Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

A re-examination of the mechanism of whiting events: A new role for diatoms in Fayetteville Green Lake (New York, USA)

Chloe Stanton, Julie Cosmidis, Lee Kump

Published: 2021-05-09
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Geochemistry, Life Sciences, Sedimentology

Whiting events – the episodic precipitation of fine-grained suspended calcium cabonates in the water column – have been documented across a variety of marine and lacustrine environments. Whitings likely are a major source of carbonate muds, a constituent of limestones, and important archives for geochemical proxies of Earth history. While several biological and physical mechanisms have been [...]

Revision of thelodonts, acanthodians, conodonts, and the depositional environments in the Burgen outlier (Ludlow, Silurian) of Gotland, Sweden

Emilia Jarochowska, Oskar Bremer, Alexandra Yiu, Tiiu Märss, Henning Blom, Thomas Mörs, Vivi Vajda

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Biodiversity, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ludfordian strata exposed in the Burgen outlier in eastern Gotland record a time of initial faunal recovery after a global environmental perturbation manifested in the Ludfordian Carbon Isotope Excursion (LCIE). Vertebrate microfossils in the collection of the late Lennart Jeppsson, hosted at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, hold the key to reconstruct the dynamics of faunal immigration and [...]

High resolution, annual maps of the characteristics of smallholder-dominated croplands at national scales

Lyndon D Estes, Su Ye, Lei Song, Boka Luo, J. Ronald Eastman, Zhenhua Meng, Qi Zhang, Dennis McRitchie, Stephanie R. Debats, Justus Muhando, Angeline H. Amukoa, Brian W. Kaloo, Jackson Makuru, Ben K. Mbatia, Isaac M. Muasa, Julius Mucha, Adelide M. Mugami, Judith M. Mugami, Francis W. Muinde, Fredrick M. Mwawaza, Jeff Ochieng, Charles J. Oduol, Purent Oduor, Thuo Wanjiku, Joseph G. Wanyoike, Ryan Avery, Kelly Caylor

Published: 2021-03-12
Subjects: Agriculture, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science, Sustainability

Understanding agricultural change requires reliable, frequently updated maps that describe the characteristics of croplands. Such data are often unavailable for regions dominated by smallholder agricultural systems, which are particularly challenging for remote sensing. To overcome these challenges, we designed a system to minimize several sources of error that arise when mapping smallholder [...]

Rise and fall of vegetation primary production resilience to climate variability anticipated by a large ensemble of Earth System Models’ simulations

Matteo Zampieri, Bruna Grizzetti, Andrea Toreti, Pierluca De Palma, Alessio Collalti

Published: 2021-03-10
Subjects: Life Sciences

Climate change is affecting many aspects of natural ecosystems and society. Anticipating the changes in vegetation resilience – the plants’ capacity to cope with disturbances and shocks such as those related to climate variability and extremes – is critical to understand and project ecosystems’ responses to global change and the impacts on the related ecosystem services, to support mitigation [...]

A deposition baseline for microplastic particle distribution in an estuary

Matthew L. H. Cheng, Thomas C Lippmann, Jennifer Dijkstra, Gabriela Bradt, Salme Cook, Jang-Geun CHoi, Bonnie L Brown

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Microplastics (MP) known to be ubiquitous in the plastisphere, have yet to be quantified within Great Bay Estuary (GBE) in the Gulf of Maine region of North America. We extracted and analyzed MP in archived sediment cores obtained from representative transects across GBE. Results indicated that MP are distributed in GBE sediments, 0-30 cm, at an average occurrence of 100±50 particles g-1 and that [...]

Biological albedo reduction on ice sheets, glaciers, and snowfields

Scott Hotaling, Stefanie Lutz, Roman J. Dial, Alexandre M. Anesio, Liane G. Benning, Andrew G. Fountain, Joanna L. Kelley, Jenine McCutcheon, S. McKenzie Skiles, Nozomu Takeuchi, Trinity L. Hamilton

Published: 2021-01-30
Subjects: Life Sciences

The global cryosphere, Earth’s frozen water, is in precipitous decline. The ongoing and predicted impacts of cryosphere loss are diverse, ranging from disappearance of entire biomes to crises of water availability. Covering approximately one-fifth of the Earth, mass loss from the terrestrial cryosphere is driven primarily by a warming atmosphere but reductions in albedo (the proportion of [...]

