Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Hydrology

Global climate-driven trade-offs between the water retention and cooling benefits of urban greening

Mark Cuthbert, Gabriel Rau, Adam Bates, Marie Ekstrom, Denis O'Carroll

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Engineering and Management, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Heat-related mortality and flooding are pressing challenges for the >4 billion urban population worldwide, exacerbated by increasing urbanization and climate change. Urban greening, such as green roofs and parks, can potentially help address both problems, but the geographical variation of the relative hydrological and thermal performance benefits of such interventions are unknown. Here we [...]

Numerical modeling of Earth's dynamic surface: a community approach

Gregory E Tucker, Eric Hutton, Mark Piper, Benjamin Campforts, Tian Gan, Katherine R Barnhart, Albert Kettner, Irina Overeem, Scott D Peckham, Lynn McCready, Jaia Syvitski

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy

Computational modelling occupies a unique niche in Earth environmental sciences. Models serve not just as scientific technology and infrastructure, but also as digital containers of the scientific community's understanding of the natural world. As this understanding improves, so too must the associated software. This dual nature---models as both infrastructure and hypotheses---means that [...]

Why do we have so many different hydrological models? A review based on the case of Switzerland

Pascal Horton, Bettina Schaefli, Martina Kauzlaric

Published: 2021-02-02
Subjects: Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Hydrology plays a central role in applied as well as fundamental environmental sciences, but it is well known to suffer from an overwhelming diversity of models, in particular to simulate streamflow. Based on Switzerland's example, we discuss here in detail how such diversity did arise even at the scale of such a small country. The case study's relevance stems from the fact that Switzerland shows [...]

Towards underwater plastic monitoring using echo sounding

Sophie Broere, Tim van Emmerik, Daniel González-Fernández, Willem Luxemburg, Matthieu de Schipper, Andrés Cózar, Nick van de Giesen

Published: 2021-01-25
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology

Plastics originating from land are mainly transported to the oceans by rivers. The total plastic transport from land to seas remains uncertain because of difficulties in measuring and the lack of standard observation techniques. A large focus in observations is on plastics floating on the water surface. However, an increasing number of observations suggest that large quantities of plastics are [...]

Plastic plants: Water hyacinths as driver of plastic transport in tropical rivers

Louise Schreyers, Tim van Emmerik, Thanh Luan Nguyen, Evelien Castrop, Ngoc-Anh Phung, Thuy-Chung Kieu-Le, Emilie Strady, Lauren Biermann, Martine van der Ploeg

Published: 2021-01-14
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

Recent studies suggest that water hyacinths play an important role in the transport of macroplastics in freshwater ecosystems. Forming large patches of several meters at the water surface, water hyacinths tend to entrain and aggregate large amounts of floating debris, including plastic items. Research on this topic is still novel and few studies have quantified the role of the water hyacinths in [...]

Assessing erosion and flood risk in the coastal zone through the application of the multilevel Monte Carlo method

Mariana C A Clare, Matthew Piggott, Colin J Cotter

Published: 2021-01-07
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Risk Analysis, Statistics and Probability

The risk from erosion and flooding in the coastal zone has the potential to increase in a changing climate. The development and use of coupled hydro-morphodynamic models is therefore becoming an ever higher priority. However, their use as decision support tools suffers from the high degree of uncertainty associated with them, due to incomplete knowledge as well as natural variability in the [...]

LakeEnsemblR: An R package that facilitates ensemble modelling of lakes

Tadhg N. Moore, Jorrit P. Mesman, Robert Ladwig, Johannes Feldbauer, Freya Olsson, Rachel M. Pilla, Tom Shatwell, Jason J. Venkiteswaran, Austin D. Delany, Hilary Dugan, Kevin C. Rose, Jordan S. Read

Published: 2021-01-06
Subjects: Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Water Resource Management

Model ensembles have several benefits compared to single-model applications but are not frequently used within the lake modelling community. Setting up and running multiple lake models can be challenging and time consuming, despite the many similarities between the existing models (forcing data, hypsograph, etc.). Here we present an R package, LakeEnsemblR, that facilitates running ensembles of [...]

Multi-decadal improvement in U.S. lake water clarity

Simon Nemer Topp, Tamlin M. Pavelsky, Emily H. Stanley, Xiao Yang, Claire G. Griffin, Matthew R.V. Ross

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Across the globe, recent work examining the state of freshwater resources paints an increasingly dire picture of degraded water quality. However, much of this work either focuses on a small subset of large waterbodies or uses in situ water quality datasets that contain biases in when and where sampling occurred. Using these unrepresentative samples limits our understanding of landscape level [...]

Uncertainty Estimation with Deep Learning for Rainfall-Runoff Modelling

Daniel Klotz, Frederik Kratzert, Martin Gauch, Alden Keefe Sampson, Günter Klambauer, Sepp Hochreiter, Grey Nearing

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology

Deep Learning is becoming an increasingly important way to produce accurate hydrological predictions across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Uncertainty estimations are critical for actionable hydrological forecasting, and while standardized community benchmarks are becoming an increasingly important part of hydrological model development and research, similar tools for benchmarking [...]

The influence of orbital parameters on the North American Monsoon system during the Last Interglacial Period

Nadja Insel, Max Berkelhammer

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The response of summer precipitation in the western U.S. to climate variability remains a subject of uncertainty. For example, paleoclimate records indicate the North American monsoon (NAM) was stronger and spatially more extensive during the Holocene, whereas recent modeling suggests a weakened NAM response to increasing temperatures. These illustrate diverging pictures of the NAM response to [...]

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Anne Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

Impacts of a regional multi-year insect defoliation event on seasonal runoff ratios and instantaneous streamflow characteristics

Sarah Smith-Tripp, Alden Griffith, Valerie Pasquarella, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes

Published: 2020-10-26
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Hydrology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Repeated moderate severity forest disturbances can cause short- and long-term shifts in ecosystem processes. Prior work has found that stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., clear-cutting) increases streamflow in temperate forests, but streamflow responses to repeated moderate severity disturbances are more equivocal. This study examined a moderate disturbance caused by an unexpected population [...]

Modeling transpiration with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence via water use efficiency and stomatal conductance

Huaize Feng, Tongren Xu, Jingxue Zhao, Xinlei He, Shaomin Liu

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology

Successfully applied in the carbon research area, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has raised the interest of researchers from the water research domain. However, the mechanism between SIF emitted by plants and transpiration (T) has not been fully explored. To improve the understanding of the relationship between SIF and T, we developed two SIF-T models, the WUE model and the [...]

A comprehensive study to understand the relationship of urbanization and population density with GRACE ΔTWS for selected study regions in India during 2003-2017

Amritendu Mukherjee, Parthasarathy Ramachandran

Published: 2020-10-24
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Hydrology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Planetary Hydrology, Remote Sensing, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

For the time period of January'2003 to January'2017, this pan-India study investigates the relationship of urbanization and population density with Ground Water Storage (GWS) indicated by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage changes (

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