Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Environmental Sciences

ENSO Drives Child Undernutrition in the Global Tropics

Jesse K Anttila-Hughes, Amir Sultan Jina, Gordon C McCord

Published: 2020-11-12
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Other Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sustainability

The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a principal component of global climate variability known to influence a host of social and economic outcomes, but its systematic effects on human health remain poorly understood. We estimate ENSO’s association with child nutrition at global scale by combining variation in ENSO intensity from 1986-2018 with children’s height and weight from 186 surveys [...]

Socio-technical multi-criteria evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies: Introducing the method

François Diaz-Maurin, Jerold Yu, Rodney C. Ewing

Published: 2020-11-06
Subjects: Environmental Engineering, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Environmental Sciences, Risk Analysis, Sustainability

In the absence of a federal geologic repository or consolidated, interim storage in the United States, commercial spent fuel will remain stranded at some 75 sites across the country. Currently, these include 18 “orphaned sites” where spent fuel has been left at decommissioned reactor sites. In this context, local communities living close to decommissioned nuclear power plants are increasingly [...]

Socio-technical evaluation of long-term spent nuclear fuel management options: The case of San Onofre, California

François Diaz-Maurin, Rodney C. Ewing

Published: 2020-11-06
Subjects: Environmental Engineering, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Environmental Sciences, Sustainability

In the absence of a federal geologic repository or consolidated, interim storage in the United States, commercial spent fuel will remain stranded at some 75 sites across the country. Currently, these include 18 “orphaned sites” where spent fuel has been left at decommissioned reactor sites. In this context, local communities living close to decommissioned nuclear power plants are increasingly [...]

Spatial Disaggregation of Particulate Matter Emission Inventory in the Metropolitan Area of Aburr\'a Valley for Air Quality Modelling

Santiago Lopez Restrepo, Andres Yarce, Nicolas Pinel, O. Lucia Quintero, Arjo Segers, Arnold W. Heemink

Published: 2020-10-24
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Other Environmental Sciences

In this paper a local emission inventory for PM10 and PM2.5 is presented that has been developed using a top-down spatial disaggregation of the official emission inventory for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley in Colombia. The local emission inventory was evaluated using the LOTOS-EUROS Chemical Transport Model in a high-resolution simulation, and compared with the global emission [...]

Structure-from-Motion on shallow reefs and beaches: potential and limitations of consumer-grade drones to reconstruct topography and bathymetry

C. Gabriel David, Nina Kohl, Elisa Casella, Alessio Rovere, Pablo Ballesteros, Torsten Schlurmann

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Civil Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Studies, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Hydraulic Engineering, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Environmental Sciences, Remote Sensing

Reconstructing the topography of shallow underwater environments using Structure-from-Motion – Multi View Stereo (SfM-MVS) techniques applied to aerial imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging problem, as it involves non-linear distortions caused by water refraction. This study presents an experiment with aerial photographs collected with a consumer-grade UAV on the [...]

Structure and age relationship of joint sets on the Lilstock Benches, UK, based on mapping a full resolution UAV-based image

Martijn Passchier, Janos Urai, Cees Passchier

Published: 2020-08-31
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Outcrop studies of fracture networks are important to understand such networks in the subsurface, but complete maps of all fractures in large outcrops are rare due to limitations of outcrop and image resolution. We present the first full-resolution UAV-based, Gigapixel dataset and DEM of the wave-cut Lilstock Benches in the southern Bristol Channel basin, a classic outcrop of layer-bound fracture [...]

Crop residues are a key feedstock to bioeconomy but available methods for their estimation are highly uncertain

Shivesh Kishore Karan, Lorie Hamelin

Published: 2020-07-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Crop residues are acknowledged as a key biomass resource to feed tomorrow’s sustainable bioeconomy. Yet, the quantification of these residues at large geographical scales is primarily reliant upon generic statistical estimations based on empirical functions linking the residues production to the primary crop yield. These useful yet unquestioned functions are developed either using direct evidence [...]

