Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Hydrology

Dam Break Simulation with HEC-RAS and OpenFOAM

Darren Jia

Published: 2021-09-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A dam break is a natural disaster that can cause significant property damage and loss of life. It's useful to identify potential flooding areas downstream in the event of a dam break. In this study both HEC-RAS and OpenFOAM are set up to simulate the inundation map downstream of the Dworshak dam in Idaho. Using the same topographical data from satellite observations, similar computational [...]

Tree cover change proves stability and instability in tropical ecosystems

Chandrakant Singh, Ruud van der Ent, Lan Wang-Erlandsson, et al.

Published: 2021-09-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Biology, Hydrology, Remote Sensing

Terrestrial tropical ecosystems’ resilience is determined predominantly based on space-for-time substitution, which assumes that the current ‘static’ frequency distribution of ecosystems’ tree cover structure across space also holds across time. However, dynamic and temporal aspects are increasingly important to explicitly account for under ongoing rapid climate change. Here, we empirically study [...]

An open workflow for the study of unseen weather extremes

Timo Kelder, Tim Marjoribanks, Louise Slater, et al.

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Climate, Hydrology, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Ensemble members from weather and climate predictions can be used to generate large samples of simulated weather events, allowing the estimation of extreme (hitherto unseen) events. Here, we provide a protocol and open workflow for applying the ‘UNSEEN’ method for hydro-climatic extremes globally, based on Copernicus Climate Change Services (C3S) seasonal predictions but also considering other [...]

Assessment pebble virtual velocity from combined active RFID fixed stations and geophones

Mathieu Cassel, Hervé Piégay, Oldrich Navratil, et al.

Published: 2021-09-06
Subjects: Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology

The monitoring of coarse sediment transport is a domain teeming with technical innovations and methodological developments aimed at improving the characterization of bedload processes at different spatial and temporal scales. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has improved sediment tracking experiments, allowing the characterization of processes at the individual particle and [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Near-term forecasts of stream temperature using process-guided deep learning and data assimilation

Jacob Aaron Zwart, Samantha Kay Oliver, William David Watkins, et al.

Published: 2021-08-13
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Hydrology, Statistics and Probability, Water Resource Management

Near-term forecasts of environmental outcomes can inform real-time decision making. Data assimilation modeling techniques can be used for forecasts to leverage real-time data streams, where the difference between model predictions and observations can be used to adjust the model to make better predictions tomorrow. In this use case, we developed a process-guided deep learning and data [...]

Drivers of phytoplankton responses to summer storms in a stratified lake: a modelling study

Jorrit P. Mesman, Ana I. Ayala, Stéphane Goyette, et al.

Published: 2021-08-03
Subjects: Hydrology, Other Environmental Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Extreme wind events affect lake phytoplankton amongst others by deepening the mixed layer and increasing internal nutrient loading. Both increases and decreases of phytoplankton biomass after storms have been observed, but the precise mechanisms driving these responses remain poorly understood or quantified. In this study, we coupled a one-dimensional physical model to a biogeochemical model to [...]

The world’s second-largest, recorded landslide event: lessons learnt from the landslides triggered during and after the 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake

Hakan Tanyas, Kevin Hill, Luke Mahoney, et al.

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Other Earth Sciences

Widespread landslide events provide rare but valuable opportunities to investigate the spatial and size distributions of landslides in relation to seismic, climatic, geological and morphological factors. This study presents a unique event inventory for the co-seismic landslides induced by the February 25, 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake as well as its post-seismic counterparts including [...]

Toward automating post processing of aquatic sensor data

Amber S Jones, Tanner Lex Jones, Jeffery S Horsburgh

Published: 2021-07-23
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Hydrology

Sensors measuring environmental phenomena at high frequency commonly report anomalies related to fouling, sensor drift and calibration, and datalogging and transmission issues. Suitability of data for analyses and decision making often depends on manual review and adjustment of data. Machine learning techniques have potential to automate identification and correction of anomalies, streamlining [...]

Onset of runaway fragmentation of salt marshes

Orencio Duran Vinent, Ellen Herbert, Daniel Coleman, et al.

Published: 2021-06-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sustainability

Salt marshes are valuable but vulnerable coastal ecosystems that adapt to relative sea level rise (RSLR) by accumulating organic matter and inorganic sediment. The natural limit of these processes defines a threshold rate of RSLR beyond which marshes drown, resulting in ponding and conversion to open waters. We develop a simplified formulation for sediment transport across marshes to show that [...]

Multidimensional simulation of PFAS transport and leaching in the vadose zone: impact of surfactant-induced flow and soil heterogeneities

Jicai Zeng, Bo Guo

Published: 2021-06-30
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Hydrology, Soil Science

PFAS are emergent contaminants of which fate and transport in the environment remain poorly understood. As surfactants, adsorption at air-water interfaces and solid surfaces in soils complicates the retention and leaching of PFAS in the vadose zone. Recent modeling studies accounting for the PFAS-specific nonlinear adsorption processes predicted that the majority of long-chain PFAS remain in the [...]

Phosphorus Retention in Lakes: A Critical Reassessment of Hypotheses and Static Models

Hamed Khorasani, Zhenduo Zhu

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Various hypotheses and models for phosphorus (P) retention in lakes are reviewed and 39 predictive models are assessed in three categories, namely mechanistic, semi-mechanistic, and strictly-empirical models. A large database consisting of 738 data points is gathered for the analyses. Assessing four pairs of competing hypotheses used in mechanistic models, we found that (i) simulating lakes as [...]

Fluid invasion dynamics in porous media with complex wettability and connectivity

Arjen Mascini, Marijn Boone, Stefanie Van Offenwert, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Complex Fluids, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Hydrology, Materials Science and Engineering, Other Materials Science and Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Transport Phenomena

Fluid invasion into porous materials is very common in natural and industrial processes. The fluid invasion dynamics in simple pore networks are governed by a global balance of capillary, viscous and inertial forces. However, significant local variability in this balance may exist inside natural, heterogeneous porous materials. Here, we imaged slow fluid intrusion in two sister samples of a [...]

Turbulent flow effects in hydraulic fracture propagation in permeable rock

Evgenii Kanin, Dmitry Garagash, Andrei Osiptsov

Published: 2021-06-14
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy

This chapter considers a model for a radial hydraulic fracture propagation in a permeable, linear elastic rock formation driven by a point source fluid injection. The linear elastic fracture mechanics theory controls the quasi-static propagation. The hydraulic fracturing fluid is slickwater -- pure water solution with polymeric additives which allow reducing the fluid flow friction in the [...]

Multi-task deep learning of daily streamflow and water temperature

Jeffrey Michael Sadler, Alison Paige Appling, Jordan S. Read, et al.

Published: 2021-06-04
Subjects: Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Deep learning models can accurately predict many hydrologic variables including streamflow and water temperature; however, these models have typically predicted hydrologic variables independently. This study explored the benefits of modeling two interdependent variables, daily average streamflow and daily average stream water temperature, together using multi-task deep learning. A multi-task [...]

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