Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Discoverability of open data is critical to Earth system science

Aditi Sengupta, Nicholas Ward, James Stegen

Published: 2022-06-22
Subjects: Education, Life Sciences

There is consensus throughout the Earth system science research community that “open data” is of critical importance. However, discoverability and accessibility are often overlooked, raising the question of how useful archived, but not easily discoverable data are. As part of evaluating databases suitable for our own research data archival, we conducted a data discovery exercise (aggregators and [...]

Microcystin as a Biogeochemical Cycle: pools, fluxes, and fates of the cyanotoxin in aquatic ecosystems

Quin Shingai, Grace Marie Wilkinson

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Cyanotoxins such as microcystin pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems and human health. As such, there is a pressing need understand the production, movement, and storage of microcystin in lentic waterbodies. We constructed a biogeochemical cycle for microcystin through a comprehensive literature synthesis, identifying four major pools and nine fluxes. This conceptual model can be used as [...]

Quantifying baseline costs and cataloging potential optimization strategies for kelp aquaculture carbon dioxide removal

Struan Coleman, Tobias Dewhurst, David W. Fredriksson, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

To keep global surface warming below 1.5 °C by 2100, the portfolio of cost-effective CDR technologies must expand. To evaluate the potential of macroalgae CDR, we developed a kelp aquaculture bio-techno-economic model in which large quantities of kelp would be farmed at an offshore site, transported to a deep water "sink site", and then deposited below the sequestration horizon (1,000 m). We [...]

Effect of combined dry-wet irrigation and microbial dynamics on soil nutrient bioavailability

Arnab Majumdar, Munish Kumar Upadhyay, Pradeep Kumar Dubey, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Life Sciences

Alternate wetting-drying (AWD) cultivation with implication on soil microbiome, nutritional dynamics and rice yield during pre-monsoon (boro) and monsoon (aman) season are not well studied. In the present 4-year field study the impact of AWD (in pre-monsoon season) is compared with conventional mode of irrigation (i.e. flooded field in monsoon season). The release of soil nutrients into the [...]

Experimental evaluation of the effects of bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) density on shallow lake ecosystems

Grace Marie Wilkinson, Tyler Butts, Elena Sandry, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) is a large-bodied planktivore inhabiting shallow waterways in North America and subjected to unregulated harvest throughout much of their native range. Despite high harvest pressure on some populations, we know little about the ecosystem-level effects of lowering bigmouth buffalo densities. To evaluate the effect of bigmouth buffalo density on lower trophic [...]

Cutting down trees does not build prosperity: On the continued decoupling of Amazon deforestation and economic development in 21st century Brazil

DARREN NORRIS, Terciane Sabadini Carvalho, Angela M. Guerrero, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Forest Management, Life Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Remote Sensing

Background and aims: We present evidence examining spatial and temporal patterns in forest cover changes and economic progress in Brazilian Amazonia. Specifically we tested two predictions embedded in arguments used by influential interest groups: i) where there is less forest cover economic progress should increase and ii) areas with most recent deforestation should have increased economic [...]

Plant-microbe symbiosis widens the habitability range of the Daisyworld

Estefanía Muñoz, Jorge Carneiro

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Plant-microbe symbiosis is pervasive in the Earth's ecosystems and dates back to the early land colonisation by plants. Mutualistic partnership with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi promotes plant nutrition, growth and diversity, impacting important ecosystem functions. However, how the global behaviour and dynamical properties of an ecosystem are modified by plant-microbe symbiosis is [...]

Using water footprint concepts for water security assessment of a basin under anthropogenic pressures

Ersilia D'Ambrosio, Giovanni Francesco Ricci, Francesco Gentile, et al.

Published: 2022-04-27
Subjects: Life Sciences

The evaluation of water shortages and pollution levels is crucial for watershed management and sustainable development. This paper proposes a water footprint (WF) sustainability assessment approach to analyse water security in a river basin under human pressures. The methodology involves a comprehensive assessment of the current water security at different spatial and temporal levels, and [...]

