Filtering by Subject: Hydrology

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

Impacts of a regional multi-year insect defoliation event on seasonal runoff ratios and instantaneous streamflow characteristics

Sarah Smith-Tripp, Alden Griffith, Valerie Pasquarella, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes

Published: 2020-10-27
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Hydrology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Repeated moderate severity forest disturbances can cause short- and long-term shifts in ecosystem processes. Prior work has found that stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., clear-cutting) increases streamflow in temperate forests, but streamflow responses to repeated moderate severity disturbances are more equivocal. This study examined a moderate disturbance caused by an unexpected population [...]

Modeling transpiration with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence via water use efficiency and stomatal conductance

Huaize Feng, Tongren Xu, Jingxue Zhao, Xinlei He, Shaomin Liu

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology

Successfully applied in the carbon research area, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has raised the interest of researchers from the water research domain. However, the mechanism between SIF emitted by plants and transpiration (T) has not been fully explored. To improve the understanding of the relationship between SIF and T, we developed two SIF-T models, the WUE model and the [...]

A comprehensive study to understand the relationship of urbanization and population density with GRACE ΔTWS for selected study regions in India during 2003-2017

Amritendu Mukherjee, Parthasarathy Ramachandran

Published: 2020-10-24
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Hydrology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Planetary Hydrology, Remote Sensing, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

For the time period of January'2003 to January'2017, this pan-India study investigates the relationship of urbanization and population density with Ground Water Storage (GWS) indicated by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage changes (

Modulation of riverine concentration-discharge relationships by changes in the shape of the water transit time distribution

Mark Albert Torres, J. Jotautas Baronas

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Geochemistry, Hydrology

The concentrations of weathering-derived solutes in rivers and their co-variance with discharge are thought to reflect reactive-transport processes in hillslopes and to reveal the sensitivity of solute fluxes to climatic change. It is expected that discharge-driven changes in water transit times play some role in setting concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships, but knowledge gaps remain. To [...]

River Planform Extraction From High-Resolution SAR Images Via Generalised Gamma Distribution Superpixel Classification

Odysseas Pappas, Nantheera Anantrasirichai, Alin Achim, Byron Adams

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Computer Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology

The extraction of river planforms from remotely sensed satellite images is a task of crucial importance to many applications such as land planning, water resource monitoring or flood prediction. In this paper we present a novel framework for the extraction of rivers from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, based on superpixel segmentation and subsequent classification. Superpixel segmentation [...]

A machine learning approach for prioritizing groundwater testing for per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)

Sarabeth George, Atray Dixit

Published: 2020-10-19
Subjects: Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Risk Analysis, Water Resource Management

Regulatory agencies are beginning to recognize per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) as concerning and bioaccumulative compounds of which the use and environmental burden must be reduced. In the specific context of groundwater management, testing and mitigation strategies are desirable but can be time and cost-intensive processes. As a result, only a fraction of all groundwater wells has had [...]

Uncertainties in Projected Rainfall over Brazil: The Role of Climate Model, Bias Correction and Emission Scenario

Carolina Natel de Moura, Jan Seibert, Miriam Rita Moro Mine

Published: 2020-09-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The aim of this study is to answer four main questions: How well the Eta regional climate model simulates past precipitation over Brazil? What is the impact of bias correction on the reduction of model’s biases? What is the contribution of climate models, bias correction and emission scenarios to the total uncertainty of projected precipitation? And finally, what is the projected change in [...]

Quantification of non-linear multiphase flow in porous media

Yihuai Zhang, Branko Bijeljic, Ying Gao, Qingyang Lin, Martin J. Blunt

Published: 2020-08-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We measure the pressure difference during two-phase flow across a sandstone sample for a range of injection rates and fractional flows of water, the wetting phase, during an imbibition experiment. We quantify the onset of a transition from a linear relationship between flow rate and pressure gradient to a non-linear power-law dependence. We show that the transition from linear (Darcy) to [...]

Bedload transport in rivers: size matters but so does shape!

Mathieu Cassel, Jérôme Lavé, Alain Recking, Jean-René Malavoi, Hervé Piégay

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Bedload transport modelling in rivers, which defines the threshold for pebble movement, takes into account the size and density of pebbles, but does not formally consider particle shape. The lack of analyses evaluating the influences of shape and density on particle mobility presents a major deficiency. To address this issue and to compare the relative roles of the density and shape of particles, [...]

Variability of headwater stream network extents controlled by flow regime and network hydraulic scaling

Dana Lapides, Christine Denise Leclerc, Hana Moidu, David Dralle, W Jesse Hahm

Published: 2020-08-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Stream networks expand and contract through time, impacting chemical export, aquatic ecosystem habitat, and water quality. Although recent advances improve prediction of the extent of the wetted channel network (L) based on discharge at the catchment outlet (Q), controls on the temporal variability of L remain poorly understood and unquantified. Here we develop a quantitative, conceptual [...]

Hydrogeologic and Geochemical Distinctions in Salar Freshwater Brine Systems

Lee Ann Munk, David Boutt, Brendan J. Moran, Sarah McKnight, Jordan Jenckes

Published: 2020-08-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Salar de Atacama contains one of the world’s most important lithium resources and hosts unique and fragile desert ecosystems. Water use issues of the hyper-arid region have placed it at the center of global attention. This investigation is the first robust assessment of a salar system to incorporate geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry of the aquifer system in the inflow, transition zone [...]

Serious Gaming for Water Resources Planning and Hazard Mitigation

Aarin Teague, Yusuf Sermet, Ibrahim Demir, Marian Muste

Published: 2020-08-03
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Education, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Hydrological hazards lead to a broad range of socio-economic and environmental risks. The development of a resilient community and risk reduction heavily rely on the adoption of holistic watershed master planning whereby the adaptation options consider the risk associated with individual or multiple hydrological hazards occurring simultaneously at a specific location. Such planning approaches [...]

Revealing day-to-day evolution of snowpack and snow drought conditions with phase diagrams

Benjamin Hatchett, Daniel McEvoy

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Snow droughts commonly are defined as below average snowpack at a point in time, typically 1 April. This definition is valuable for interpreting the state of the snowpack for resource management but obscures the temporal evolution of snow drought. Borrowing from dynamical systems theory, we applied phase diagrams to visually examine the evolution of ephemeral snowpack conditions in maritime, [...]


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