Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Are We Just Treating The Symptoms?

David James Finlay

Published: 2022-01-15
Subjects: Life Sciences

The human caused rise in atmospheric greenhouse gases has been seen as the driver of both climate change and ocean acidification. However recent peer reviewed papers show that, while GHG emissions are part of the problem, the primary driver of both climate change and ocean acidification is human caused ecological degradation. Curbing greenhouse gas emissions, to date, has been an abject failure [...]

Copper availability governs nitrous oxide accumulation in wetland soils and stream sediments

Neha Sharma, Elaine D. Flynn, Jeffrey G. Catalano, et al.

Published: 2021-12-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geochemistry, Life Sciences

Denitrification is microbially-mediated through enzymes containing metal cofactors. Laboratory studies of pure cultures have highlighted that the availability of Cu, required for the multicopper enzyme nitrous oxide reductase, can limit N2O reduction. However, in natural aquatic systems, such as wetlands and hyporheic zones in stream beds, the role of Cu in controlling denitrification remains [...]

Unusual Suspects: “Allies in the Park, Are Closer Than They Appear”

candace gossen

Published: 2021-12-06
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

One season, 1039 hours, as a Park Ranger at Mesa Verde National Park. Interps we are called, observing, telling stories, being stewards of the past, present and future of wildness. Wildness in the animal world is reserved to only 4% of the planets millions of animals, Wildness is why people come to the National Parks, they are the last stronghold of beauty that bears presence in each of our [...]

rassta: Raster-based Spatial Stratification Algorithms

Bryan Andre Fuentes, Minerva Justine Dorantes, John Robert Tipton

Published: 2021-11-17
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

Spatial stratification of landscapes allows for the development of efficient sampling surveys, the inclusion of domain knowledge in data-driven modeling frameworks, and the production of information relating the spatial variability of response phenomena to that of landscape processes. This work presents the rassta package as a collection of algorithms dedicated to the spatial stratification of [...]

Regional analysis of climate projections using Bias Corrected spatial disaggregated super-resolution convolutional neural networks

AKASH AWASTHI

Published: 2021-11-04
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Climate change is very crucial for ecological systems and society. But Global climate models run at coarse spatial resolution which is difficult to do regional analysis. Regional-scale projections can be obtained by a technique called statistical downscaling which uses past data to find out the high resolution and low-resolution mapping. There are many methods for statistical downscaling of [...]

Toward the understanding of saline water intrusion and nutrient flushing in Lake Nokoué

Metogbe Belfrid Djihouessi, Rita Houngue, Firmin Adandedji, et al.

Published: 2021-11-03
Subjects: Life Sciences

To understand the salinity dynamic at the outlet of Lake Nokoué and to simulate the nutrient flushing from this lake into the Atlantic Ocean, a 2D hydrodynamic model was designed with Mike 21. The choice of the Mike 21 was motivated by the long practice that decision-makers in Benin have with this software. The Hydrodynamics (HD) module simulated water level variations and flows in response, [...]

Airborne laser scanning proxies of canopy light transmission in forests

Adam Michael Erickson, Nicholas Coops

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Software Engineering, Statistics and Probability

Reliable estimates of canopy light transmission are critical to understanding the structure and function of vegetation communities but are difficult and costly to attain by traditional field inventory methods. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data uniquely provide multi-angular vertically resolved representation of canopy geometry across large geographic areas. While previous studies have proposed [...]

Bridging knowledge gaps with hybrid machine-learning forest ecosystem models (ML-FEMs): inferential simulation of past understory light regimes

Adam Michael Erickson, Craig Nistchke

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

Soil moisture is a key limiting factor of plant productivity in boreal and montane regions, producing additional climate feedbacks through evaporation, regeneration, mortality, and respiration. Understory solar irradiation – the primary driver of surface temperature and evaporative demand – remains poorly represented in vegetation models due to a lack of 3-D canopy geometry. Existing models are [...]

Simulated decline of a northern forest due to anthropogenic controls on the regeneration-mortality balance

Adam Michael Erickson, Craig Nistchke, Gordon Stenhouse

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

The population structure of forests is shaped by balancing the opposing forces of regeneration and mortality, each of which influence C turnover rates and are sensitive to climate. Regeneration underlies the migrational potential of forests to climatic change and remains underserved in modeling studies. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that warming may reduce tree regeneration rates while [...]

Emergence of anthropogenic fire regimes in the southern boreal of Canada

Adam Michael Erickson

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

While radiative forcing and thus land surface temperatures have been shown to positively correlate with fire severity, precipitation, and lightning strike frequency, the effects of human activity on fire regimes remain difficult to disentangle from geophysical drivers given co-variation between these factors. Here, I analyze fire regimes in the 1919-2012 period across Canada and compare national [...]

Tidal marsh resilience to sea level rise controlled by vertical accretion and landward migration under nature-based human adaptation scenarios

Xiaoguang Ouyang, Rod Connolly, Shing Yip Lee

Published: 2021-10-15
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Studies, Geography, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Tidal marshes are not only lost to human disturbance but also face the threat of sea level rise (SLR). However, current earth system models used to estimate future changes in wetland extent omit wetland’s real responses to SLR without field observations. We synthesised global data on sediment accretion rate (SAR) and surface elevation change (SEC) for tidal marshes and developed a mathematical [...]

Desiccation of the Transboundary Hamun Lakes: Natural or Anthropogenic?

Mahdi Akbari, Ali Mirchi, Amin Roozbahani, et al.

Published: 2021-10-13
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences

This paper investigates the hydrologic and water management reasons behind the desiccation of the Hamun Lakes in the Iran-Afghanistan border region. We analysed changes in Hirmand (or Helmand) River flow, the main tributary providing 70% of the lakes’ total inflow, and precipitation during 1960-2016 by calculating standardized indices for precipitation (SPI) and discharge (SDI). Also, we applied [...]

Sand-capping stabilizes muddy sediment and improves benthic light conditions in eutrophic estuaries: laboratory verification and the potential for recovery of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

Mogens Flindt, Nele Wendländer, Kadri Kuusemae, et al.

Published: 2021-10-12
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Decades of eutrophication have increased water turbidity in Danish estuaries and led to light limitation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) growth. Former eelgrass areas are now denuded and consist of organic-rich muddy sediment with frequent resuspension events that maintain a high turbidity state. In addition, low anchoring capacity of eelgrass in the soft organic-rich sediments has contributed to [...]

Sustainability without geology? A shortsighted approach

Andrea Fildani, Angela Marie Hessler

Published: 2021-10-04
Subjects: Education, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Over the last few decades, the concept of sustainability has been proposed and championed as the answer to the impending challenges our society will be facing in the future. It has been a rallying opportunity for the broad earth sciences community and a good starting point for such a community to impact societal and policy decisions; however, it has been an opportunity we have largely missed thus [...]

Evaluating the Evolution of ECMWF Precipitation Products Using Observational Data for Iran: From ERA40 to ERA5

Navid Ghajarnia, Mahdi Akbari, Peyman Saemian, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Education, Engineering, Life Sciences

ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA), one of the most widely used precipitation products, has evolved over time from ERA-40 to ERA-20CM, ERA-20C, ERA-Interim, and ERA5. Studies evaluating the performance of individual ERA precipitation products cannot adequately assess the evolution in the products. Therefore, we compared the performance of five successive ERA precipitation products using data at daily, [...]

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