Filtering by Subject: Other Earth Sciences

Scheduling of Twin Telescopes and the Impact on Troposphere and UT1 Estimation

Armin Corbin, Rüdiger Haas

Published: 2019-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Recently, several VGOS twin telescopes in Europe were completed. We examine the use of VGOS twin telescopes by a new scheduling approach. This ap- proach is based on integer linear programming and cre- ates uniform distributed observations over time. Sev- eral VLBI intensive sessions are rescheduled involving the VGOS twin telescopes and the impact on the tropo- sphere and UT1 estimation is [...]

Four-dimensional surface motions of the Slumgullion landslide and quantification of hydrometeorological forcing

Xie Hu, Roland Bürgmann, William H. Schulz, Eric Jameson Fielding

Published: 2019-12-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Landslides modify the natural landscape and cause fatalities and property damage worldwide. Quantifying landslide dynamics is challenging due to the stochastic nature of the environment. With its large area of ~1 km2 and perennial motions at ~10-20 mm per day, the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA, represents an ideal natural laboratory to better understand landslide behavior. Here, we use [...]

U-Th dating of lake sediments: Lessons from the 700 kyr sediment record of Lake Junín, Peru

Christine Y Chen, David McGee, Arielle Woods, Liseth Pérez, Robert George Hatfield, R. Lawrence Edwards, Hai Cheng, Blas Lorenzo Valero-Garcés, Sophie Lehmann, Joseph S Stoner

Published: 2019-12-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

*----- NOTE: This is a peer reviewed preprint of a paper accepted in Quaternary Science Reviews as of June 8, 2020 -----* Deep sediment cores from long-lived lake basins are fundamental records of paleoenvironmental history, but the power of these reconstructions has often been limited by poor age control. Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating has the potential to fill a gap in current geochronological [...]

A machine learning approach to tungsten prospectivity modelling using knowledge-driven feature extraction and model confidence

Christopher Mark Yeomans, Robin Shail, Stephen Grebby, Vesa Nykänen, Maarit Middleton, Paul Lusty

Published: 2019-12-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Novel mineral prospectivity modelling presented here applies knowledge-driven feature extraction to a data-driven machine learning approach for tungsten mineralisation. The method emphasises the importance of appropriate model evaluation and develops a new Confidence Metric to generate spatially refined and robust exploration targets. The data-driven Random Forest™ algorithm is employed to model [...]

Advanced ML and AI Approaches for Proxy-based Optimization of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery in Heterogeneous Clastic Reservoirs

Watheq J. Al-Mudhafar, Dandina N Rao, Sanjay Srinivasan

Published: 2019-12-04
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Design of Experiments and Sample Surveys, Earth Sciences, Multivariate Analysis, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Programming Languages and Compilers, Statistics and Probability

The EOS-compositional reservoir simulation, Design of Experiments, and Proxy Modeling were integrated to obtain the optimal future performance scenario and to construct the most accurate simplified model alternative to the complex reservoir flow simulation. This integrated workflow was adopted on a sector of the main pay/upper sandstone member in the South Rumaila oil field, located in Iraq. [...]

A 2,000-year Bayesian NAO reconstruction from the Iberian Peninsula

Armand Hernández, Guiomar Sánchez-López, Sergi Pla-Rabes, Laia Comas-Bru, Andrew Parnell, Niamh Cahill, Adelina Geyer, Ricardo M Trigo, Santiago Giralt

Published: 2019-11-27
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major atmospheric mode that controls winter European climate variability because its strength and phase determine regional temperature, precipitation and storm tracks. The NAO spatial structure and associated climatic impacts over Europe are not stationary making it crucial to understanding its past evolution in order to improve the predictability of [...]

A.I taking over a global climate mapping platform

Rosnita Rosnita, Christian Mathison

Published: 2019-11-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Note: this is a post-print of a published manuscript in Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia with DOI 10.15294/jpii.v5i2.7677. This study focuses on the improvement of prospective teachers science generic skills in learning for earth and space sciences subject using a laboratory-based model. Research methods were Research and Development used mixed methods design, i.e. Embedded Experimental models. [...]

