Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Earth Sciences

Combination of GNSS orbits using variance component estimation

Gustavo Bento Mansur, Pierre Sakic, Andreas Brack, Benjamin Männel, Harald Schuh

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences

Over the past years, the International GNSS Service (IGS) has been putting efforts into extending its service towards the Multi-GNSS Experiment and Pilot Project (MGEX). Several MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute by providing solutions containing not only GPS and GLONASS but also Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. The MGEX orbit and clock combination is a product that is still not consolidated inside [...]

Tectono-stratigraphic development of a salt-influenced rift margin; Halten Terrace, offshore Mid-Norway

Gavin Elliott, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Robert Leslie Gawthorpe, Paul Wilson, Ian Roger Sharp, Lisa Michelsen

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

In salt-influenced rift basins the presence of a pre-rift salt layer will control the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the rift due to the decoupling of the sub- and suprasalt faults leading to temporal and spatial variations in structural style. Lateral variations in rift flank structure will control the dispersal and volumes of sediment deposited in rifts and along rifted margins, which in [...]

Mapping Landslides With a Generalized Convolutional Neural Network

Nikhil Prakash, Andrea Manconi, Simon Loew

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Risk Analysis

Landslides are a common secondary hazard triggered by major earthquakes or extreme rainfall events in steep terrains. Rapid mapping of event landslides is crucial to identify the areas affected by damages as well as for effective disaster response. Traditionally, such maps are generated with visual interpretation of remote sensing imagery (manned/unmanned airborne systems or spaceborne sensors) [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

A prototype for a Multi-GNSS orbit combination

Pierre Sakic, Gustavo Mansur, Benjamin Männel

Published: 2020-08-20
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Since 1994, the International GNSS Service (IGS) provides a combination of orbit and clock offset products from its different Analysis Centers. These products are used as input by many software for countless scientific and/or operational applications. They can also be used as an independent reference for benchmark experiments. Nevertheless, those products include GPS-only data, despite the fact [...]

The 23 June 2020, Mw 7.4 La Crucecita, Oaxaca, Mexico earthquake and tsunami: A Rapid Response Field Survey during COVID-19 crisis

Maria Teresa Ramirez-Herrera, David Romero, Néstor Corona, Héctor Nava, Hamblet Torija, Felipe Hernández Maguey

Published: 2020-08-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The 23 June 2020 La Crucecita earthquake occurred at 10:29 hr on the coast of Oaxaca in a Mw 7.4 megathrust event at 22.6 km depth, and triggered a tsunami recorded at Huatulco and Salina Cruz tide gauge stations and a DART off the coast of Mexico. Immediately after the earthquake, a rapid response effort was coordinated by members of the Tsunami and Paleoseismology Laboratory UNAM, despite the [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]

Crop residues are a key feedstock to bioeconomy but available methods for their estimation are highly uncertain

Shivesh Kishore Karan, Lorie Hamelin

Published: 2020-07-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Crop residues are acknowledged as a key biomass resource to feed tomorrow’s sustainable bioeconomy. Yet, the quantification of these residues at large geographical scales is primarily reliant upon generic statistical estimations based on empirical functions linking the residues production to the primary crop yield. These useful yet unquestioned functions are developed either using direct evidence [...]

Stress perturbations from hydrological and industrial loads and seismicity in the Salt Lake City region

Xie Hu, Xue Liang, Roland Bürgmann, Yuning Fu, Teng Wang

Published: 2020-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The March 18, 2020 M5.7 Magna earthquake awakened people from decades of seismic quiescence in Salt Lake City, Utah. The event occurred just east of a mine tailings impoundment that receives ~60 million tons/yr of ore waste products since the early 1900s. Here we investigate elastic loading effects due to the anthropogenic mass transfer and various natural hydrological loads. We note a possible [...]

Automatic atmospheric correction for shortwave hyperspectral remote sensing data using a time-dependent deep neural network

Jian Sun, Fangcao Xu, Guido Cervone, Melissa Gervais, Christelle Wauthier, Mark Salvador

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Atmospheric correction is an essential step in hyperspectral imaging and target detection from spectrometer remote sensing data. State-of-the-art atmospheric correction algorithms either require filed-measurements or prior knowledge of atmospheric characteristics to improve the predicted accuracy, which are computational expensive and unsuitable for real time application. In this paper, we [...]

Habitability of the early Earth: Liquid water under a faint young Sun facilitated by strong tidal heating due to a nearby Moon

René Heller, Jan-Peter Duda, Max Winkler, Joachim Reitner, Laurent Gizon

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, The Sun and the Solar System

Geological evidence suggests liquid water near the Earths surface as early as 4.4 gigayears ago when the faint young Sun only radiated about 70 % of its modern power output. At this point, the Earth should have been a global snowball. An extreme atmospheric greenhouse effect, an initially more massive Sun, release of heat acquired during the accretion process of protoplanetary material, and [...]

RECENT RAPID SEA LEVEL RISE IN DUBLIN BAY BASED ON TIDE GAUGE ANALYSIS

Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew Parnell, Alice Greene, Brian P Kelleher, Gerard McCarthy

Published: 2020-05-28
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Statistics and Probability

We analysed tide gauges at Dublin port and its environs over the period 1938-2018. With three different tide gauges in the vicinity of the main Dublin port gauge, we merged the data sets and validated them against each other. The recordings of all four tide gauges were found to be in good agreement between 2003-2015, though this was markedly less so from 2016 to the present. We estimate the sea [...]

The influence of spreading rate and permeability on melt focusing beneath mid-ocean ridges

Shi Sim, Marc Spiegelman, Dave Stegman, Cian Wilson

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

At mid-ocean ridges, oceanic crust is emplaced in a narrow neovolcanic region on the seafloor, whereas basaltic melt that forms this oceanic crust is generated in a wide region beneath as suggested by a few geophysical surveys. The combined observations suggest that melt generated in a wide region at depths has to be transported horizontally to a small region at the surface. We present results [...]

Detecting Ground Deformation in the Built Environment using Sparse Satellite InSAR data with a Convolutional Neural Network

Nantheera Anantrasirichai, Juliet Biggs, Krisztina Kelevitz, Zahra Sadeghi, Tim J. Wright, James Thompson, Alin Achim, David Bull

Published: 2020-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Signal Processing

The large volumes of Sentinel-1 data produced over Europe are being used to develop pan-national ground motion services. However, simple analysis techniques like thresholding cannot detect and classify complex deformation signals reliably making providing usable information to a broad range of non-expert stakeholders a challenge. Here we explore the applicability of deep learning approaches by [...]

A Near-Real-Time Approach for Monitoring Forest Disturbance Using Landsat Time Series: Stochastic Continuous Change Detection

Su Ye, John Rogan, Zhe Zhu, Ronald Eastman

Published: 2020-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Forest disturbances greatly affect the ecological functioning of natural forests. Timely information regarding extent, timing and magnitude of forest disturbance events is crucial for effective disturbance management strategies. Yet, we still lack an acute, near-real-time and high-performance remote sensing tools for monitoring abrupt and subtle forest disturbances. This study presents a new [...]

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