Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Predicting outbreak-level tornado counts and casualties from environmental variables

Zoe Schroder, James B. Elsner

Published: 2020-04-30
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Environmental variables are used routinely in forecasting when and where an outbreak of tornadoes are likely to occur, but more work is needed to understand how characteristics of severe weather outbreaks vary with the larger scale environmental factors. Here the authors demonstrate a method to quantify `outbreak-level tornado and casualty counts with respect to variations in large-scale [...]

Using large-scale NO2 data from citizen science for air quality compliance and policy support

Sam De Craemer, Jordy Vercauteren, Frans Fierens, Wouter Lefebvre, Filip Meysman

Published: 2020-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Citizen science projects that monitor air quality have recently drastically expanded in scale. Projects involving thousands of citizens generate spatially dense datasets using low-cost passive samplers for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which complement data from the sparse reference network operated by environmental agencies. However, there is a critical bottleneck in using these citizen-derived [...]

Lockdown caused by COVID-19 pandemic reduces air pollution in cities worldwide

Asheshwor Man Shrestha, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Roshan Sharma, Suraj Bhattarai, Hanh Ngoc Thi Tran, Maheswar Rupakheti

Published: 2020-04-18
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Drastic measures such as lockdown taken by countries worldwide to contain spread of COVID-19 have influenced air pollution dynamics substantially, at a planetary scale. Several media reported the lockdown induced air pollution reduction based on quickly assembled satellite observations. However, a global-scale analysis of such reduction in air pollution backed by quality data collected from [...]

Do atmospheric plastics act as fomites for novel viruses?

Renjith VishnuRadhan, Divya David T, Eldho T I, Jacky Bhagat

Published: 2020-04-15
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Plastic particles are ubiquitous in various environmental compartments, the atmosphere being the least explored compartment in terms of plastic pollution. The way that atmospheric plastics affect the biological systems has not yet been explored when compared to aquatic ecosystems. There are many speculated human health impacts, one definite and direct impact of atmospheric plastics would be [...]

Impact of climate change in West Africa on cereal production per capita in 2050

Dimitri Defrance, Benjamin Sultan, Mathieu Castet, Adjoua Moise Famien, Camille Noûs, Christian Baron

Published: 2020-04-14
Subjects: Agriculture, Life Sciences

Food security is a crucial issue in the Sahel and could be endangered by climate change and demographic pressure during the 21st century. Indeed, people in rural areas mainly practice rainfed agriculture for subsistence during the monsoon rainfall season. Higher temperatures and changes in rainfall induced by global warming are threatening food production systems in this region while the [...]

Success at the farm-level in payments for ecosystem services: monetary incentives, participatory processes and institutional adaptation all matter

Geoff Wells

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

While payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes are increasingly common, in most cases, their effectiveness has lagged behind initial expectations. A major debate exists around whether performance can be improved by prioritising project design features that align with the theoretical, economistic model of PES, or whether, where necessary, it is more important for projects to depart from this [...]

Social as much as environmental: the drivers of tree biomass in smallholder forest landscape restoration programmes

Geoff Wells

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A major challenge for forest landscape restoration initiatives is the lack of quantitative evidence on how social factors drive environmental outcomes. Here we conduct a transdisciplinary quantitative analysis of the environmental and social drivers of tree biomass accumulation across 639 smallholder farms restoring native tree species in Mexico, Uganda and Mozambique. We use environmental and [...]

Weak influence of paleoenvironmental conditions on the subsurface biosphere of lake Ohrid in the last 515 ka

Camille Thomas, Alexander Francke, Hendrik Vogel, Bernd Wagner, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding the response of geo- and biosystems to past climatic disturbance is primordial to assess the short to long terms effects of current global change. Lacustrine sediments are commonly used to investigate the impact of climatic change on biogeochemical cycling. In these sediments, subsurface microbial communities play a primordial role in nutrient, organic matter and elemental cycling, [...]

Concepts of space, time and scale

Mikko Vastaranta, Ninni Saarinen, Tuomas Yrttimaa, Timo Tokola

Published: 2020-04-11
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Concepts of space, time and scale as well as their underpinning theories are crucial for understanding geospatial data. Space can be defined as a boundless, three-dimensional (3D) extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Space has been considered to be absolute, meaning that it exists permanently and independently regardless of any matter in space. [...]

Fundamental laws and principles in geoinformation science

Mikko Vastaranta, Ninni Saarinen, Tuomas Yrttimaa, Timo Tokola

Published: 2020-04-11
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Scientific laws are empirical statements, based on repeated experiments or observations, that describe or predict a range of natural phenomena. There are scientific laws and law-like statements also in the field of geoinformation sciences. Based on the Tobler’s first law of geography, “everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things”. This first law [...]

Individual tree detection and characterization using 3D remote sensing

Mikko Vastaranta, Ninni Saarinen, Tuomas Yrttimaa, Ville Kankare

Published: 2020-04-11
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Here, we will cover individual tree detection and characterization using 3D remote sensing. Simply, it means that point clouds are collected over a forested area using airborne laser scanning (ALS) or created using photogrammetric image interpretation and further used to detect individual trees using different algorithms. After the tree detection, the attributes of interest are predicted for each [...]

Introduction to geoinformation science

Mikko Vastaranta, Ninni Saarinen, Tuomas Yrttimaa, Timo Tokola

Published: 2020-04-11
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Here, we define a geoinformation system (GIS) as a system, which is designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present geospatial data. In university education, we study geoinformation science that is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems. Geoinformation science is dedicated to advancing our understanding of geographic processes and spatial [...]

Identification of Hydrologic Landscapes in Brazilian basins and its application as indicator of water yield and storage

Matheus Henrique Mortene, Ronalton Evandro Machado

Published: 2020-04-09
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

This study aimed to use the Hydrologic Landscapes as environmental classification method in the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí river basins, validate and use it as an indicator of water yield and storage areas. The method comprises in the same Information Plan (IP) factors that interact with the hydrological cycle in its terrestrial phase. The state of São Paulo, where most of the area is [...]

POSSIBILITIES OF CHANGE DETECTION OF TREE AND FOREST ATTRIBUTES BY COMBINING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING BASED 3D POINT CLOUDS WITH UAV DATA

Ville Luoma, Tuomas Yrttimaa, Ville Kankare, Ninni Saarinen, Harri Kaartinen, Antero Kukko, Juha Hyyppä, Mikko Vastaranta, Markus Holopainen

Published: 2020-04-01
Subjects: Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Exact and up-to-date information about forest resources is needed for decision makers when planning the use of forests. Knowledge about changes in forest environment and tree growth is a key factor for example when predicting the effects of climate change and estimating the amount of biomass and sequestered carbon in forests. New technologies, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), allow one to [...]

A New Synergistic Approach for Monitoring Wetlands Using 1 Sentinels -1 and 2 data With Object-based Machine Learning 2 Algorithms

Alexander R. Brown, George Petropoulos, Konstantinos P. Ferentinos

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In this work the synergistic use of Sentinel-1 and 2 combined with the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) Wetness Index in the content of land use/cover (LULC) mapping with emphasis in wetlands is evaluated. A further objectivehas been to a new Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach for mapping wetland areas using Sentinel-1 and 2 data, where the latter is also tested [...]

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