Filtering by Subject: Oil, Gas, and Energy

Waste Incinerators Undermine Clean Energy Goals

Neil V. Tangri

Published: 2021-02-03
Subjects: Climate, Oil, Gas, and Energy

A national clean energy standard, modeled upon existing state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards, has been proposed to decarbonize the U.S. electric grid. Most such state policies include municipal solid waste incineration as a form of “renewable” energy, despite incineration’s prominent role in perpetuating environmental injustice. This study finds that incinerators emit more greenhouse gas [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

New Technologies can Cost-effectively Reduce Oil and Gas Methane Emissions, but Policies will Require Careful Design to Establish Mitigation Equivalence

Chandler Kemp, Arvind P Ravikumar

Published: 2021-01-22
Subjects: Oil, Gas, and Energy

Reducing methane emissions from oil and gas systems is a central component of US and international climate policy. Leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs using optical gas imaging (OGI) based surveys are routinely used to mitigate fugitive emissions or leaks. Recently, new technologies and platforms such as planes, drones, and satellites promise more cost-effective methane mitigation than [...]

Global Liquefied Natural Gas Industry Expansion May Imperil Paris Agreement Temperature Targets

Shuting Yang, Arvind P Ravikumar, Sara Hastings Simon

Published: 2020-12-04
Subjects: Oil, Gas, and Energy, Sustainability

The shift from coal to natural gas (NG) in the power sector has led to significant reductions in carbon emissions, earning NG the moniker of a bridge-fuel. The cheap NG that led to this shift is now fueling a global expansion in liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure, particularly in the US, Canada, and Australia. In this work, we assess the viability of LNG expansion in reducing global [...]

A quantitative assessment of the hydrogen storage capacity of the UK continental shelf

Jonathan Scafidi, Mark Wilkinson, Stuart M. V. Gilfillan, Niklas Heinemann, R. Stuart Haszeldine

Published: 2020-11-19
Subjects: Oil, Gas, and Energy

Increased penetration of renewable energy sources and decarbonisation of the UK's gas supply will require large-scale energy storage. Using hydrogen as an energy storage vector, we estimate that 150 TWh of seasonal storage is required to replace seasonal variations in natural gas production. Large-scale storage is best suited to porous rock reservoirs. We present a method to quantify the hydrogen [...]

Closing the gap: Explaining persistent underestimation by US oil and natural gas production-segment methane inventories

Jeffrey S Rutherford, Evan D Sherwin, Arvind P Ravikumar, Garvin A Heath, Jacob Englander, Daniel Cooley, David Lyon, Mark Omara, Quinn Langfitt, Adam R Brandt

Published: 2020-11-03
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) systems are an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. In the United States (US), recent synthesis studies of field measurements of CH4 emissions at different spatial scales are ~1.5x-2x greater compared to official Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) greenhouse gas inventory (GHGI) estimates. Site-level field studies have [...]

The Global Warming Potential Misrepresents the Physics of Global Warming Thereby Misleading Policy Makers

Robert L Kleinberg

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a widely used metric used to compare the climate change effects of various greenhouse gases. Although GWP has an established role in international climate agreements, GWP does not, in general, describe any specific identifiable impact of greenhouse gas emissions on climate. It is argued here that GWP is unphysical, unintuitive, arbitrary, ignores the time [...]

The Paradox of Increasing Initial Oil Production but Faster Decline Rates in Fracking the Bakken Shale: Implications for Long Term Productivity of Tight Oil Plays

Frank Male, Ian J Duncan

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Oil, Gas, and Energy, Petroleum Engineering

In the US, tight oil is the largest source of liquid hydrocarbons and has driven the country to become the world’s largest oil producer. Eventually many countries will likely be producing very large quantiles of tight oil. However, how robust is tight oil production? The answer to this question will have an impact on the future geographic spread of oil production and will have geopolitical [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]

Fracture mechanics of rate-and-state faults and fluid injection induced slip

Dmitry Garagash

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Propagation of a slip transient on a fault with rate-and-state dependent friction resembles a fracture which near tip region is characterized by large departure of the slip velocity and fault strength from the steady-state sliding. We develop a near tip solution to describe this unsteady dynamics, and obtain the fracture energy Gc, dissipated in overcoming strength-excursion away from [...]

An agent-based model for estimating emissions reduction equivalence among leak detection and repair programs

Thomas A. Fox, Mozhou Gao, Thomas E. Barchyn, Yorwearth L. Jamin, Chris H. Hugenholtz

Published: 2020-07-01
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Alternative leak detection and repair (alt-LDAR) programs are being introduced by regulators in North America to provide flexibility in how oil and gas producers manage their fugitive methane emissions. However, emissions reduction equivalence must be established between a proposed program and a regulatory standard. We present LDAR-Sim, an open-source, agent-based numerical model for estimating [...]

Turbulent flow effects in a slickwater fracture propagation in permeable rock

Evgenii Kanin, Dmitry Garagash, Andrei A. Osiptsov

Published: 2020-06-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

This work is devoted to an analysis of the near-tip region of a hydraulic fracture driven by slickwater in a permeable saturated rock. We consider a steady-state problem of a semi-infinite fracture propagating with constant velocity. The host rock is elastic and homogeneous, and fracture propagates according to linear elastic fracture mechanics. The fluid exchange between the fracture and [...]

Methane concentrations in streams reveal gas leak discharges in regions of oil, gas, and coal development

Josh Woda, Tao Wen, Jacob Lemon, Virginia Marcon, Charles M. Keeports, Fred Zelt, Luanne Y. Steffy, Susan L. Brantley

Published: 2020-06-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

As natural gas has grown in importance as a global energy source, leakage of methane (CH4) from wells has sometimes been noted. Leakage of this greenhouse gas is important because it affects groundwater quality and, when emitted to the atmosphere, climate. We hypothesized that streams might be most contaminated by CH4 in the northern Appalachian Basin in regions with the longest history of [...]

A radial hydraulic fracture with pressure-dependent leak-off

Evgenii Kanin, Egor Dontsov, Dmitry Garagash, Andrei A. Osiptsov

Published: 2020-05-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

This paper investigates the problem of a radial (or penny-shaped) hydraulic fracture propagating in a permeable reservoir. In particular, we consider the fluid exchange between the crack and ambient porous media as a pressure-dependent process. In most of the existing models, the fluid exchange process is represented as one-dimensional pressure-independent leak-off described by Carters law. We [...]

Cascading Failure Phenomenon in the Multi-Stage Hydraulically Fractured Wells

Konstantin Sinkov, Dimitry Chuprakov, Maxim Chertov, Dean Willberg, Pavel Spesivtsev

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The phenomenon of cascading fracture failure during flowback and initial production from a horizontal multistage hydraulically fractured well is introduced, described, and investigated. First, a simplified analytical model of production from such well is built. This model allows evaluating a range of systems parameters through which the cascading failure evolves and performing a sensitivity study [...]


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