Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Forecasting the localized bilateral effects of ocean acidification on the counter carbonate pump using recurrent neural networks

Eshan Ramesh

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Chemistry, Computer Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The counter carbonate pump(CCP) is responsible for carbon dioxide sequestration and cycling forms of carbon in the ocean. It is primarily driven by calcifying plankton, such as foraminifera, coccolithophores, and pteropods. These organisms are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification, which can have disastrous effects on their skeletons and productivity, upsetting the marine carbon cycle in [...]

Stress Recovery for the Particle-in-cell Finite Element Method

Haibin Yang, Louis Moresi, John Mansour

Published: 2020-05-26
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mathematics, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The interelement stress in the Finite Element Method is not continuous in nature, and stress projections from quadrature points to mesh nodes often causes oscillations. The widely used particle-in-cell method cannot avoid this issue and produces worse results when there are mixing materials of large strength (e.g., viscosity in Stokes problems) contrast in one element. The post-processing methods [...]

Goal-Oriented Error Estimation and Mesh Adaptation for Shallow Water Modelling

Joseph Wallwork, Nicolas Barral, Stephan C. Kramer, David Ham, Matthew Piggott

Published: 2019-12-31
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Engineering, Non-linear Dynamics, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Partial Differential Equations, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Numerical modelling frequently involves a diagnostic quantity of interest (QoI) - often of greater importance than the PDE solution - which we seek to accurately approximate. In the case of coastal ocean modelling the power output of a tidal turbine farm is one such example. Goal-oriented error estimation and mesh adaptation can be used to provide meshes which are well-suited to achieving this [...]

Quantifying Computational Efficiency of Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Shallow Water Solvers

Nicole Beisiegel, Cristóbal E. Castro, Jörn Behrens

Published: 2019-12-04
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Non-uniform, dynamically adaptive meshes are a useful tool for reducing computational complexities for geophysical simulations that exhibit strongly localised features such as is the case for example for tsunami, hurricane or typhoon prediction. Theoretical insight for mesh-based numerical methods, however, is largely restricted to uniform meshes as they allow for a traditional definition of [...]

A grid for multidimensional and multivariate spatial representation and data processing.

Tobias Stål, Anya M. Reading

Published: 2019-11-22
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Researchers use 2D and 3D spatial models of multivariate data of differing resolutions and formats. It can be challenging to work with multiple datasets, and it is time consuming to set up a robust, performant, grid to handle such spatial models. We share a Python module that provides a framework for containing multidi- mensional data and functionality to work with those data. The module provides [...]

Controls on the development and termination of failed continental rifts: Insights from the crustal structure and rifting style of the North Sea via ambient noise tomography

Emily Crowder, Nick Rawlinson, David G. Cornwell, Carmelo Sammarco, Erica Galetti, Andrew Curtis

Published: 2019-09-21
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Probability, Statistics and Probability

The mid to lower crust plays an important role in rift initiation and evolution, particularly when large scale sutures and/or terrane boundaries are present. These inherited features can focus strain or act as inhibitors to extensional deformation. Ancient tectonic features are known to exist beneath the iconic failed rift system of the North Sea making it the ideal location to investigate the [...]

SSPipeline: A pipeline for estimating and characterizing uncertainty in coastal storm surge levels

John Letey, Mingxuan Zhang, Tony Wong

Published: 2018-10-22
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Engineering, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Effective management of coastal risks demands projections of flood hazards that account for a wide variety of potential sources of uncertainty. Two typical approaches for estimating flood hazards include (1) direct physical process-based modeling of the storms themselves and (2) statistical modeling of the distributions and relevant characteristics of extreme sea level events. Recently, flexible [...]

Learning about climate change uncertainty enables flexible water infrastructure planning

Sarah Marie Fletcher, Megan Lickley, Kenneth Strzepek

Published: 2018-09-29
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Climate, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability, Water Resource Management

Water resources planning requires making decisions about infrastructure development under substantial uncertainty in future regional climate conditions. However, uncertainty in climate change projections will evolve over the 100-year lifetime of a dam as new climate observations become available. Flexible strategies in which infrastructure is proactively designed to be changed in the future have [...]

Preparing for the Utilization of Data Science / Data Analytics in Earth Science Research

Steven Kempler, Lindsay Barbieri, Tiffany Trapasso

Published: 2018-06-21
Subjects: Computational Engineering, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Education, Engineering, Mathematics, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Science and Mathematics Education, Statistics and Probability

Data analytics is the process of examining large amounts of varying data types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. The Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster was created to facilitate the co-analysis of Earth science data and information. In addition to pioneering the definition of ESDA, the cluster has [...]

Network Analysis of the American Geophysical Union’s Fall Meetings

Tom William Narock, Sarah Hasnain, Ronie Stephan

Published: 2018-06-20
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is an Earth and space science professional society based in the United States. AGU publishes scientific journals, sponsors meetings, and supports education and outreach efforts to promote public understanding of science. Research conducted by AGU members ranges from the Earth’s deep interior to the outer planets of our solar system. Little research exists on [...]

Spatial association between regionalizations using the information-theoretical V-measure

Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski

Published: 2018-04-19
Subjects: Categorical Data Analysis, Computer Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistics and Probability, Theory and Algorithms

There is a keen interest in inferring spatial associations between different variables spanning the same study area. We present a method for quantitative assessment of such associations in the case where spatial variables are either in the form of regionalizations or in the form of thematic maps. The proposed index of spatial association – called the V-measure – is adapted from a measure [...]

Global assessment and mapping of changes in mesoscale landscapes: 1992–2015

Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski, Pawel Netzel

Published: 2018-02-15
Subjects: Categorical Data Analysis, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science, Statistics and Probability

Monitoring global land cover changes is important because of concerns about their impact on environment and climate. The release by the European Space Agency (ESA) of a set of worldwide annual land cover maps covering the 1992–2015 period makes possible a quantitative assessment of land change on the global scale. While ESA land cover mapping effort was motivated by the need to better [...]

Towards machine ecoregionalization of Earth’s landmass using pattern segmentation method

Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski

Published: 2018-02-15
Subjects: Categorical Data Analysis, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science, Statistics and Probability

We present and evaluate a quantitative method for delineation of ecophysigraphic regions throughout the entire terrestrial landmass. The method uses the new pattern-based segmentation technique which attempts to emulate the qualitative, weight-of-evidence approach to a delineation of ecoregions in a computer code. An ecophysiographic region is characterized by homogeneous physiography defined by [...]

Multi-scale segmentation algorithm for pattern-based partitioning of large categorical rasters

Jaroslaw Jasiewicz, Tomasz Stepinski, Jacek Niesterowicz

Published: 2018-01-28
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geography, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science

Analyzing large Earth Observation (EO) data on the broad spatial scales frequently involves regionalization of patterns. To automate this process we present a segmentation algorithm designed specifically to delineate segments containing quasi-stationary patterns. The algorithm is designed to work with patterns of a categorical variable. This makes it possible to analyze very large spatial [...]

Numerical solution of a non-linear conservation law applicable to the interior dynamics of partially molten planets

Dan J. Bower, Patrick Sanan, Aaron S. Wolf

Published: 2017-11-21
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, dS/dr, as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with [...]

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