Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

CO2 capture by pumping surface acidity to the deep ocean

Michael Tyka, John C Platt, Christopher Van Arsdale

Published: 2021-04-30
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Climate, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The majority of IPCC scenarios call for active CO2 removal (CDR) to remain below 2oC of warm- ing. On geological timescales, ocean uptake regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration, with two homeostats driving CO2 uptake: dissolution of deep ocean calcite deposits and terrestrial weathering of silicate rocks, acting on 1ka to 100ka timescales, respectively. Many current ocean-based CDR proposals [...]

Optimal experiment design for bottom friction parameter estimation

Simon Warder, Matthew D Piggott

Published: 2021-04-23
Subjects: Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

It is common practice within numerical coastal ocean modelling to perform model calibration with respect to a bottom friction parameter. While many modelling studies employ a spatially uniform coefficient, within the parameter estimation literature the coefficient is typically taken to be spatially (or even temporally) varying. A parameter estimation experiment requires an appropriate set of [...]

A deep-learning estimate of the decadal trends in the Southern Ocean carbon storage

Varvara E Zemskova, Tai-Long He, Zirui Wan, Nicolas Grisouard

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Uptake of atmospheric carbon by the ocean, especially at high latitudes, plays an important role in offsetting anthropogenic emissions. At the surface of the Southern Ocean south of 30 degrees S, the ocean carbon uptake, which had been weakening in 1990s, strengthened in the 2000s. However, sparseness of in-situ measurements in the ocean interior make it difficult to compute changes in carbon [...]

Why is the Hurricane Season So Sharp?

Wenchang Yang, Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Gabriel Vecchi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding tropical cyclone (TC) climatology is a problem of profound societal significance and deep scientific interest. The annual cycle is the biggest radiatively-forced signal in TC variability, presenting a key test of our understanding and modeling of TC activity. TCs over the North Atlantic (NA) basin, which are usually called hurricanes, have a sharp peak in the annual cycle, with more [...]

Orbital, the Box - An interactive educational tool for in-depth understanding of astronomical climate forcing.

Bryan C. Lougheed

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Adult and Continuing Education, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Climate, Earth Sciences, Education, Educational Methods, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Higher Education, Instructional Media Design, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, The Sun and the Solar System

“Orbital, the Box” provides an interactive tool with graphical user interface (GUI) for stimulating active, visual learning for understanding of astronomical climate forcing. This cross-platform tool can be run locally on a personal computer using a standard web browser environment with no need for plugins, thus maximising accessibility for students and teachers alike. The tool facilitates in the [...]

Seasonal changes of iceberg distribution and surface area in the Amundsen Sea Embayment

Aleksandra K. Mazur, Anna K. Wåhlin, Sebastiaan Swart

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Icebergs have a significant influence on local and potentially global climate by altering ocean and sea ice environments. An object-based method for automatic iceberg detection has been applied to 2442 SAR images acquired during all seasons between 2006-2012 in the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), Antarctica. During this period a total count of icebergs and their surface area were calculated in [...]

Globally resolved surface temperatures since the Last Glacial Maximum

Matthew B Osman, Jessica E. Tierney, Jiang Zhu, Robert Tardif, Gregory J. Hakim, Jonathan King, Christopher J Poulsen

Published: 2021-03-31
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Climate changes across the last 24,000 years provide key insights into Earth system responses to external forcing. Climate model simulations and proxy data have independently allowed for study of this crucial interval; however, they have at times yielded disparate conclusions. Here, we leverage both types of information using paleoclimate data assimilation to produce the first observationally [...]

The NCAR airborne 94-GHz cloud radar: calibration and data processing

Ulrike Romatschke, Michael Dixon, Peisang Tsai, Eric Loew, Jothiram Vivekanandan, Jonathan Emmett, Robert Rilling

Published: 2021-03-30
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The 94-GHz airborne HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR) has now been deployed in three major field campaigns. NCAR has developed an extensive set of quality assurance and quality control procedures which are applied to all collected data. Engineering measurements performed both in the laboratory and in an antenna measurement chamber yielded calibration characteristics for the antenna, reflector, and radome. [...]

