Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Medicine and Health Sciences

Quantification of non-linear multiphase flow in porous media

Yihuai Zhang, Branko Bijeljic, Ying Gao, Qingyang Lin, Martin J. Blunt

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We measure the pressure difference during two-phase flow across a sandstone sample for a range of injection rates and fractional flows of water, the wetting phase, during an imbibition experiment. We quantify the onset of a transition from a linear relationship between flow rate and pressure gradient to a non-linear power-law dependence. We show that the transition from linear (Darcy) to [...]

The formation and implications of giant blocks and fluid escape structures in submarine lateral spreads

Nan Wu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, David M Hodgson, Michael Clare, Harya Dwi Nugraha, Wei Li

Published: 2020-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Lateral spread (or ‘spreading’) and submarine creep are processes that occur near the headwalls of both terrestrial landslides and submarine mass-transport complexes (MTCs). Both submarine creep and spread deposits may contain giant (km-scale) coherent blocks, but their transport processes remain poorly constrained. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection data to determine the geometry, scale, [...]

Lockdown caused by COVID-19 pandemic reduces air pollution in cities worldwide

Asheshwor Man Shrestha, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Roshan Sharma, Suraj Bhattarai, Hanh Ngoc Thi Tran, Maheswar Rupakheti

Published: 2020-04-18
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Drastic measures such as lockdown taken by countries worldwide to contain spread of COVID-19 have influenced air pollution dynamics substantially, at a planetary scale. Several media reported the lockdown induced air pollution reduction based on quickly assembled satellite observations. However, a global-scale analysis of such reduction in air pollution backed by quality data collected from [...]

Editorial: Geoscience in a time of pandemics

Jonathan Tennant, Sam Illingworth, Iain Stewart, Kirsten von Elverfeldt

Published: 2020-03-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geography, Medical Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

We, the Executive Editors at Geoscience Communication, sincerely hope that this message finds you and your loved ones in good health. We are in the midst of yet another global health crisis, the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). This affects all of us, and we truly hope that you are remaining safe and taking all necessary precautions. We all are facing difficult times ahead, and we hope that we [...]

High Attenuation Recycled Materials as landfill liners (the HARM project) – A new concept for improved landfill liner design

Mercedes Regadío, Alex Cargill, Jonathan A. Black, Steven F Thornton

Published: 2020-01-28
Subjects: Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Education, Engineering, Engineering Science and Materials, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geotechnical Engineering, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Soil Science

A new approach in landfill liner design which combines hydraulic containment of leachate with contaminant attenuation to improve the performance of these environmental control systems at landfills is described. The idea is to re-use readily available industrial waste residues (construction and biomass waste) as additives for natural clay liners, wherein the additives have specific properties [...]

What has Global Sensitivity Analysis ever done for us? A systematic review to support scientific advancement and to inform policy-making in earth system modelling

Thorsten Wagener, Francesca Pianosi

Published: 2019-04-08
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Mathematics, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Risk Analysis, Statistics and Probability

Computer models are essential tools in the earth system sciences. They underpin our search for understanding of earth system functioning and support decision- and policy-making across spatial and temporal scales. To understand the implications of uncertainty and environmental variability on the identification of such earth system models and their predictions, we can rely on increasingly powerful [...]

Current Development of Tourism and Recreation on Baltic Sea Coasts: New Directions and Perspectives

Polina Lemenkova

Published: 2019-02-13
Subjects: Education, Environmental Studies, Geography, Human Geography, Medicine and Health Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Other Geography, Physical and Environmental Geography, Rehabilitation and Therapy, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science

Research work analyses current situation and development of tourism in the region of Baltic Sea. Specific case study of this paper is Pärnu Bay, Estonia. This region is known for unique environmental settings: mild maritime climate, broad beaches, coniferous pine forests on the coastal zone and high aesthetic value of the surrounding landscapes. However, after the end of USSR, Estonia survived a [...]

Simulated environmental photo- and auto-oxidation of ambrein

Steven John Rowland, Paul Andrew Sutton, Dominic Payne

Published: 2018-11-12
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In alcoholic solutions (tinctures), the tricyclic triterpenoid alcohol, ambrein, which is usually the main ingredient of the natural product ambergris, undergoes photo-oxidation to a number of odorous products. Such tinctures are valuable in perfumery. Similar reactions are thought to occur in the marine environment, when flotsam and jetsam ambergris are exposed to sunlight. However, [...]

Creating a Model to Optimize and Evaluate the Heat-Reducing Capacity of Green Infrastructure

Natasha Stamler

Published: 2018-09-10
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

As global warming increases temperatures worldwide, cities are experiencing even greater temperatures due to the urban heat island effect, which is the trapping of heat in “gray” urban infrastructure. Cities are combatting this with green infrastructure (GI) initiatives, such as the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) GI initiative in New York City. However, these programs are often [...]

Powers of 10: cross-scale optimization of social agencies for rapid climate and sustainability action

Avit K. Bhowmik, Mark Stanislaus McCaffrey, Abigail M Ruskey, Chad Frischmann, Owen Gaffney

Published: 2018-08-27
Subjects: Education, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geography, International and Area Studies, Library and Information Science, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sustainability

Achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement and related sustainability initiatives will require halving of greenhouse gas emissions each decade from now on through to 2050, when net zero emissions should be achieved. To reach such significant reductions requires a rapid and strategic scaling of existing and emerging technologies and practices, coupled with economic and social transformation and [...]

Knowledge in the Dark: Scientific Challenges and Ways Forward

Jonathan Jeschke, Sophie Lokatis, Isabelle Bartram, Klement Tockner

Published: 2018-03-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Higher Education, Language and Literacy Education, Liberal Studies, Library and Information Science, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Science and Mathematics Education, Social and Behavioral Sciences

We propose the concept of knowledge in the dark – or short: dark knowledge – and outline how it can help clarify why in our current era of Big Data, the knowledge (i.e. evidence-based understanding) of people does not seem to be substantially increasing despite a rapid increase in produced data and information. Key reasons underlying dark knowledge are: (1) the production of biased, erroneous or [...]

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