Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Performance of terrestrial laser scanning to characterize managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands is dependent on forest structural variation

Tuomas Yrttimaa, Ninni Saarinen, Ville Kankare, Jari Hynynen, Saija Huuskonen, Markus Holopainen, Juha Hyyppä, Mikko Vastaranta

Published: 2020-03-05
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

There is a limited understanding of how forest structure affects the performance of methods based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in characterizing trees and forest environments. We aim to improve this understanding by studying how different forest management activities that shape tree size distributions affect the TLS-based forest characterization accuracy in managed Scots pine (Pinus [...]

Integrating UAV photogrammetry with terrestrial laser scanning to characterize managed forest stands

Tuomas Yrttimaa, Ninni Saarinen, Ville Kankare, Niko Viljanen, Jari Hynynen, Saija Huuskonen, Markus Holopainen, Juha Hyyppä, Eija Honkavaara, Mikko Vastaranta

Published: 2020-03-04
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides detailed three-dimensional representation of the surrounding forest structure. However, due to close-range hemispherical scanning geometry the ability of TLS technique to comprehensively characterize the upper parts of forest canopy is often limited. To overcome challenges in upper canopy characterization, TLS point cloud were complemented with a point [...]

Northern peatland depth and lateral expansion is inconsistent with a 1055 GtC estimate of carbon storage

Joshua Lee Ratcliffe, Haijun Peng, Jelmer Nijp, Matts B. Nilsson

Published: 2020-03-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Peatlands contain one of the largest stores of terrestrial carbon and exert a considerable influence on the global climate cycle. However, both the magnitude of the peatland carbon pool and the development of this pool through time are poorly constrained. In a recently published article, Nichols and Peteet combine basal radiocarbon dates from palaeoecological studies with previously published [...]

Dynamic fault interaction during a fluid-injection induced earthquake: The 2017 Mw 5.5 Pohang event

Kadek Hendrawan Palgunadi, Alice-Agnes Gabriel, Thomas Ulrich, José Ángel Lopéz-Comino, P. Martin Mai

Published: 2020-03-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The November 15th, 2017 Mw 5.5 Pohang earthquake (South Korea) has been linked to hydraulic stimulation and fluid injections, making this the largest induced seismic event associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). To understand its source dynamics and fault interactions, we conduct the first 3D high-resolution spontaneous dynamic rupture simulations of an induced earthquake. We account [...]

Mapping invasive Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. in semi-natural grasslands using object-based analysis of UAV-borne images

Jayan Sri Jeewantha Wijesingha, Thomas Astor, Damian Schulze-Brüninghoff, Michael Wachendorf

Published: 2020-02-28
Subjects: Biodiversity, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

Knowledge on the spatio-temporal distribution of invasive plant species is vital to maintain biodiversity in grasslands which are threatened by the invasion of such plants and to evaluate the effect of control activities conducted. Manual digitising of aerial images with field verification is the standard method to create maps of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. (Lupine) in semi-natural [...]

Kinetics and Products of Chromium(VI) Reduction by Iron(II/III)-Bearing Clay Minerals

Claresta Joe-Wong, Kate Maher, Gordon E. Brown

Published: 2020-02-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Hexavalent chromium is a water-soluble pollutant, the mobility of which can be controlled by reduction of Cr(VI) to less soluble, environmentally benign Cr(III). Iron(II/III)-bearing clay minerals are widespread potential reductants of Cr(VI), but the kinetics and pathways of Cr(VI) reduction by such clay minerals are poorly understood. We reacted aqueous Cr(VI) with two abiotically reduced clay [...]

Iron mineral dissolution releases iron and associated organic carbon during permafrost thaw

Monique S Patzner, Carsten W. Mueller, Miroslava Malusova, Moritz Baur, Verena Nikeleit, Thomas Scholten, Carmen Hoeschen, James Byrne, Thomas Borch, Andreas Kappler

Published: 2020-02-07
Subjects: Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

It has been shown that reactive soil minerals, specifically iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides, can trap organic carbon in soils overlying intact permafrost, and may limit carbon mobilization and degradation as it is observed in other environments. However, the use of iron(III)-bearing minerals as terminal electron acceptors in permafrost environments and thus their stability and capacity to prevent [...]

