Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Paleobiology

Correlative Microscopy: a tool for understanding soil weathering in modern analogues of early terrestrial biospheres

Ria Mitchell, Peter Davies, Paul Kenrick, Tobias Volkenandt, Cameron Pleydell-Pearce, Richard Johnston

Published: 2021-03-18
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geology, Paleobiology, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Sedimentology, Soil Science

Correlative imaging provides a method of investigating complex systems by combining analytical (chemistry) and imaging (tomography) information across dimensions (2D-3D) and scales (centimetres-nanometres). We studied weathering processes in a modern cryptogamic ground cover (CGC) from Iceland, containing early colonizing, and evolutionary ancient, communities of mosses, lichens, fungi, and [...]

INCORPORATING INFORMATION ON VARYING SEDIMENTATION RATES INTO PALEONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES

Niklas Hohmann

Published: 2021-02-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Stratigraphic changes in the clustering of first or last taxon occurrences are a joint expression of evolutionary, ecological, taphonomic, and sedimentological processes. Sedimentation rates control the degree of sedimentary dilution and condensation and thus alter the time contained in a given thickness of sediment. However, it remains poorly explored quantitatively how distinct the [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, Simon Stephenson

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

Differences in carbon isotope discrimination between angiosperm and gymnosperm woody plants, and their geological significance

Vincent John Hare, Aliénor Lavergne

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology

For most of the Phanerozoic Eon, Earth’s woody vegetation has been dominated by C3 plants – predominantly gymnosperms - with angiosperms only emerging as the dominant plant group as CO2 declined during the Cenozoic (66 Ma onward). At present, differences in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) between angiosperm and gymnosperm plants are relatively small (2–3 ‰), but an increasing body of [...]

Was the Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province a driver of environmental change at the dawn of the Phanerozoic?

Peter Marshall, Luke E Faggetter, Mike Widdowson

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Paleobiology, Volcanology

The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province of Northern Australia is the oldest basaltic LIP in the Phanerozoic having erupted in the mid Cambrian. At this time, during the Cambrian Explosion, the global environment suffered a series of mass extinctions and biotic turnover. Kalkarindji had the potential to release 1.65 x 106 Tg of CO2, approximately 1.72% of the total Cambrian atmospheric [...]

Fernandes and Roberts (2020) - preprint

Victoria Milanez Fernandes, Gareth Roberts

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

There are many geoscience problems for which constraining histories of uplift or subsidence of Earth’s surface is of direct or indirect importance, for example reconstructing tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, sedimentary and chemical flux, biodiversity, glacio-eustasy and climate change. The least equivocal constraints on timing and amplitude of vertical motions on geological [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M. Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, Rowan Martindale, Kristin D. Bergmann, Christopher A-L Jackson, Theodore M. Present, Darryl Reano, Travis Swanson, Kristina Butler

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

Fully Automated Carbonate Petrography Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Ardiansyah Koeshidayatullah, Michele Morsilli, Daniel J. Lehrmann, Khalid Al-Ramadan, Jonathan L. Payne

Published: 2020-06-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Carbonate rocks are important archives of past ocean conditions as well as hosts of economic resources such as hydrocarbons, water, and minerals. Geologists typically perform compositional analysis of grain, matrix, cement and pore types in order to interpret depositional environments, diagenetic modification, and reservoir quality of carbonate strata. Such information can be obtained primarily [...]

Weak influence of paleoenvironmental conditions on the subsurface biosphere of lake Ohrid in the last 515 ka

Camille Thomas, Alexander Francke, Hendrik Vogel, Bernd Wagner, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2020-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding the response of geo- and biosystems to past climatic disturbance is primordial to assess the short to long terms effects of current global change. Lacustrine sediments are commonly used to investigate the impact of climatic change on biogeochemical cycling. In these sediments, subsurface microbial communities play a primordial role in nutrient, organic matter and elemental cycling, [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, Haiyan Liu, Jonathan Tennant

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

High-resolution terrestrial climate, bioclimate and vegetation for the last 120,000 years

Robert Beyer, Mario Krapp, Andrea Manica

Published: 2019-08-14
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The variability of climate has profoundly impacted a wide range of macroecological processes in the Late Quaternary. Our understanding of these has greatly benefited from palaeoclimate simulations, however, high-quality reconstructions of ecologically relevant climatic variables have been limited to a few selected time periods, thus impeding continuous time analyses. Here, we present a 0.5° [...]

‘Trapping and binding’: A review of the factors controlling the development of fossil agglutinated microbialites and their distribution in space and time

Pablo Suarez-Gonzalez, M. Isabel Benito, I. Emma Quijada, Ramón Mas, Sonia Campos-Soto

Published: 2019-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Trapping and binding of allochthonous grains by benthic microbial communities has been considered a fundamental process of microbialite accretion since its discovery in popular shallow-marine modern examples (Bahamas and Shark Bay). However, agglutinated textures are rare in fossil microbialites and, thus, the role of trapping and binding has been debated in the last four decades. Recently, [...]

Ocean Drilling Perspectives on Meteorite Impacts

Christopher Lowery, Joanna V. Morgan, Sean P. S. Gulick, Timothy J. Bralower, Gail Christeson, Expedition 364 Scientists

Published: 2018-08-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences, Stratigraphy

Extraterrestrial impacts are a ubiquitous process in the solar system, reshaping the surface of rocky bodies of all sizes. On early Earth, impact structures may have been a nursery for the evolution of life. More recently, a large meteorite impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, causing the extinction of 75% of species known from the fossil, including non-avian dinosaurs, and clearing [...]

Fluid inclusions from the deep Dead Sea sediment provide new insights on Holocene extreme microbial life

Camille Thomas, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2018-07-24
Subjects: Biology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project allowed to retrieve a continuous sedimentary record spanning the two last glacial cycles. This unique archive, in such an extreme environment, has allowed for the development of new proxies and the refinement of already available paleoenvironmental studies. In particular, the interaction of the lake and sediment biosphere with elements and minerals that [...]

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