Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Earth Sciences

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

A prototype for a Multi-GNSS orbit combination

Pierre Sakic, Gustavo Mansur, Benjamin Männel

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Since 1994, the International GNSS Service (IGS) provides a combination of orbit and clock offset products from its different Analysis Centers. These products are used as input by many software for countless scientific and/or operational applications. They can also be used as an independent reference for benchmark experiments. Nevertheless, those products include GPS-only data, despite the fact [...]

The 23 June 2020, Mw 7.4 La Crucecita, Oaxaca, Mexico earthquake and tsunami: A Rapid Response Field Survey during COVID-19 crisis

Maria Teresa Ramirez-Herrera, David Romero, Néstor Corona, Héctor Nava, Hamblet Torija, Felipe Hernández Maguey

Published: 2020-08-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The 23 June 2020 La Crucecita earthquake occurred at 10:29 hr on the coast of Oaxaca in a Mw 7.4 megathrust event at 22.6 km depth, and triggered a tsunami recorded at Huatulco and Salina Cruz tide gauge stations and a DART off the coast of Mexico. Immediately after the earthquake, a rapid response effort was coordinated by members of the Tsunami and Paleoseismology Laboratory UNAM, despite the [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]

Crop residues are a key feedstock to bioeconomy but available methods for their estimation are highly uncertain

Shivesh Kishore Karan, Lorie Hamelin

Published: 2020-07-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Crop residues are acknowledged as a key biomass resource to feed tomorrow’s sustainable bioeconomy. Yet, the quantification of these residues at large geographical scales is primarily reliant upon generic statistical estimations based on empirical functions linking the residues production to the primary crop yield. These useful yet unquestioned functions are developed either using direct evidence [...]

Stress perturbations from hydrological and industrial loads and seismicity in the Salt Lake City region

Xie Hu, Xue Liang, Roland Bürgmann, Yuning Fu, Teng Wang

Published: 2020-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The March 18, 2020 M5.7 Magna earthquake awakened people from decades of seismic quiescence in Salt Lake City, Utah. The event occurred just east of a mine tailings impoundment that receives ~60 million tons/yr of ore waste products since the early 1900s. Here we investigate elastic loading effects due to the anthropogenic mass transfer and various natural hydrological loads. We note a possible [...]

Automatic atmospheric correction for shortwave hyperspectral remote sensing data using a time-dependent deep neural network

Jian Sun, Fangcao Xu, Guido Cervone, Melissa Gervais, Christelle Wauthier, Mark Salvador

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Atmospheric correction is an essential step in hyperspectral imaging and target detection from spectrometer remote sensing data. State-of-the-art atmospheric correction algorithms either require filed-measurements or prior knowledge of atmospheric characteristics to improve the predicted accuracy, which are computational expensive and unsuitable for real time application. In this paper, we [...]

Habitability of the early Earth: Liquid water under a faint young Sun facilitated by strong tidal heating due to a nearby Moon

René Heller, Jan-Peter Duda, Max Winkler, Joachim Reitner, Laurent Gizon

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, The Sun and the Solar System

Geological evidence suggests liquid water near the Earths surface as early as 4.4 gigayears ago when the faint young Sun only radiated about 70 % of its modern power output. At this point, the Earth should have been a global snowball. An extreme atmospheric greenhouse effect, an initially more massive Sun, release of heat acquired during the accretion process of protoplanetary material, and [...]

RECENT RAPID SEA LEVEL RISE IN DUBLIN BAY BASED ON TIDE GAUGE ANALYSIS

Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew Parnell, Alice Greene, Brian P Kelleher, Gerard McCarthy

Published: 2020-05-27
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Statistics and Probability

We analysed tide gauges at Dublin port and its environs over the period 1938-2018. With three different tide gauges in the vicinity of the main Dublin port gauge, we merged the data sets and validated them against each other. The recordings of all four tide gauges were found to be in good agreement between 2003-2015, though this was markedly less so from 2016 to the present. We estimate the sea [...]

The influence of spreading rate and permeability on melt focusing beneath mid-ocean ridges

Shi Sim, Marc Spiegelman, Dave Stegman, Cian Wilson

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

At mid-ocean ridges, oceanic crust is emplaced in a narrow neovolcanic region on the seafloor, whereas basaltic melt that forms this oceanic crust is generated in a wide region beneath as suggested by a few geophysical surveys. The combined observations suggest that melt generated in a wide region at depths has to be transported horizontally to a small region at the surface. We present results [...]

Detecting Ground Deformation in the Built Environment using Sparse Satellite InSAR data with a Convolutional Neural Network

Nantheera Anantrasirichai, Juliet Biggs, Krisztina Kelevitz, Zahra Sadeghi, Tim J. Wright, James Thompson, Alin Achim, David Bull

Published: 2020-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Signal Processing

The large volumes of Sentinel-1 data produced over Europe are being used to develop pan-national ground motion services. However, simple analysis techniques like thresholding cannot detect and classify complex deformation signals reliably making providing usable information to a broad range of non-expert stakeholders a challenge. Here we explore the applicability of deep learning approaches by [...]

A Near-Real-Time Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbance Using Landsat Time Series: Stochastic Continuous Change Detection

Su Ye, John Rogan, Zhe Zhu, Ronald Eastman

Published: 2020-05-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Forest disturbances greatly affect the ecological functioning of natural forests. Timely information regarding extent, timing and magnitude of forest disturbance events is crucial for effective disturbance management strategies. Yet, we still lack an acute, near-real-time and high-performance remote sensing tools for monitoring abrupt and subtle forest disturbances. This study presents a new [...]

Benchmarking and Inter-Comparison of Sentinel-1 InSAR velocities and time series

Zahra Sadeghi, Tim J. Wright, Andrew.J.Hooper , Colm.J. Jordan, Alessandro Novellino, Luke Bateson, Juliet Biggs

Published: 2020-05-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Different InSAR algorithms and methods produce velocities and times series that are not identical, even using the same data for the same area. This inconsistency can cause confusion and be a barrier to uptake and widespread use of the data in the commercial sector. With the widespread availability of Sentinel-1 radar data and a suite of new algorithms in the commercial and academic sectors, it is [...]

Interferometric Processing of ScanSAR Data Using Stripmap Processor: New Insights from Coregistration

Cunren Liang, Eric Jameson Fielding

Published: 2020-04-14
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Engineering, Earth Sciences, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mining Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Processing scanning synthetic aperture radar (ScanSAR) data using a stripmap processor, which is called full-aperture processing, has been the choice of many researchers. ScanSAR data are known to require very high azimuth coregistration precision which is usually achieved by a geometrical coregistration followed by a spectral diversity coregistration on the ScanSAR burst. However, for [...]

Weak influence of paleoenvironmental conditions on the subsurface biosphere of lake Ohrid in the last 515 ka

Camille Thomas, Alexander Francke, Hendrik Vogel, Bernd Wagner, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding the response of geo- and biosystems to past climatic disturbance is primordial to assess the short to long terms effects of current global change. Lacustrine sediments are commonly used to investigate the impact of climatic change on biogeochemical cycling. In these sediments, subsurface microbial communities play a primordial role in nutrient, organic matter and elemental cycling, [...]

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