Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Oceanography

Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate sensitivity

Maofeng Liu, Gabriel Vecchi, Brian Soden, Wenchang Yang, Bosong Zhang

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The large-scale moistening of the atmosphere in response to the greenhouse gas increases tends to amplify the existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) which, in turn, amplifies the spatial contrast in sea surface salinity (SSS). We propose that subtropical surface salinification due to the intensified hydrological cycle provides a buoyancy sink that increases the rate of ocean [...]

Ventilation of the abyss in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

Camille Akhoudas, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Alexander Haumann, Michael Meredith, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Gilles Reverdin, Loïc Jullion, Giovanni Aloisi, Marion Benetti, Melanie Leng, Carol Arrowsmith

Published: 2020-11-10
Subjects: Oceanography

The Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is the world’s main production site of Antarctic Bottom Water, a water-mass that is ventilated at the ocean surface before sinking and entraining older water-masses – ultimately replenishing the abyssal global ocean. In recent decades, numerous attempts at estimating the rates of ventilation and overturning of Antarctic Bottom Water in this region have [...]

Utilizing Distributed Acoustic Sensing and Ocean Bottom Fiber Optic Cables for Submarine Structural Characterization

Feng Cheng, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin, Benxin Chi, Nathaniel J. Lindsey, Craig T. Dawe

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography

The sparsity of permanent seismic instrumentation in marine environments often limits the availability of subsea information on geohazards, including active fault systems, in both time and space. One sensing resource that may provide observational access to the seafloor environment are existing networks of ocean bottom fiber optic cables; these cables, coupled to modern distributed acoustic [...]

A Storm Hazard Matrix combining coastal flooding and beach erosion

Christopher Kenji Leaman, Mitchell D Harley, Kristen D Splinter, Mandi C Thran, Michael A Kinsela, Ian L Turner

Published: 2020-10-24
Subjects: Oceanography, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering

Coastal storms cause widespread damage to property, infrastructure, economic activity and the environment. Along open sandy coastlines, two of the primary coastal storm hazards are coastal flooding by elevated ocean water levels and beach erosion as the result of storm wave action. At continental margins characterized by a shallow, wide continental shelf, coastal storms are more commonly [...]

1600 year-long sedimentary record of tsunamis and hurricanes in the Lesser Antilles (Scrub Island, Anguilla)

Maude BIGUENET, Pierre Sabatier, Eric Chaumillon, Catherine Chagué, Fabien Arnaud, Frans Jorissen, Thibault Coulombier, Emeline Geba, Louise Cordrie, Pierre Vacher, Anne-Lise Develle, Emilie Chalmin, Fayçal Soufi, Nathalie Feuillet

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Geochemistry, Oceanography, Sedimentology

The Lesser Antilles are a densely populated and a very touristic region exposed to many short-term hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis. However, the historical catalog of these events is too short to allow risk assessment and return period estimations, and it needs to be completed with long-term geological records. Two sediment cores were sampled in March 2018 in a small coastal lagoon on [...]

Mercury stable isotope composition of seawater suggests important net gaseous elemental mercury uptake

Martin Jiskra, Lars-Eric Heimburger-Boavida, Marie-Maelle Desgranges, Mariia Petrova, Aurelie Dufour, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Jeremy Masbou, Jerome Chmeleff, Melilotus Thyssen, David Point

Published: 2020-08-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Human exposure to toxic mercury (Hg) is dominated by the consumption of seafood. Earth system models suggest that Hg in marine ecosystems is supplied by Hg(II) deposition, with a 3x smaller contribution from gaseous Hg(0) uptake, and that photochemical reduction of marine Hg(II) drives important Hg(0) evasion to the atmosphere. Observations of marine Hg(II) deposition and gas exchange are sparse [...]

Identifying and correcting the World War 2 warm anomaly in sea surface temperature measurements

DUO CHAN, Peter Huybers

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Most foregoing estimates of historical sea surface temperature (SST) feature warmer global-average SSTs during World War 2 well in excess of climate-model predictions. This warm anomaly, referred to as the WW2WA, was hypothesized to arise from incomplete corrections of biases associated with rapid changes in measurement instruments and protocols. Using linear mixed-effects methods we confirm [...]

