean ridge system is the main source of earthquakes within the Arctic region. The earthquakes are recorded on the permanent land-based stations in the region, although smaller earthquakes remain undetected. In this study, we make use of three Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) that were deployed offshore western Svalbard, along the spreading ridges. The OBS arrival times were used to [...]

Seismic and Acoustic Monitoring of Submarine Landslides: Ongoing Challenges, Recent Successes and Future Opportunities

Michael Andrew Clare, D. Gwyn Lintern, Ed Pope, et al.

Published: 2021-10-04
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography, Sedimentology

Submarine landslides pose a hazard to coastal communities due to the tsunamis they can generate, and can damage critical seafloor infrastructure, such as the network of cables that underpin global data transfer and communications. These mass movements can be orders of magnitude larger than their onshore equivalents and are found on all of the world’s continental margins; from coastal zones to [...]

Oblique convergence causes both thrust and strike-slip ruptures during the 2021 M 7.2 Haiti earthquake

Ryo Okuwaki, Wenyuan Fan

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A devastating magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck Southern Haiti on 14 August 2021. The earthquake caused severe damage and over 2000 casualties. Resolving the earthquake rupture process can provide critical insights into hazard mitigation. Here we use integrated seismological analyses to obtain the rupture history of the 2021 earthquake. We find the earthquake first broke a blind thrust fault and [...]

Rapid characterisation of the extremely large landslide threatening the Rules Reservoir (Southern Spain)

Cristina Reyes-Carmona, Jorge P Galve, Marcos Moreno-Sánchez, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology

When an active landslide is first identified in an artificial reservoir, a comprehensive study has to be quickly conducted to analyse the possible hazard that it may represent to such a critical infrastructure. This paper presents the case of the El Arrecife Landslide, located in a slope of the Rules Reservoir (Southern Spain), as an example of geological and motion data integration for [...]

An anisotropic equation of state for high pressure, high temperature applications

Robert Myhill

Published: 2021-09-25
Subjects: Condensed Matter Physics, Geophysics and Seismology, Materials Science and Engineering, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Mineral Physics

This paper presents a strategy for consistently extending isotropic equations of state to model anisotropic materials over a wide range of pressures and temperatures under nearly hydrostatic conditions. The method can be applied to materials of arbitrary symmetry. The paper provides expressions for the deformation gradient tensor, the lattice parameters, the isothermal elastic compliance tensor [...]

Structural controls on earthquake rupture revealed by the 2020 Mw 6.0 Jiashi earthquake (Kepingtag belt, SW Tian Shan, China)

Siyu Wang, Edwin Nissen, Timothy J Craig, et al.

Published: 2021-09-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

The Kepingtag (Kalpin) fold-and-thrust belt of the southern Chinese Tian Shan is characterized by active shortening and intense seismic activity. Geological cross-sections and seismic reflection profiles suggest thin-skinned, northward-dipping thrust sheets detached in an Upper Cambrian décollement. The January 19 2020 Mw 6.0 Jiashi earthquake provides an opportunity to investigate how coseismic [...]

Deep Deconvolution for Traffic Analysis with Distributed Acoustic Sensing Data

Martijn van den Ende, André Ferrari, Anthony Sladen, et al.

Published: 2021-09-23
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geophysics and Seismology, Transportation Engineering

Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is a novel vibration sensing technology that can be employed to detect vehicles and to analyse traffic flows using existing telecommunication cables. DAS therefore has great potential in future "smart city" developments, such as real-time traffic incident detection. Though previous studies have considered vehicle detection under relatively light traffic [...]


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