Maars, tuff rings, and tuff cones at the Manyara rift escarpment, Tanzania.

Audray Delcamp, Hannes B Mattsson, Lucia Gurioli, et al.

Published: 2022-04-14
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

About 350 maar craters, tuff rings, and tuff cones are spread along the Manyara rift escarpment, and clustered around the Hanang and Kwahara volcanoes in North Tanzania. They lie in the East African Rift, an active extensional setting, where the magma composition is moderately to highly alkaline and carbonate-rich. We present newly-collected depositional characteristic observations, grain size [...]

Can fiddler crab bioturbation activity in situ modify the distribution of microplastics in sediments and the influence on their bioaccumulation?

Mariana Vellosa Capparelli, Michael Martínez-Colón, Oscar Lucas-Solis, et al.

Published: 2022-03-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Fiddler crabs are known as “eco-engineers” who maintain habitat health through sediment bioturbation, being able to interact with microplastics (MP) due to their daily contact with the sediment. Here, we evaluated MP contamination in mangrove substrates in Isla del Carmen, southern Gulf of Mexico, comparing MP content between burrows and pellets resulting from bioturbation and MP bioaccumulation [...]

Seasonal dynamics of zooplankton nutrient recycling in a hypereutrophic reservoir

Tyler James Butts, Eric K Moody, Grace Marie Wilkinson

Published: 2022-02-17
Subjects: Biochemistry, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Consumer-driven nutrient cycling influences aquatic ecosystem functioning by altering energy flow as well as the movement and transformation of nutrients. In hypereutrophic lakes, zooplankton nutrient recycling has largely been considered negligible due to the high concentrations of available nutrients. A recent comparative analysis found that zooplankton community composition may influence [...]

Sediment phosphorus composition controls hot spots and hot moments of internal loading in a temperate reservoir

Ellen Amara Albright, Grace Marie Wilkinson

Published: 2022-02-05
Subjects: Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Phosphorus (P) flux across the sediment-water interface in lakes and reservoirs responds to external perturbations within the context of sediment characteristics. Lentic ecosystems experience profound spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the mechanisms that control sediment P fluxes, likely producing hot spots and hot moments of internal loading. However, spatiotemporal variation in P fluxes remains [...]

High Inter- and Intra-lake Variation in Sediment Phosphorus Pools in Shallow Lakes

Ellen Amara Albright, Rachel Fleck King, Quin Shingai, et al.

Published: 2022-02-05
Subjects: Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Phosphorus (P) release from lakebed sediments may fuel phytoplankton blooms, especially in shallow waterbodies. A primary mechanism that controls internal P loading is the size and chemical composition of the sediment P pool. However, variation in sediment P within and among shallow lakes remains poorly quantified. We measured the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the size and composition of [...]

Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Are We Just Treating The Symptoms?

David James Finlay

Published: 2022-01-15
Subjects: Life Sciences

The human caused rise in atmospheric greenhouse gases has been seen as the driver of both climate change and ocean acidification. However recent peer reviewed papers show that, while GHG emissions are part of the problem, the primary driver of both climate change and ocean acidification is human caused ecological degradation. Curbing greenhouse gas emissions, to date, has been an abject failure [...]

Copper availability governs nitrous oxide accumulation in wetland soils and stream sediments

Neha Sharma, Elaine D. Flynn, Jeffrey G. Catalano, et al.

Published: 2021-12-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geochemistry, Life Sciences

Denitrification is microbially-mediated through enzymes containing metal cofactors. Laboratory studies of pure cultures have highlighted that the availability of Cu, required for the multicopper enzyme nitrous oxide reductase, can limit N2O reduction. However, in natural aquatic systems, such as wetlands and hyporheic zones in stream beds, the role of Cu in controlling denitrification remains [...]

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