The what, how and why of human coprolite analysis in archaeology

Lisa-Marie Shillito, John C. Blong, Eleanor J. Green, Eline Van Asperen

Published: 2020-02-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Coprolites are a highly informative but still underutilized proxy for understanding past environments, palaeodiets, and ancient human health. Here we provide a critical review of the history and current state of research in human coprolite analysis encompassing, macroscopic, microscopic, and biomolecular approaches. We present new data from a number of key sites which demonstrates how new [...]

Machine learning for digital soil mapping: applications, challenges and suggested solutions

Alexandre Wadoux, Budiman Minasny, Alex McBratney

Published: 2020-02-06
Subjects: Agriculture, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

The uptake of machine learning (ML) algorithms in digital soil mapping (DSM) is transforming the way soil scientists produce their maps. Machine learning is currently applied to mapping soil properties or classes much in the same way as other unrelated fields of science. Mapping of soil, however, has unique aspects which require adaptations of the ML algorithms. These features are for example, [...]

serac: a R package for ShortlivEd RAdionuclide Chronology of recent sediment cores

Rosalie Bruel, Pierre Sabatier

Published: 2020-01-18
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Short-lived radionuclides are measured in surface sediment to provide a geochronology for the past century. Age-depth models can be produced from 210Pbex activity-derived sedimentation rates and confirmed by 137Cs and 241Am activities that are result of fallout from nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. Different methods of age depth modelling using such data require expertise in lake [...]

The environmental impacts of palm oil in context

Erik Meijaard, Thomas Brooks, Kimberly Carlson, Eleanor M. Slade, John Garcia Ulloa, David L.A. Gaveau, Janice Ser Huay Lee, Truly Santika, Diego Juffe-Bignoli, Matthew Struebig, Serge A Wich, Marc Ancrenaz, Lian Pin Koh, Nadine Zamira, Jesse F. Abrams, Herbert H. T. Prins, Cyriaque N. Sendashonga, Daniel Murdiyarso, Paul R. Furumo, Nicholas Macfarlane, Rachel Hoffmann, Marcos Persio, Adrià Descals, Zoltan Szantoi, Douglas Sheil

Published: 2020-01-10
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Food Science, Life Sciences, Other Food Science, Other Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Delivering the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires balancing demands on land between agriculture (SDG 2) and biodiversity (SDG 15). The production of vegetable oils in general, and palm oil in particular, is perhaps the most controversial illustration of these trade-offs. Global annual demand for vegetable oil for food, animal feed and fuel is currently at 210 million tons1 (Mt), with [...]

The first climate tipping point – Already in the past?

Jorgen Randers, Ulrich Goluke

Published: 2020-01-03
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Humanity may have passed its first climate tipping point and face self-sustained melting of the permafrost for hundreds of years even if all man-made GHG emissions are stopped.

Reframing Lake Geneva ecological trajectory in a context of multiple but asynchronous drivers

Rosalie Bruel, Stéphanie Girardclos, Aldo Marchetto, Katrina Kremer, Christian Crouzet, Jean-Louis Reyss, Pierre Sabatier, Marie-Elodie Perga

Published: 2019-12-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

There are no doubts long-term observatories provide unique insight on ecosystems trajectories. Can we use earliest data to set restoration goals? We take the example of Lake Geneva, for which descriptions of the ecosystem are available for as soon as the late 19th and early 20th century. Forel writes about how the luxuriant growth of plant communities provided important habitat for aquatic [...]

Bayesian Models for Deriving Biogeochemical Information from Satellite Ocean Color

Susanne Elizabeth Craig, Erdem Karaköylü

Published: 2019-12-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In this study, we present Bayesian machine learning approaches to predict the spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficient - a proxy of phytoplankton biomass - from top of atmosphere measurements of ocean color. This presents a significant advance in ocean color research as it permits the bypassing of conventional atmospheric correction, which is notoriously challenging in optically complex [...]

Fossil fuel combustion is driving indoor CO2 toward levels harmful to human cognition

Kristopher Karnauskas, Shelly Miller, Anna Schapiro

Published: 2019-12-03
Subjects: Climate, Cognitive Neuroscience, Life Sciences, Neuroscience and Neurobiology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Human activities are elevating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations to levels unprecedented in human history. The majority of anticipated impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are mediated by climate warming. Recent experimental studies in the fields of indoor air quality and cognitive psychology and neuroscience, however, have revealed significant direct effects of indoor CO2 levels on [...]


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