Filtering by Subject: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Validation of glacial-interglacial rainfall variations in southwest Sulawesi using Mg/Ca and δ18O in speleothems

Alena K Kimbrough, Michael Gagan, Gavin Dunbar, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Speleology

Speleothem δ18O is widely used as a proxy for rainfall amount in the tropics on glacial-interglacial to interannual scales. However, uncertainties in the interpretation of this renowned proxy pose a vexing problem in tropical paleoclimatology. Here, we present paired measurements of Mg/Ca and δ18O for multiple stalagmites from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, that that confirm changes in rainfall [...]

Efficient Probabilistic Prediction and Uncertainty Quantification of Hurricane Surge and Inundation

William James Pringle, Zachary R Burnett, Khachik Sargsyan, et al.

Published: 2022-05-31
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This study proposes a methodology for efficient probabilistic prediction of near-landfall hurricane-driven storm surge, tide, and inundation. We perturb forecasts of hurricane track, intensity, and size according to quasi-random low-discrepancy Korobov sequences of historical forecast errors with assumed Gaussian and uniform statistical distributions. These perturbations are run in an ensemble of [...]

Gender Equity in Oceanography

Sonya Legg, Caixia Wang, Ellen Kappel, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gender equity, providing for full participation of people of all genders in the oceanographic workforce, is an important goal for the continued success of the oceanographic enterprise. Here we describe historical obstructions to gender equity, assess recent progress and the current status of gender equity in oceanography by examining quantitative measures of participation, achievement, and [...]

Early development and tuning of a global coupled cloud resolving model, and its fast response to increasing CO2

Thorsten Mauritsen, Rene Redler, Monika Esch, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Since the dawn of functioning numerical dynamical atmosphere- and ocean models, their resolution has steadily increased, fed by an exponential growth in computational capabilities. The computationally limited resolution of models means that a number of mostly small-scale or micro-scale processes have to be parameterised -- in particular those of atmospheric moist convection and ocean eddies are [...]

Expansion and intensification of the North American Monsoon during the Pliocene

Tripti Bhattacharya, Ran Feng, Jessica Tierney, et al.

Published: 2022-04-14
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Southwestern North America, like many subtropical regions, is predicted to become drier in response to anthropogenic warming. However, during the Pliocene, when carbon dioxide was above pre-industrial levels, multiple lines of evidence suggest that southwestern North America was much wetter. While existing explanations for a wet Pliocene invoke increases in winter rain, recent modeling studies [...]

The deep Arctic Ocean and Fram Strait in CMIP6 models

Céline Heuzé, Hannah Zanowski, Salar Karam, et al.

Published: 2022-04-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Arctic sea ice loss has become a symbol of ongoing climate change, yet climate models still struggle to reproduce it accurately, let alone predict it. A reason for this is the increasingly clear role of the ocean, especially the "Atlantic layer", on sea ice processes. We here quantify biases in that Atlantic layer and the Arctic Ocean deeper layers in 14 representative models that participated in [...]

Data from the drain: a sensor framework that captures multiple drivers of chronic floods

Adam Gold, Katherine Anarde, Lauren Grimley, et al.

Published: 2022-04-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tide gauge records are commonly used as proxies to detect coastal floods and project future flood frequencies. While these proxies clearly show that sea-level rise will increase the frequency of coastal flooding, tide gauges do not account for land-based sources of coastal flooding and therefore likely underestimate the current and future frequency of coastal flooding. Here we present a new [...]

A state estimate of Siberian summer temperature and moisture availability during the Last Glacial Maximum combining pollen records and climate simulations

Nils Weitzel, Andreas Hense, Ulrike Herzschuh, et al.

Published: 2022-03-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21.000 years before present) was a period with significantly lower global mean temperature, large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and low CO2 concentrations. Unlike other high-latitude areas, Siberia was not covered by a terrestrial ice sheet. Climate simulations with LGM boundary conditions show large inter-model differences especially in Northern Siberia, which [...]

Controls on surface warming by polar clouds in idealized large-eddy simulations

Antonios Dimitrelos, Rodrigo Caballero, Annica Ekman

Published: 2022-03-25
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The main energy input to the polar regions in winter is the advection of warm, moist air from lower latitudes. This makes the polar climate sensitive to the temperature and moisture of extra-polar air. Here, we study this sensitivity from an air-mass transformation perspective. We perform simulations of an idealized maritime air mass brought into contact with sea ice employing a three-dimensional [...]

Automated machine learning to evaluate the information content of tropospheric trace gas columns for fine particle estimates over India: a modeling testbed

Zhonghua Zheng, Arlene M. Fiore, Daniel M. Westervelt, et al.

Published: 2022-03-20
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Atmospheric Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

India is largely devoid of high-quality and reliable on-the-ground measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Ground-level PM2.5 concentrations are estimated from publicly available satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products combined with other information. Prior research has largely overlooked the possibility of gaining additional accuracy and insights into the sources of PM using [...]

Interannual variability of the Australian summer monsoon sustained through internal processes: wind-evaporation feedback, dynamical air-sea interaction and soil moisture memory

Shion Sekizawa, Hisashi Nakamura, Yu Kosaka

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

In northern Australia (NAUS), mean rainfall during the Australian summer monsoon (AUSM) season exhibits distinct interannual variability despite weak influence from tropical sea surface temperature (SST) variability. The present study investigates mechanisms for the strong and persistent rainfall anomalies throughout the AUSM season. When the AUSM is stronger than normal, the low-level monsoonal [...]

Numerical simulation of atmospheric Lamb waves generated by the 2022 Hunga-Tonga volcanic eruption

Angel Amores, Sebastian Monserrat, Marta Marcos, et al.

Published: 2022-02-08
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

On January 15th, 2022, around 4:30 UTC the eruption of the Hunga-Tonga volcano, in the South Pacific Ocean, generated a violent underwater explosion. In addition to tsunami waves that affected the Pacific coasts, the eruption created atmospheric pressure disturbances that spread out in the form of Lamb waves. The associated atmospheric pressure oscillations were detected in high-frequency in-situ [...]

Forecasting Marine Heatwaves using Machine Learning

Ayush Prasad, Sanxchep Sharma, Harshvardhan Agarwal

Published: 2022-02-05
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Recently, severe warm-water episodes have occurred frequently against a background trend of global ocean warming. Sea Surface Temperature anomalies have an impact on the integrity of marine ecosystems which is an important part of the Earth’s climate system. The drastic effects of Marine Heatwaves on aquatic life have been on a steady incline in the recent years, damaging aquatic ecosystems [...]

Meteotsunamis in Japan associated with the Tonga Eruption in January 2022

RYUHO KATAOKA, Stephen D. Winn, Emile Touber

Published: 2022-02-03
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Large-amplitude meteotsunamis were observed in many areas in Japan, following the arrival of barometric Lamb waves emitted by an underwater volcanic eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha‘apai in January 2022. We modeled the power spectra of the tidal level data obtained from 12 tide stations of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, based on a single transfer function which converts the [...]

Meteotsunami observed in Japan following the Hunga Tonga eruption in 2022 investigated using a one-dimensional shallow-water model

Shion Sekizawa, Tsubasa Kohyama

Published: 2022-01-28
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

On January 15, 2022, the volcano Hunga Tonga about 8000-km away from Japan explosively erupted. Following the eruption, tsunami-like sea-level fluctuations were observed in Japan, much earlier than expected based on the oceanic long-wave propagation from Tonga. By contrast, atmospheric pressure disturbance presumably due to the eruption was also observed about 30 minutes before the sea-level [...]


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