Urban Running Activity Detected Using a Seismic Sensor duringCOVID-19 Pandemic

Yumin Zhao, Yunyue Elita Li, Enhedelihai Nilot, Gang Fang

Published: 2021-01-30
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human foot traffic in urban environments provides essential information for city planners to manage the urban resources and urban residents to plan their activities. Compared to camera or mobile-based solutions, seismic sensors detect human footstep signals with fewer privacy concerns. However, seismic sensors often record signals generated from multiple sources, particularly in an urban outdoor [...]

Given that the Paris Agreement is unlikely to prevent dangerous climate overshoot, an alternative risk management strategy is urgently needed

Graeme MacDonald Taylor, Sue Vink

Published: 2020-12-18
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Because the 2015 Paris Agreement will not prevent dangerous climate change, there is an urgent need to develop an alternative mitigation strategy. Even if most countries greatly increase their commitments and technological breakthroughs accelerate the transition to emission-free technologies, the 2°C target will still be overshot due to systemic inertia from existing greenhouse gases, warming [...]

Planted mangroves cap toxic oil spill

Pawel Waryszak, Maria Palacios, Paul E. Carnell, I. Noyan Yilmaz, Peter I. Macreadie

Published: 2020-12-07
Subjects: Life Sciences

Mangroves are known to provide many ecosystem services, however there is little information on their potential role to cap and immobilise toxic levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Using an Australian case study, we investigated the capacity of planted mangroves (Avicennia marina) to immobilise TPH within a small embayment subjected to multiple oil spills throughout the 1980s. Mangroves [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over Europe coherent with ERA5-Land reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-27
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5-Land reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is over Europe, has a spatial resolution of 0.10° x 0.10°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over the globe coherent with ERA5 reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-27
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5 reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is global has a spatial resolution of 0.25°x 0.25°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), precipitation, and [...]

A benthic light index of water quality in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Marites Canto, Katharina Fabricius, Murray Logan, Stephen Lewis, Lachlan McKinna, Barbara Robson

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Good water quality is essential to the health of marine ecosystems, yet current metrics used to track water quality in the Great Barrier Reef are not strongly tied to ecological outcomes. There is a need for a better water quality index (WQI). Benthic light, the amount of light reaching the seafloor, is critical for coral and seagrass health and is strongly affected by water quality. It therefore [...]

Global lockdown potential impact on achieving Sustainable Development Goals

Hideyuki Doi, Takeshi Osawa, Narumasa Tsutsumida

Published: 2020-11-17
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Life Sciences

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a lockdown worldwide. This restriction on human movements and activities significantly influences society and the environment. We examined the consequences of global lockdown for human movement and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions using an air pollution index and dataset and satellite image analyses. We also evaluated the immediate (during [...]

¬Estimating Microbial Hydrogen Consumption in Hydrogen Storage in Porous Media as a Basis for Site Selection

Eike Marie Thaysen, Sean McMahon, Gion Strobel, Ian Butler, Bryne Ngwenya, Niklas Heinemann, Mark Wilkinson, Aliakbar Hassanpouryouzband, Christopher McDermott, Katriona Edlmann

Published: 2020-11-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

Subsurface storage of hydrogen, e.g. in depleted gas or oil fields (DOGF), is suggested as a means to overcome imbalances between supply and demand in the renewable energy sector. However, hydrogen is an electron donor for subsurface microbial processes, which may have important implications for hydrogen recovery, gas injectivity and corrosion. Here, we review the controls on the three major [...]

Responses of tropical marine ecosystems to climate change impacts and their treatment in biogeochemical ecosystem models

Chinenye Jane Ani, Barbara Robson

Published: 2020-10-28
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

To predict the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and the effectiveness of intervention and mitigation strategies, we need reliable marine ecosystem response models such as biogeochemical models that reproduce climate change effects. We reviewed marine ecosystem parameters and processes that are modified by climate change and examined their representations in biogeochemical ecosystem [...]

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