Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Paleobiology

How to drain a megalake: Comments on a study by Palcu et al. (2021) Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471.

Michal Šujan, Natália Hudáčková, Imre Magyar

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

In a recent paper by Palcu et al. (2021: Scientific Reports 11, Art. Nr.: 11471), the Cape Panagia section on the Taman peninsula (Russian Black Sea) was dated using magnetostratigraphy, in order to calibrate the timing of previously published regressions of the Paratethys megalake. The authors of the paper claim that this “largest megalake in the geological record” experienced four major [...]

Late Glacial and Holocene Palaeolake History of the Última Esperanza Region of Southern Patagonia

Stephen J Roberts, Robert D McCulloch, Joseph F Emmings, et al.

Published: 2022-03-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

We undertook multiproxy analyses on two sediment cores from Lago Pato, a small lake basin at 51°S topographically separated from Lago del Toro in Torres del Paine (TdP), to provide insights into glacier dynamics and lake level change in the TdP and Última Esperanza region over the last ~30,000 cal a BP (30 ka). Lago Pato is situated in a region overridden by the Southern Patagonian Icefield [...]

Paleocene to Miocene southern Tethyan carbonate factories of the Southwestern and Western Central Asia

Giovanni Coletti, Lucrezi Commissario, Luca Mariani, et al.

Published: 2022-03-11
Subjects: Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

One hundred and forty-four sections of shallow-water carbonates, deposited between the Paleocene and the Miocene, from the Levant to the Himalaya, have been investigated to analyze the distribution of carbonate facies and carbonate producing organisms. Large benthic foraminifera resulted the volumetrically most important group of carbonate producers during the whole period, with a peak in [...]

Elevated Post K-Pg Export Productivity in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean

Christopher Michael Lowery, Timothy J Bralower

Published: 2021-12-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The global heterogeneity in export productivity after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction is well documented, with some sites showing no change on geologic timescales, some demonstrating sustained decline, and a few showing a somewhat surprising increase. However, these records come from sites so widespread that a key outstanding question is the geographic scale of changes in export [...]

Reproducibility in subsurface geoscience

Michael J. Steventon, Chris Jackson, Mark Ireland, et al.

Published: 2021-10-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Reproducibility, the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment or study is repeated, sits at the foundation of science. The aim of this process is to produce robust findings and knowledge, with reproducibility being the screening tool to benchmark how well we are implementing the scientific method. However, the re-examination of results from many disciplines has caused [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

The early diversification of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii): hypotheses, challenges and future prospects

Struan Henderson, Emma Mary Dunne, Sam Giles

Published: 2021-08-13
Subjects: Paleobiology, Paleontology

Actinopterygii are the most speciose living vertebrate clade, and study of fossil members during their Palaeozoic rise to dominance has a long history of descriptive work. Although research interest into Palaeozoic actinopterygians has increased in recent years, broader patterns of diversity and diversity dynamics remain critically understudied. Past studies have investigated macroevolutionary [...]

Colonial history and global economics distort our understanding of deep-time biodiversity

Nussaïbah B. Raja, Emma Mary Dunne, Aviwe Matiwane, et al.

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sampling variations in the fossil record distort estimates of past biodiversity. However, compilations of global fossil occurrences used in these analyses not only reflect the geological and spatial aspects of the fossil record, but also the historical collation of these data. Here, we demonstrate how the legacy of colonialism as well as socio-economic factors such as wealth, education and [...]

Publication pressure threatens the integrity of palaeontological research

Nussaïbah B. Raja, Emma Mary Dunne

Published: 2021-06-01
Subjects: Paleobiology, Paleontology

Publications are the de facto currency of academia. Academics, palaeontologists included, are often judged by publication metrics, which usually include the impact factor of the journal in which they publish, the number of publications and the number of citations. However, in the race to publish in high-impact journals and the pressure to increase research productivity, sometimes corners are cut, [...]

Chromium evidence for protracted oxygenation during the Paleoproterozoic

Kaarel Mänd, Noah J. Planavsky, Susannah M Porter, et al.

Published: 2021-05-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Paleobiology

It has commonly been proposed that the development of complex life—e.g., aerobic eukaryotes—coincided with atmospheric oxygenation. To test this hypothesis, we measured chromium-based oxygen proxies in a >2400-m core from the Onega Basin (NW-Russia), deposited ~2.1–2.0 billion years ago—closely preceding the first eukaryote fossils. Fractionated chromium isotopes are documented throughout the [...]

Correlative Microscopy: a tool for understanding soil weathering in modern analogues of early terrestrial biospheres

Ria Mitchell, Peter Davies, Paul Kenrick, et al.

Published: 2021-03-18
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geology, Paleobiology, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Sedimentology, Soil Science

Correlative imaging provides a method of investigating complex systems by combining analytical (chemistry) and imaging (tomography) information across dimensions (2D-3D) and scales (centimetres-nanometres). We studied weathering processes in a modern cryptogamic ground cover (CGC) from Iceland, containing early colonizing, and evolutionary ancient, communities of mosses, lichens, fungi, and [...]

INCORPORATING INFORMATION ON VARYING SEDIMENTATION RATES INTO PALEONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES

Niklas Hohmann

Published: 2021-02-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Stratigraphic changes in the clustering of first or last taxon occurrences are a joint expression of evolutionary, ecological, taphonomic, and sedimentological processes. Sedimentation rates control the degree of sedimentary dilution and condensation and thus alter the time contained in a given thickness of sediment. However, it remains poorly explored quantitatively how distinct the [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark James Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, et al.

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

Differences in carbon isotope discrimination between angiosperm and gymnosperm woody plants, and their geological significance

Vincent John Hare, Aliénor Lavergne

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology

For most of the Phanerozoic Eon, Earth’s woody vegetation has been dominated by C3 plants – predominantly gymnosperms - with angiosperms only emerging as the dominant plant group as CO2 declined during the Cenozoic (66 Ma onward). At present, differences in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) between angiosperm and gymnosperm plants are relatively small (2–3 ‰), but an increasing body of [...]

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