Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate sensitivity

Maofeng Liu, Gabriel Vecchi, Brian Soden, Wenchang Yang, Bosong Zhang

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The large-scale moistening of the atmosphere in response to the greenhouse gas increases tends to amplify the existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) which, in turn, amplifies the spatial contrast in sea surface salinity (SSS). We propose that subtropical surface salinification due to the intensified hydrological cycle provides a buoyancy sink that increases the rate of ocean [...]

Investigation on the Impacts of COVID-19 Lockdown and Influence Factors on Air Quality in Greater Bangkok, Thailand

Parichat Wetchayont

Published: 2020-11-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world, many countries announced lockdown measures, including Thailand. Several scientific studies have reported on improvements in air quality due to the impact of these COVID-19 lockdowns. This study aims to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown and its driving influence factors on air pollution in Greater Bangkok, Thailand using [...]

IBM PAIRS: Scalable big geospatial-temporal data and analytics as-a-service

Siyuan Lu, Hendrik Hamann

Published: 2020-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The rapid growth of geospatial-temporal data from sources like satellites, drones, weather modeling, IoT sensors etc., accumulating at a pace of PetaBytes to ExaBytes annually, opens unprecedented opportunities for both science and industrial applications. However, the sheer size and complexity of such data presents significant challenges for conventional geospatial information systems (GIS) [...]

Global decline of deep water formation with increasing atmospheric CO2

Céline Heuzé, Martin Mohrmann, Ellen Andersson, Emelie Crafoord

Published: 2020-10-24
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Deep water formation is not only the driver of the global ocean circulation; by sending heat and carbon to the deep ocean, it is also crucial for climate change mitigation. Yet its future is uncertain: will it slow down as stratification increases, emerge in polar regions as the wind starts blowing over previously ice-covered waters, or intensify with increased evaporation? Here we present the [...]

A data assimilation approach to last millennium temperature field reconstruction using a limited high-sensitivity proxy network

Jonathan King, Kevin Anchukaitis, Jess Tierney, Greg Hakim, Julien Emile-Geay, Feng Zhu, Rob Wilson

Published: 2020-10-23
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Paleoclimate field reconstructions using data assimilation commonly employ large proxy networks, which are often composed of records that have a complex range of sensitivities to the target climate field. This can introduce biases into reconstructions or decrease overall skill. Smaller networks of highly-sensitive proxies provide an alternative, but have not been extensively used for assimilation [...]

Dynamical analysis of a reduced model for the North Atlantic Oscillation

Courtney Quinn, Dylan Harries, Terence J. O'Kane

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We apply a regularized vector autoregressive clustering technique to identify recurrent and persistent states of atmospheric circulation patterns in theNorthAtlantic sector (110W-0E, 20N-90N) associated with the Atlantic Ridge (AR) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The technique additionally provides the temporal behavior in terms of a time-dependent switching between the respective [...]

Grain Size and Beach Face Slope on Paraglacial Beaches of New England, USA

Jonathan D. Woodruff, Nicholas Venti, Stephen Mabee, Alycia DiTroia, Douglas Beach

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Approximately 100 paired summer and winter transects of beach face slope and intertidal grain size were examined from 18 separate beaches in southern New England that span meso- and micro- tidal regimes. Paraglacial materials provide the principal local sediment source to beaches in this region and grain-size distribution of beaches corresponds to adjacent surficial geology. Stratified glacial [...]

Mercury stable isotope composition of seawater suggests important net gaseous elemental mercury uptake

Martin Jiskra, Lars-Eric Heimburger-Boavida, Marie-Maelle Desgranges, Mariia Petrova, Aurelie Dufour, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Jeremy Masbou, Jerome Chmeleff, Melilotus Thyssen, David Point

Published: 2020-08-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Human exposure to toxic mercury (Hg) is dominated by the consumption of seafood. Earth system models suggest that Hg in marine ecosystems is supplied by Hg(II) deposition, with a 3x smaller contribution from gaseous Hg(0) uptake, and that photochemical reduction of marine Hg(II) drives important Hg(0) evasion to the atmosphere. Observations of marine Hg(II) deposition and gas exchange are sparse [...]

Identifying and correcting the World War 2 warm anomaly in sea surface temperature measurements

DUO CHAN, Peter Huybers

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Most foregoing estimates of historical sea surface temperature (SST) feature warmer global-average SSTs during World War 2 well in excess of climate-model predictions. This warm anomaly, referred to as the WW2WA, was hypothesized to arise from incomplete corrections of biases associated with rapid changes in measurement instruments and protocols. Using linear mixed-effects methods we confirm [...]

Correcting 19th and 20th century sea surface temperatures improves simulations of Atlantic hurricane activity

DUO CHAN, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Wenchang Yang, Peter Huybers

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Changes in the statistics of North Atlantic hurricanes are known to depend upon the pattern of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Dynamical and statistical models are key tools to predict future hurricane activity, with our confidence in this application rooted in the models’ ability to skillfully reproduce hurricane variations over the past 30-40 years, when satellite data allows [...]

A Statistical Evaluation of WRF-LES Trace Gas Dispersion Using Project Prairie Grass Measurements

Alex Rybchuk, Caroline B. Alden, Julie K. Lundquist, Gregory B. Rieker

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In recent years, new measurement systems have been deployed to monitor and quantify methane emissions from the natural gas sector. Large-eddy simulation (LES) has complemented measurement campaigns by serving as a controlled environment in which to study plume dynamics and sampling strategies. However, with few comparisons to controlled-release experiments, the accuracy of LES for modeling [...]

Changes in temperature and rainfall extremes across East Asia in the CMIP5 ensemble

jeong-soo park, Youngsaeng Lee, Jayeong Paek

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We analyze annual extremes of daily maximum and minimum surface air temperature and of daily rainfall in East Asia and the Korean peninsula. This study made intensive use of the simulation data available from the CMIP5 (Coupled Model intercomparison Project Phase 5) multimodels in historical and future experiments up to year 2100, employing three different radiative forcings: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, [...]

A general expression for wave-induced sediment bypassing of an isolated headland

Robert Jak McCarroll, Gerd Masselink, Nieves G. Valiente, Erin V. King, Timothy Scott, Christopher Stokes, Mark Wiggins

Published: 2020-07-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurate knowledge of the sediment budget of a coastal cell is necessary for coastal management and predicting long-term coastal change. An important component in the sediment budget of many wave-dominated embayed coastlines is the amount of sediment that bypasses rocky headlands, which present partial barriers to alongshore transport. Despite a recent surge in research interest in headland [...]

An Eddy-Zonal Flow Feedback Model for Propagating Annular Modes

Sandro Lubis, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2020-07-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The variability of the zonal-mean large-scale extratropical circulation is often studied using individual modes obtained from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses. The prevailing reduced-order model of the leading EOF (EOF1) of zonal-mean zonal wind, called the annular mode, consists of an eddy-mean flow interaction mechanism that results in a positive feedback of EOF1 onto itself. [...]

Modelling hydrodynamics in an energetic tidal strait with pronounced bathymetric features

Lucas Mackie, Paul Evans, Magnus Harrold, Tim O`Doherty, Matthew Piggott, Athanasios Angeloudis

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Engineering, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Characterising tidal hydrodynamics in the vicinity of submerged features can be demanding given the hostility of the marine environment. Logistical challenges in the measurement of such flows has promoted research on wake studies through physical and numerical modelling. In this study, site measurements and modelled data are combined to provide an insight into the regional hydrodynamics within a [...]

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