A general expression for wave-induced sediment bypassing of an isolated headland

Robert Jak McCarroll, Gerd Masselink, Nieves G. Valiente, Erin V. King, Timothy Scott, Christopher Stokes, Mark Wiggins

Published: 2020-07-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurate knowledge of the sediment budget of a coastal cell is necessary for coastal management and predicting long-term coastal change. An important component in the sediment budget of many wave-dominated embayed coastlines is the amount of sediment that bypasses rocky headlands, which present partial barriers to alongshore transport. Despite a recent surge in research interest in headland [...]

Modelling hydrodynamics in an energetic tidal strait with pronounced bathymetric features

Lucas Mackie, Paul Evans, Magnus Harrold, Tim O`Doherty, Matthew Piggott, Athanasios Angeloudis

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Engineering, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Characterising tidal hydrodynamics in the vicinity of submerged features can be demanding given the hostility of the marine environment. Logistical challenges in the measurement of such flows has promoted research on wake studies through physical and numerical modelling. In this study, site measurements and modelled data are combined to provide an insight into the regional hydrodynamics within a [...]

Rapid heat discharge during deep-sea eruptions generates megaplumes and disperses tephra

Samuel Pegler, David Ferguson

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Volcanology

Deep-marine volcanism drives Earth’s most energetic transfers of heat and mass between the crust and the oceans. Seafloor magmatic activity has been correlated in time with the appearance of massive enigmatic plumes of hydrothermal fluid, known as megaplumes, yet little is known of the primary source and intensity of the hydrothermal energy release that occurs during [...]

Variational Ensemble-Transform Filtering of HFR & ADCP velocities in the ice-free Chukchi Sea

j.n. stroh, gleb panteleev, Thomas Weingartner

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Chukchi Sea (CS) is the gateway to the Arctic Ocean (AO) for Pacific waters entering from Bering Strait (BS) and also a potential location for future offshore oil extraction. Since 2010, regional CS data has become more plentiful with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) moored throughout the northwestern portion of the shelf along with coastal high-frequency radar (HFR) surface [...]

Alkenone isotopes show evidence of active carbon concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores as aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations fall below 7 µmolL-1

Marcus Peter Sebastian Badger

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Coccolithophores and other haptophyte algae acquire the carbon required for metabolic processes from the water in which they live. Whether carbon is actively moved across the cell membrane via a carbon concentrating mechanism, or passively through diffusion, is important for haptophyte biochemistry. The possible utilisation of carbon concentrating mechanisms also has the potential to overprint [...]

Forecasting the localized bilateral effects of ocean acidification on the counter carbonate pump using recurrent neural networks

Eshan Ramesh

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Chemistry, Computer Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The counter carbonate pump(CCP) is responsible for carbon dioxide sequestration and cycling forms of carbon in the ocean. It is primarily driven by calcifying plankton, such as foraminifera, coccolithophores, and pteropods. These organisms are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification, which can have disastrous effects on their skeletons and productivity, upsetting the marine carbon cycle in [...]

Application of the tilt derivative transform to bathymetric data for structural lineament mapping

Christopher Mark Yeomans, Matthew Head, Jordan James Lindsay

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

High-resolution bathymetry surveys provide an opportunity to analyse local geological structure where onshore areas afford limited exposure. Semi-automated lineament detection methods are necessary for areas of large coverage where a manual analysis would be subjective and time-consuming. However, semi-automated approaches are dependent on effective feature extraction methods to identify genuine [...]

Ekman-Inertial Instability

Nicolas Grisouard, Varvara E. Zemskova

Published: 2020-07-05
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We report on an instability, arising in sub-surface, laterally-sheared flows in rotation. When the lateral shear of a horizontal flow in geostrophic balance is of opposite sign as the Coriolis parameter, and exceeds it in magnitude, embedded perturbations are subjected to inertial instability, albeit modified by viscosity. When the perturbation arises from the surface of the fluid, the initial [...]

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