Towards local bioeconomy: A stepwise framework for high-resolution spatial quantification of forestry residues

Shivesh Kishore Karan, Lorie Hamelin

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Education, Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

In the ambition of a transition from fossil carbon use, forestry residues are attracting considerable attention as a feedstock for the future bioeconomy. However, there is a limited spatially explicit understanding of their availability. Confronted with limited resources for extensive field measurement campaigns, there are also limited discussions on the best practices towards a harmonized [...]

Storm surge, not wind, caused mangrove dieback in southwest Florida following Hurricane Irma

David Lagomasino, Lola Fatoyinbo, Edward Castaneda, Bruce Cook, Paul Montesano, Christopher Neigh, Lawrence Corp, Lesley Ott, Selena Chavez, Douglas Morton

Published: 2020-07-01
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Mangroves buffer inland ecosystems from hurricane winds and storm surge. However, their ability to withstand harsh cyclone conditions depends on plant traits and geomorphology. Using airborne lidar and satellite imagery collected before and after Hurricane Irma, we estimated that 62% of mangroves in southwest Florida suffered canopy damage, with largest impacts in tall forests (>10 m). [...]

Evaluating single and multi-date Landsat classifications of land-cover in a seasonally dry tropical forest

João Maria de Andrade, John Elton Brito Leite Cunha, João Nailson de Castro Silva, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Carlos de Oliveira Galvão

Published: 2020-05-29
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurate information on the land cover is crucial for efficient monitoring and development of environmental studies in the Brazilian Caatinga forest. It is the largest tropical seasonal forest in South America, presenting high biodiversity and is under intense anthropogenic disturbance. Caatingas land cover is heterogeneous, and rainfall is its primary phenological regulator, presenting mainly [...]

Evaluating UK natural hazards: the national risk assessment

Michael J. Stock, Jonathan Wentworth

Published: 2020-04-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Despite its relatively temperate climate and stable geography, natural hazards present multiple risks to human activity in the UK. These range from small-scale local occurrences, such as landslides, through regional incidents, such as flooding, to major high impact, low probability events, such as space weather. The impacts of such hazards can be wide-ranging but may include disruption to [...]

Initial Exploration Free Floating CO2 Fixation Catalysts

Aya Thompson

Published: 2020-04-01
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Climate change as an inextricable and dire threat to humanity is well established. The primary problem stems from an excess of carbon dioxide in earths atmosphere and oceans causing a gradual increase in average temperature. With this there arises an immediate need for the alteration of this carbon dioxide into differing chemical states. Herein we perform an initial exploration of adapting the [...]

Comment on ‘Unintentional unfairness when applying new greenhouse gas emissions metrics at country level’

Michelle Cain, Keith Shine, Dave Frame, John Lynch, Adrian Macey, Raymond Pierrehumbert, Myles Allen

Published: 2019-12-13
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Here, we provide a comment in response to a recently published paper ‘Unintentional unfairness when applying new greenhouse gas emissions metrics at country level’ by Rogelj and Schleussner (2019). We note a number of errors in their critique of the use of GWP* to relate cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants, argue that their logic is flawed, their ethical considerations are narrow and [...]

Characterisation and controls on mineral-sorbed organic matter from a variety of groundwater environments

Phetdala Oudone, Helen Rutlidge, Martin Andersen, Denis O'Carroll, Soshan Cheong, Karina Meredith, Liza McDonough, Christopher Marjo, Andy Baker

Published: 2019-12-13
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Detailed investigations into natural groundwater organic matter (OM) as carbon sources or sinks in the natural carbon cycle are generally limited. Groundwater OM concentration and composition is altered by biodegradation and sorption to minerals. In the saturated zone of an aquifer, dissolved organic matter (DOM) may represent a significant fraction of the natural groundwater dissolved organic [...]

Future heat extremes likely to have been underestimated

Nicolas Freychet, Gabriele Hegerl, Dann Mitchell, Mat Collins

Published: 2019-12-09
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In a warming world, temperature extremes are expected to show a distinguishable change over much of the globe1 and in many regions this change has already been detected in observations2,3. Although previous studies predict an increase in heat extreme events, the magnitude of the change varies greatly among different models even for the same mean warming4. This uncertainty has been linked to [...]

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