Ultramafic rock carbonation: Constraints from listvenite core BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

Andreas Beinlich, Oliver Plümper, Esmée Boter, Inigo A. Müller, Fatma Kourim, Martin Ziegler, Yumiko Harigane, Romain Lafay, Peter B. Kelemen

Published: 2019-11-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The occurrence of the quartz–carbonate alteration assemblage (listvenite) in ophiolites indicates that ultramafic rock represents an effective sink for dissolved CO2. However, the majority of earlier studies of ultramafic rock carbonation had to rely on the surface exposure of reaction textures and field relationships. Here we present the first observations on ultramafic rock alteration obtained [...]

Machine Learning for Inferring CO2 Fluxes: The New Metaphysics of Neural Nets

Phuong Nguyen, Milton Halem

Published: 2019-10-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The advent of direct high-resolution global surface measurements of CO2 from the recently launched NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite offers an opportunity to improve the estimate of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) over land. Long-term measurements of CO2flux obtained from eddy covariance instruments on Flux towers show large annual differences with NEE calculated by inverse methods [...]

Plate tectonics drive deep biosphere microbial community structure

Katherine M. Fullerton, Matthew Schrenk, Mustafa Yucel, Elena Manini, Marco Basili, Timothy J. Rogers, Daniele Fattorini, Marta di Carlo, Giuseppe d'Errico, Francesco Regoli

Published: 2019-10-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The deep subsurface is one of Earth’s largest biomes. Here, microorganisms modify volatiles moving between the deep and surface Earth. However, it is unknown whether large-scale tectonic processes affect the distribution of microorganisms across this subterranean landscape. We sampled subsurface microbial ecosystems in deeply-sourced springs across the Costa Rican convergent margin. Noble gases, [...]

Holocene relative sea-level changes and glacial isostatic adjustment of the U.S. Atlantic coast

Simon Engelhart, W. Richard Peltier, Benjamin Horton

Published: 2019-09-30
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The first quality-controlled Holocene sea-level database for the U.S. Atlantic coast has been constructed from 686 sea-level indicators. The database documents a decreasing rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise through time with no evidence of sea level being above present in the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of RSL rise are found in the mid-Atlantic region. We employ the database to [...]

Repeated degradation and progradation of a submarine slope over geological timescales

Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Andrew McAndrew, David Mark Hodgson, Tom Dreyer

Published: 2019-09-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Submarine slopes prograde via accretion of sediment to clinoform foresets, and degrade in response to channel or canyon incision, or mass-wasting processes. The timescales over which progradation and degradation occur, and the large-scale stratigraphic record of these processes, remain unclear due poor age constraints in subsurface-based studies, and areally limited exposures of exhumed systems. [...]

Controls on variations in minibasin geometries: Lower Congo Basin, offshore Angola

Zhiyuan Ge, Robert Gawthorpe, Leo Zijerveld, Ayodeji Oluboyo

Published: 2019-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

In passive margin salt basins, the distinct tectonic domains of thin-skinned extension and contraction exert important controls on the geometry and evolution of minibasins. In this study, we use a semi-regional 3D seismic dataset from the Lower Congo Basin to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of a network of salt-related minibasins and intervening salt walls and diapirs during [...]

Deep-water reservoir distribution on a salt-influenced slope, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

Clara Rosa Rodriguez, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Rebecca Bell, Atle Rotevatn, Malcolm Francis

Published: 2019-08-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Studies of near-seabed datasets show that salt tectonics controls the distribution and architecture of deep-water reservoirs in many salt-influenced basins. It is typically difficult, however, to study the distribution and stratigraphic evolution of depositional systems preserved at deeper, economically significant depths, reflecting poor seismic imaging of steeply dipping strata flanking [...]

Southern Ocean Phytoplankton Blooms Observed by Biogeochemical Floats

Takaya Uchida, Dhruv Balwada, Ryan Abernathey, Channing Prend, Emmanuel Boss, Sarah Gille

Published: 2019-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The spring bloom in the Southern Ocean is the rapid-growth phase of the seasonal cycle in phytoplankton. Many previous studies have characterized the spring bloom using chlorophyll estimates from satellite ocean color observations. Assumptions regarding the chlorophyll-to-carbon ratio within phytoplankton and vertical structure of biogeochemical variables lead to uncertainty in satellite-based [...]


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