Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Earth Sciences

Drone-mounted GPR surveying: flight-height considerations for diffraction-based velocity analysis

Adam Booth, Tiffany Koylass

Published: 2021-09-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences

Recent studies highlight the potential of the drone platform for ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveying. Most guidance for optimising drone flight-heights is based on maximising the image quality of target responses, but no study yet considers the impact on diffraction travel-times. Strong GPR velocity contrasts across the air-ground interface introduce significant refraction effects that [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

SALT WELDING DURING CANOPY ADVANCE AND SHORTENING IN THE GREEN CANYON AREA, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

Christopher A-L Jackson, Sian Evans, Turki Alshammasi

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Welds form due to the tectonically-induced thinning and/or dissolution of salt, with their composition and completeness thought to at least partly reflect their structural position within the salt-tectonic system. Despite their importance as seals or migration pathways for accumulations of hydrocarbons and CO2, we have relatively few examples of drilled subsurface welds; such examples would allow [...]

The world’s second-largest, recorded landslide event: lessons learnt from the landslides triggered during and after the 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake

Hakan Tanyas, Kevin Hill, Luke Mahoney, et al.

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Other Earth Sciences

Widespread landslide events provide rare but valuable opportunities to investigate the spatial and size distributions of landslides in relation to seismic, climatic, geological and morphological factors. This study presents a unique event inventory for the co-seismic landslides induced by the February 25, 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake as well as its post-seismic counterparts including [...]

Strengths and limitations of in situ U-Pb titanite petrochronology in polymetamorphic rocks: An example from western Maine, USA.

Jesse B Walters, Alicia M Cruz-Uribe, Won Joon Song, et al.

Published: 2021-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Titanite is a potentially powerful U-Pb petrochronometer that may record metamorphism, metasomatism, and deformation. Titanite may also incorporate significant inherited Pb, the correction for which may introduce inaccuracies and result in geologically ambiguous U-Pb dates. Here we present laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)-derived titanite U-Pb dates and trace [...]

Creating a climate changed future with the sea level rise interactive- fiction game ‘Lagos2199’

Patrick Keys, Matthew P Keys

Published: 2021-07-26
Subjects: Climate, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Instructional Media Design, International and Area Studies, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Science and Mathematics Education, Sustainability

Story-based futures serve an important role in climate change scenario development. Stories are particularly useful in exploring sea level rise possibilities, since we know many coastal areas are specifically vulnerable to accelerating rises in sea level. This discrete change in coastline is different from most other climate change impacts, and offers a clear basis for scientifically-informed, [...]

Cosmogenic 3He in terrestrial rocks: a review

Pierre-Henri BLARD

Published: 2021-07-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Other Earth Sciences

This review article summarizes the state of the art of cosmogenic 3He (3Hec), with a focus on the most efficient methods for measuring this cosmogenic noble gas in terrestrial samples. After briefly reviewing the scientific applications and production pathways of cosmogenic 3He, I summarize the most important theoretical and practical aspects of 3He analyses and describe the best strategies for [...]

Interphase misorientation as a tool to study metamorphic reactions and crystallization in geological materials

Luiz F. G. Morales

Published: 2021-06-07
Subjects: Geology, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences

Interphase boundaries are planar defects that separate two different minerals, which in general have different compositions and/or crystalline structures and may play an important role as a pathway for fluids in rocks and affect their physical properties. For the proper characterization of interphase boundaries, one needs to define the misorientation between adjacent grains and the orientation of [...]

A numerical study of SMART Cables potential in marine hazard early warning for the Sumatra and Java regions

Amir Salaree, Bruce M Howe, Yihe Huang, et al.

Published: 2021-05-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences

We present results from a series of exploratory numerical experiments based on ocean bottom pressure and seismic data from a simulated linear array of SMART cable stations off the trench in the Sumatra-Java region. We use six rupture scenarios to calculate tsunami propagation using hydrodynamic simulations. Through these experiments we show that such an addition would result in up to several [...]

Bridging spatiotemporal scales of fault growth during continental extension

Sophie Pan, John Naliboff, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Continental extension is accommodated by the development of kilometre-scale normal faults, which grow by accumulating metre-scale earthquake slip over millions of years. Reconstructing the entire lifespan of a fault remains challenging due to a lack of observational data with spatiotemporal scales that span the relatively short-term earthquake cycle, and the longer-term paleoseismic record. Using [...]

An uncertainty-focused database approach to extract spatiotemporal trends from qualitative and discontinuous lake-status histories

Gijs De Cort, Manuel Chevalier, Sallie L. Burrough, et al.

Published: 2021-03-01
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Stratigraphy

Changes in lake status are often interpreted as palaeoclimate indicators due to their dependence on precipitation and evaporation. The Global Lake Status Database (GLSDB) has since long provided a standardised synopsis of qualitative lake status over the last 30,000 14C years. Potential sources of uncertainty however are not recorded in the GLSDB. Here we present an updated and improved [...]

Insights into the nature of plume-ridge interaction and outflux of H2O from the Galápagos Spreading Centre

Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson, Sally Gibson

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The flow of high-temperature and compositionally-enriched material between mantle plumes and nearby spreading centres influences up to 30% of the global mid-ocean ridge system and represents a significant, but currently unconstrained, flux of volatiles out of the mantle. Here we present new analyses of H2O, F, Cl and S in basaltic glass chips from an archetypal region of plume-ridge interaction, [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Cosmic Relationships: Comets, Human Behavior and New Discoveries on Easter Island

candace gossen

Published: 2021-01-22
Subjects: Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences

Humans have recorded celestial events for as long as we have been able to draw and write. Pictographs, petroglyphs and even standing stones mark moments in time on the landscape to remember changing seasons and repeating cycles. Some merge together to form cosmic relationships where great civilization collapse is ushered in by a supernova and stamped onto a rock with a hand print. This historical [...]

Combination of GNSS orbits using variance component estimation

Gustavo Bento Mansur, Pierre Sakic, Andreas Brack, et al.

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences

Over the past years, the International GNSS Service (IGS) has been putting efforts into extending its service towards the Multi-GNSS Experiment and Pilot Project (MGEX). Several MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute by providing solutions containing not only GPS and GLONASS but also Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. The MGEX orbit and clock combination is a product that is still not consolidated inside [...]

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