Spatial spectrum of temperature fluctuations in buoyancy driven chaotic and turbulent atmosphere

Alexander Bershadskii

Published: 2021-03-25
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

It is shown, using results of direct numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer, in troposphere, in stratosphere, and the satellite infrared radiances data that in many cases the temperature fluctuations in buoyancy driven chaotic and turbulent atmosphere can be well described by the distributed chaos approach based on the Bolgiano-Obukhov [...]

Crisis at the Salton Sea: Research Gaps and Opportunities

Marilyn Fogel, Hoori Ajami, Emma Aronson, Roya Bahreini, Wilfred Elders, Darrel Jenerette, David Lo, Timothy Lyons, Michael McKibben, William Porter, Arun Raju, Kurt Schwabe, Caroline Hung, Jonathan Nye

Published: 2021-03-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Salton Sea, a hypersaline lake in southern California, USA, is in crisis. A combination of mismanagement and competition between federal, state and local agencies has resulted in stalled efforts to address dropping water levels and unstable lake biogeochemistry. This in turn has led to a growing public health crisis as exposed shoreline exposes potentially toxic dust to local and regional [...]

Shallow or deep? A reinterpretation of the Rifian Corridor’s unique sandy contourites

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood, Mohammed Najib Zaghloul, Michiel Arts, Fredrick Sarg

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

This study proposes that sandstone layers exposed in the Fez-Meknes region of Northern Morocco (Ben Allou (Sidi Chaded) and El Adergha localities), have been misinterpreted as unique examples of geostrophically-driven, deep marine (150 - 400 m water depth) sandy contourites. Instead, our independent paleontological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic analyses show that these sandstones represent [...]

High-resolution observations of the North Pacific transition layer from a Lagrangian float

Alexis Kaminski, Eric A. D'Asaro, Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Ramsey R. Harcourt

Published: 2021-02-11
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A crucial region of the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) is the strongly-sheared and -stratified transition layer (TL) separating the mixed layer from the upper pycnocline, where a diverse range of waves and instabilities are possible. Previous work suggests that these different waves and instabilities will lead to different OSBL behaviours. Therefore, understanding which physical processes [...]

Reduced High-Latitude Land Seasonality in Climates with Very High Carbon Dioxide

Matthew Henry, Geoffrey K Vallis

Published: 2021-02-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Observations of warm past climates and projections of future climate change show that the Arctic warms more than the global mean, particularly during winter months. Past warm climates such as the early Eocene had above-freezing Arctic continental temperatures year-round. In this paper, we show that a reduced Arctic land seasonality with increased greenhouse gases is a robust consequence of the [...]

Dynamical attribution of North Atlantic interdecadal predictability to oceanic and atmospheric turbulence under realistic and optimal stochastic forcing

Dafydd Stephenson, Florian Sévellec

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Unpredictable variations in the ocean originate from both external atmospheric forcing and chaotic processes internal to the ocean itself, and are a crucial sink of predictability on interdecadal timescales. In a global ocean model, we present i.) an optimisation framework to compute the most efficient noise patterns to generate uncertainty and ii.) a uniquely inexpensive, dynamical method for [...]

Observations of nonlinear momentum fluxes over the inner continental shelf

Thomas Pell Connolly, Steven J Lentz

Published: 2021-01-31
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Nonlinear momentum fluxes over the inner continental shelf are examined using moored observations from multiple years at two different locations in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Inner shelf dynamics are often described in terms of a linear alongshore momentum balance, dominated by frictional stresses generated at the surface and bottom. In this study, observations over the North Carolina inner shelf [...]

search

You can search by:

  • Title
  • Keywords
  • Author Name
  • Author Affiliation