Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over Europe coherent with ERA5-Land reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-26
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5-Land reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is over Europe, has a spatial resolution of 0.10° x 0.10°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over the globe coherent with ERA5 reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-26
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5 reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is global has a spatial resolution of 0.25°x 0.25°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), precipitation, and [...]

A benthic light index of water quality in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Marites Canto, Katharina Fabricius, Murray Logan, Stephen Lewis, Lachlan McKinna, Barbara Robson

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Good water quality is essential to the health of marine ecosystems, yet current metrics used to track water quality in the Great Barrier Reef are not strongly tied to ecological outcomes. There is a need for a better water quality index (WQI). Benthic light, the amount of light reaching the seafloor, is critical for coral and seagrass health and is strongly affected by water quality. It therefore [...]

Global lockdown potential impact on achieving Sustainable Development Goals

Hideyuki Doi, Takeshi Osawa, Narumasa Tsutsumida

Published: 2020-11-16
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Life Sciences

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a lockdown worldwide. This restriction on human movements and activities significantly influences society and the environment. We examined the consequences of global lockdown for human movement and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions using an air pollution index and dataset and satellite image analyses. We also evaluated the immediate (during [...]

¬Estimating Microbial Hydrogen Consumption in Hydrogen Storage in Porous Media as a Basis for Site Selection

Eike Marie Thaysen, Sean McMahon, Gion Strobel, Ian Butler, Bryne Ngwenya, Niklas Heinemann, Mark Wilkinson, Aliakbar Hassanpouryouzband, Christopher McDermott, Katriona Edlmann

Published: 2020-11-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

Subsurface storage of hydrogen, e.g. in depleted gas or oil fields (DOGF), is suggested as a means to overcome imbalances between supply and demand in the renewable energy sector. However, hydrogen is an electron donor for subsurface microbial processes, which may have important implications for hydrogen recovery, gas injectivity and corrosion. Here, we review the controls on the three major [...]

Responses of tropical marine ecosystems to climate change impacts and their treatments in biogeochemical ecosystem models

Chinenye Jane Ani, Barbara Robson

Published: 2020-10-27
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

To predict the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and the effectiveness of intervention and mitigation strategies, we need reliable marine ecosystem response models such as biogeochemical models that reproduce climate change effects. We reviewed marine ecosystem parameters and processes that are modified by climate change and examined their representations in biogeochemical ecosystem [...]

Weak influence of paleoenvironmental conditions on the subsurface biosphere of Lake Ohrid in the last 515 ka

Camille Thomas, Alexander Francke, Hendrik Vogel, Bernd Wagner, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Life Sciences

Lacustrine sediments are widely used to investigate the impact of climatic change on biogeochemical cycling. In these sediments, subsurface microbial communities are major actors of this cycling but can also affect the sedimentary record and overprint the original paleoenvironmental signal. We therefore investigated the subsurface microbial communities of the oldest lake in Europe, Lake Ohrid [...]

Quantification of non-linear multiphase flow in porous media

Yihuai Zhang, Branko Bijeljic, Ying Gao, Qingyang Lin, Martin J. Blunt

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We measure the pressure difference during two-phase flow across a sandstone sample for a range of injection rates and fractional flows of water, the wetting phase, during an imbibition experiment. We quantify the onset of a transition from a linear relationship between flow rate and pressure gradient to a non-linear power-law dependence. We show that the transition from linear (Darcy) to [...]

Use of geochemical and ecotoxicological approaches to evaluate sediment quality in differentially-contaminated, legally protected reserves along the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

Mariana Vellosa Capparelli, John Campbell McNamara, Giuliana Seraphim Araujo, Ana Carolina Feitosa Cruz, Denis Moledo Abessa

Published: 2020-08-18
Subjects: Life Sciences, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Toxicology

We compared sediment quality in estuaries at three locations along the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, using geochemical analyses and whole sediment toxicity tests, performed during the southern winter and summer of 2013. Each locality is afforded a different degree of legal protection, and shows a distinct level of pollution: overall, Rio Diana (RD, most polluted, Permanent Protection Area) [...]

Evolution of normal fault displacement and length as the continental lithosphere stretches

Sophie Pan, Rebecca Bell, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, John Naliboff

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Continental rifting is accommodated by the development of normal fault arrays. Fault growth patterns control their related seismic hazards, as well as influencing the tectonostratigraphic evolution, resource extraction and CO2 storage potential of rifts. Our understanding of fault evolution is largely derived by observing the final geometry and displacement (D)-length (L) characteristics of [...]

Crop residues are a key feedstock to bioeconomy but available methods for their estimation are highly uncertain

Shivesh Kishore Karan, Lorie Hamelin

Published: 2020-07-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Crop residues are acknowledged as a key biomass resource to feed tomorrow’s sustainable bioeconomy. Yet, the quantification of these residues at large geographical scales is primarily reliant upon generic statistical estimations based on empirical functions linking the residues production to the primary crop yield. These useful yet unquestioned functions are developed either using direct evidence [...]

Contributions of paleoecology to Easter Island’s prehistory: a thorough review

Valentí Rull

Published: 2020-07-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Sustainability

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is well known for the enigmas surrounding its unique megalithic statues, the moai, and the prehistoric (i.e., pre-European contact) Rapanui society that built them. These enigmas include, among others, the time of the island’s settlement, the geographical origin of the first settlers, the technology associated with moai transportation and emplacement, the occurrence (or [...]

What Controls Contraction in the Translation Domain of the Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola?

Aurio Erdi, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2020-07-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

It is now well-established that base-salt relief drives complex deformation in the mid-slope domain of salt-bearing passive margins, in a location classically thought to be dominated purely by horizontal translation. However, due to a lack of detailed studies drawing on high-quality, 3D seismic reflection data, our understanding of how base-salt relief controls four-dimensional patterns of [...]

Range-based intensity normalization of ALS data over forested areas using a sensor tracking method from multiple returns

Jean-Romain Roussel, Jean-François Bourdon, Alexis Achim

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Education, Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Forestry and Forest Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Airborne laser scanning (ALS) point-clouds are used in forest inventory to map properties of the resource. In most cases, only the (x,y,z) coordinates of the point cloud are used to build predictive models of forest structure. Despite being recorded and provided by data suppliers, the intensity values associated with each point are rarely used as an input to such models because raw intensity [...]

Iron oxide reactivity controls organic matter mineralization in ferruginous sediments

André Friese, Kohen Bauer, Clemens Glombitza, Luis Ordóñez, Daniel Ariztegui, Verena B. Heuer, Aurèle Vuillemin, Cynthia Henny, Sulung Nomosatryo, Rachel Simister

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ferruginous sediments were widespread during the Archaean and Proterozoic Eons, but our knowledge about organic matter mineralization remains mostly conceptual, as analogous modern ferruginous sediments are largely unstudied. In sediments of ferruginous Lake Towuti, Indonesia, methanogenesis dominates organic matter mineralization despite abundant reactive ferric iron phases persisting throughout [...]

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