Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Oceanography

High interstadial sea levels over the past 420ka from Huon terraces (Papua New Guinea)

Gino de Gelder, Laurent Husson, Anne-Morwenn Pastier, et al.

Published: 2021-09-06
Subjects: Climate, Geology, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Tectonics and Structure

The history of sea level across the Quaternary is essential for assessing past and future climate and geodynamics. Global sea-level reconstructions are typically derived from oxygen isotope curves, but require calibration with geological constraints that are particularly scarce prior to the last glacial cycle (>130 ka). The exceptionally well-preserved coral reef terrace sequence in the Huon [...]

Sea surface salinity subfootprint variability from a global high-resolution model

Frederick M Bingham, Susannah Brodnitz, Severine Fournier, et al.

Published: 2021-08-20
Subjects: Oceanography

Subfootprint variability (SFV) is variability at a spatial scale smaller than the footprint of a sat-ellite, and cannot be resolved by satellite observations. It is important to quantify and understand as it contributes to the error budget for satellite data. The purpose of this study is to estimate the SFV for sea surface salinity (SSS) satellite observations. This is done using a [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Combining shallow-water and analytical wake models for tidal array micro-siting

Connor Jordan, Davor Dundovic, Anastasia Fragkou, et al.

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Oceanography

Array optimisation is critical for improving power performance and reducing infrastructure costs thereby helping enable tidal-stream energy to become a competitive renewable energy source. However, ascertaining an optimal array layout is a highly complex problem, subject to the specific site hydrodynamics characterisation and multiple inter-disciplinary constrains. In this work, we present a [...]

Creating a climate changed future with the sea level rise interactive- fiction game ‘Lagos2199’

Patrick Keys, Matthew P Keys

Published: 2021-07-26
Subjects: Climate, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Instructional Media Design, International and Area Studies, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Science and Mathematics Education, Sustainability

Story-based futures serve an important role in climate change scenario development. Stories are particularly useful in exploring sea level rise possibilities, since we know many coastal areas are specifically vulnerable to accelerating rises in sea level. This discrete change in coastline is different from most other climate change impacts, and offers a clear basis for scientifically-informed, [...]

Energetics and mixing of stratified, rotating flow over abyssal hills

Varvara E Zemskova, Nicolas Grisouard

Published: 2021-07-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

One of the proposed mechanisms for energy loss in the ocean is through dissipation of internal waves, in particular above rough topography where internal lee waves are generated. Rates of dissipation and diapycnal mixing are often estimated using linear theory and a constant value for mixing efficiency. However, previous oceanographic measurements found that non-linear dynamics may be important [...]

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

Matchup Characteristics of Sea Surface Salinity using a High-resolution Ocean Model

Frederick M Bingham, Severine Fournier, Susannah Brodnitz, et al.

Published: 2021-06-16
Subjects: Oceanography

Sea surface salinity (SSS) satellite measurements are validated using in situ observations usually made by surfacing Argo floats. Validation statistics are computed using matched values of SSS from satellites and floats. This study explores how the matchup process is done using a high-resolution numerical ocean model, the MITgcm. One year of model output is sampled as if the Aquarius and Soil [...]

Ubiquity of human-induced changes in climate variability

Keith Bradley Rodgers, Sun-Seon Lee, Nan Rosenbloom, et al.

Published: 2021-06-12
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

While climate change mitigation targets necessarily concern maximum mean state changes, understanding impacts and developing adaptation strategies will be largely contingent on how climate variability responds to increasing anthropogenic perturbations. Here we present a new 100-member large ensemble of climate change projections conducted with the Community Earth System Model version 2 to examine [...]

Non-deterministic effects in modelling the tidal currents in a high-energy coastal site

Simon Warder, Stephan C Kramer, Matthew D Piggott

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oceanography

Numerical models are commonly employed for predicting tidal stream resource, since harmonic analysis is typically insufficient for representing tidal currents. This is particularly true in regions of high-energy flow and complex bathymetric and coastline features, resulting in highly nonlinear dynamics. Within this work, we demonstrate that non-deterministic effects pose a further barrier to [...]

CO2 capture by pumping surface acidity to the deep ocean

Michael Tyka, John C Platt, Christopher Van Arsdale

Published: 2021-04-30
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Climate, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The majority of IPCC scenarios call for active CO2 removal (CDR) to remain below 2oC of warm- ing. On geological timescales, ocean uptake regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration, with two homeostats driving CO2 uptake: dissolution of deep ocean calcite deposits and terrestrial weathering of silicate rocks, acting on 1ka to 100ka timescales, respectively. Many current ocean-based CDR proposals [...]

Note on the bulk estimate of the energy dissipation rate in the bottom boundary layer

Xiaozhou Ruan

Published: 2021-04-26
Subjects: Oceanography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The dissipation of the kinetic energy (KE) associated with oceanic flows is believed to occur primarily in the oceanic bottom boundary layer (BBL) where bottom drag converts the KE from mean flows to heat loss through irreversible mixing at molecular scales. Due to the practical difficulties associated with direct observations on small-scale turbulence close to the seafloor, most up-to-date [...]

Optimal experiment design for bottom friction parameter estimation

Simon Warder, Matthew D Piggott

Published: 2021-04-23
Subjects: Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

It is common practice within numerical coastal ocean modelling to perform model calibration with respect to a bottom friction parameter. While many modelling studies employ a spatially uniform coefficient, within the parameter estimation literature the coefficient is typically taken to be spatially (or even temporally) varying. A parameter estimation experiment requires an appropriate set of [...]

A deep-learning estimate of the decadal trends in the Southern Ocean carbon storage

Varvara E Zemskova, Tai-Long He, Zirui Wan, et al.

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Uptake of atmospheric carbon by the ocean, especially at high latitudes, plays an important role in offsetting anthropogenic emissions. At the surface of the Southern Ocean south of 30 degrees S, the ocean carbon uptake, which had been weakening in 1990s, strengthened in the 2000s. However, sparseness of in-situ measurements in the ocean interior make it difficult to compute changes in carbon [...]

A simplified palaeoceanography archiving system (PARIS) and GUI for storage and visualisation of marine sediment core proxy data vs age and depth.

Bryan C. Lougheed, Claire Waelbroeck, Nicolas Smialkowski, et al.

Published: 2021-04-14
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography

Scientific discovery can be aided when data is shared following the principles of findability, accessibility, interoperability, reusability (FAIR) data (Wilkinson et al., 2016). Recent discussions in the palaeoclimate literature have focussed on defining the ideal database format for storing data and associated metadata. Here, we highlight an often overlooked primary process in widespread [...]

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