Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Earth Sciences

LancasterAQ: A High Resolution Street Level Dataset of Ultrafine Particles

Matt Amos, Douglas Booker, Rachael Duncan, et al.

Published: 2022-10-03
Subjects: Other Earth Sciences

We present a mobile dataset of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in Lancaster, UK, with measurements taken by car and bike over 5 days in May 2022. UFPs are a constituent of air pollution and comprise of particulate matter (PM) less than 0.1μm in diameter. UFPs are unregulated and less measured than larger constituents of PM, despite being harmful to health and an important part of the atmospheric and [...]

Comparative study of alteration sequences in pegmatitic aluminium phosphates

Cassian P. F. Pirard

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences

Aluminium phosphates are mineral phases commonly occurring in rare-element pegmatites that record initial magmatic crystallization, metasomatic and hydrothermal replacements and precipitation and low-temperature alteration. Here we perform a comparative mineralogical study between several localities to assess similarities and variations in these parageneses and establish a general alteration [...]

Autonomous Passage Planning for a Polar Vessel

Jonathan Daniel Smith, Samuel Hall, George Coombs, et al.

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

We introduce a method for long-distance maritime route planning in polar regions, taking into account complex changing environmental conditions. The method allows the construction of optimised routes, describing the three main stages of the process: discrete modelling of the environmental conditions using a non-uniform mesh, the construction of mesh-optimal paths, and path smoothing. In order to [...]

Large hot provinces at the base of the mantle stabilise the palaeomagnetic field

Andrew John Biggin, Chris Davies, Jonathan Mound, et al.

Published: 2022-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences

A crucial characteristic of Earth’s magnetic field, known since 1600, is that it approximates a dipole (bar magnet) aligned with the planetary rotation axis. Previous studies have disagreed over the extent to which this situation has persisted through geological time which is important for determining solar wind shielding and building palaeogeographic reconstructions. It has recently become [...]

Reconstructing Rotomahana Basin topography to disclose the lost White Terraces─ New Zealand’s Eighth Wonder of the World

Rex Bunn

Published: 2022-07-05
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Spatial Science, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The greatest geoscience and tourist attractions in the southern hemisphere were the Pink and White Terraces, the lost Eighth Wonder of the World. British, American and European tourists bypassed local calcareous terraces, for the sea voyage to New Zealand where the siliceous terraces astonished a global audience. Their allure remains. In 1886, the Mount Tarawera eruption buried the terraces. They [...]

The Eighth Wonder of the World in New Zealand─ the third, Black Terrace

Rex Bunn

Published: 2022-06-29
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Planetary Sciences, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The greatest tourism and geoscience attraction in the southern hemisphere, in the nineteenth century were the siliceous Pink and White Terraces, the lost Eighth Wonder of the World in New Zealand. In 1886, the Mount Tarawera eruption buried the terraces. In the absence of any government survey or evidence of their locations or destruction; debate over their survival continued until the 1940s. [...]

Climate stress and its impact on livestock health, farming livelihoods and antibiotic use in Karnataka, India

Adam Eskdale, Mahmoud El Tholth, Jonathan Paul, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Agriculture, Environmental Health and Protection, Other Earth Sciences

Understanding the impact of climate change on livestock health is critical to safeguarding global food supplies and economies. Informed by ethnographic research with Indian farmers, veterinarians, and poultry industry representatives, we evidence that both precipitation and vapour pressure are key climate variables that relate to outbreaks of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), anthrax (AX), and black [...]

Global dynamics of the offshore wind energy sector monitored with Sentinel-1: Turbine count, installed capacity and site specifications

Thorsten Hoeser, Claudia Kuenzer

Published: 2022-04-27
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Statistics and Probability

With the promotion of renewable energy production and a planned phaseout of fossil fuels until 2040, the offshore wind energy sector has started to expand and will continue to increase its capacity in the upcoming decades. This study presents how the installed capacity can be derived from radar imagery provided by the Sentinel-1 mission for all offshore wind turbines on the entire Earth. By [...]

GEDI Launches a New Era of Biomass Inference from Space

Ralph Dubayah, John Armston, Sean Healey, et al.

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Other Forestry and Forest Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass stocks is required to assess the impacts of land use changes such as deforestation and subsequent regrowth on concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a lidar mission launched by NASA to the International Space Station in 2018. GEDI was specifically designed to retrieve vegetation structure within a [...]

CCC - integrated multiscale study of salt cavern abandonment in the Netherlands

Tobias S. Baumann, Pierre Bérest, Benoit Brouard, et al.

Published: 2022-03-25
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Materials Science and Engineering, Mineral Physics, Mining Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

The KEM-17 project of the Dutch State Supervision of Mines presented a critical review of concepts of cavern abandonment and related science. It recommended that analyses of cavern abandonment are done as an integrated project, addressing (i) micro-scale physical processes, (ii) cavern scale models based on field scale experiments and numerical models, (iii) the salt dome scale, to model the far [...]

Climate controls on fluvial topography

Eyal Marder, Sean F Gallen

Published: 2022-03-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Conceptual and theoretical models for landscape evolution suggest that fluvial topography is sensitive to climate. However, it has remained challenging to demonstrate a compelling link between fluvial topography and climate state in natural landscapes. One possible reason is that many studies compare erosion rates to climate data, although theoretical studies note that, at steady-state, climate [...]

Economic and biophysical limits to seaweed-based climate solutions

Julianne DeAngelo, Benjamin Saenz, Isabella Arzeno-Soltero, et al.

Published: 2022-02-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Sustainability

Net-zero greenhouse gas emissions targets are driving interest in opportunities for biomass-based negative emissions and bioenergy, including from marine sources such as seaweed. Yet the biophysical and economic limits to farming seaweed at scales relevant to the global carbon budget have not been assessed in detail. We use coupled seaweed growth and technoeconomic models to estimate the costs of [...]

Trench migration and slab buckling control the formation of the Central Andes

Michaël Pons, Stephan V. Sobolev, Sibiao Liu, et al.

Published: 2022-02-04
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

The formation of the Central Andes dates back to ~50 Ma, but its most pronounced phase, including the growth of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau and pulsatile tectonic shortening phases, occurred within the last 25 Ma. The reason for this evolution remains unexplained. Using geodynamic numerical modeling we infer that the primary cause of the pulses of tectonic shortening and growth of Central Andes is [...]

Explaining Variance of Pleistocene Climate Sensitivity: Path, Epochal and CO2 dependence

Roger Marvin Cooke, Willy Aspinall

Published: 2022-01-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Improved high-resolution paleo records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and reconstructions of Earth’s surface temperature are available. We analyze one authoritative Pleistocene data set to explore how the climate sensitivity parameter S varies under different system states, using linear regression of mean annual surface temperature changes against CO2 forcing changes. On the [...]

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