Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Paleontology

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

The early diversification of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii): hypotheses, challenges and future prospects

Struan Henderson, Emma M Dunne, Sam Giles

Published: 2021-08-14
Subjects: Paleobiology, Paleontology

Actinopterygii are the most speciose living vertebrate clade, and study of fossil members during their Palaeozoic rise to dominance has a long history of descriptive work. Although research interest into Palaeozoic actinopterygians has increased in recent years, broader patterns of diversity and diversity dynamics remain critically understudied. Past studies have investigated macroevolutionary [...]

Colonial history and global economics distort our understanding of deep-time biodiversity

Nussaïbah B. Raja, Emma M. Dunne, Aviwe Matiwane, et al.

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sampling variations in the fossil record distort estimates of past biodiversity. However, compilations of global fossil occurrences used in these analyses not only reflect the geological and spatial aspects of the fossil record, but also the historical collation of these data. Here, we demonstrate how the legacy of colonialism as well as socio-economic factors such as wealth, education and [...]

Publication pressure threatens the integrity of palaeontological research

Nussaïbah B. Raja, Emma M. Dunne

Published: 2021-06-01
Subjects: Paleobiology, Paleontology

Publications are the de facto currency of academia. Academics, palaeontologists included, are often judged by publication metrics, which usually include the impact factor of the journal in which they publish, the number of publications and the number of citations. However, in the race to publish in high-impact journals and the pressure to increase research productivity, sometimes corners are cut, [...]

K-feldspar-rich meteorite ejecta blankets suppress the cloud-albedo feedback and trigger Earth crises.

Matt Pankhurst, Christopher Stevenson, Beverley Claire Coldwell

Published: 2021-05-24
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Planetary Sciences, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Meteorite impacts load the stratosphere with dust and cover the Earth’s surface with debris. They have long been debated as a trigger of mass extinctions through Earth’s history. Impact winters generally last <100 years, whereas ejecta blankets persist for 103-105 years. Here we show that only meteorite impacts that emplaced ejecta blankets rich in K-feldspar correlate to Earth-system crises [...]

The Sidi Ifni transect across the rifted margin of Morocco (Central Atlantic): Vertical movements constrained by low-temperature thermochronology

Remi J.G. Charton, Giovanni Bertotti, Angel Arantegui, et al.

Published: 2021-03-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The occurrence of km-scale exhumations during syn- and post-rift stages has been documented along Atlantic continental margins, which are also characterised by basins undergoing substantial subsidence. The relationship between the exhuming and subsiding domains is poorly understood. In this study, we reconstruct the evolution of a 50 km long transect across the Moroccan rifted margin from the [...]

INCORPORATING INFORMATION ON VARYING SEDIMENTATION RATES INTO PALEONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES

Niklas Hohmann

Published: 2021-02-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Stratigraphic changes in the clustering of first or last taxon occurrences are a joint expression of evolutionary, ecological, taphonomic, and sedimentological processes. Sedimentation rates control the degree of sedimentary dilution and condensation and thus alter the time contained in a given thickness of sediment. However, it remains poorly explored quantitatively how distinct the [...]

Shallow or deep? A reinterpretation of the Rifian Corridor’s unique sandy contourites

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood, Mohammed Najib Zaghloul, et al.

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

This study proposes that sandstone layers exposed in the Fez-Meknes region of Northern Morocco (Ben Allou (Sidi Chaded) and El Adergha localities), have been misinterpreted as unique examples of geostrophically-driven, deep marine (150 - 400 m water depth) sandy contourites. Instead, our independent paleontological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic analyses show that these sandstones represent [...]

Ordination analysis in sedimentology, geochemistry and paleoenvironment - background, current trends and recommendations

Or M. Bialik, Emilia Jarochowska, Michal Grossowicz

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology

Ordination is the name given to a group of methods used to analyze multiple variables without preceding hypotheses. Over the last few decades the use of these methods in Earth science in general, and notably in analyses of sedimentary sources, has dramatically increased. However, with limited resources oriented towards Earth scientists on the topic, the application of ordination analysis is at [...]

Photogrammetry in ichnology: 3D model generation, visualisation, and data extraction

Jens N. Lallensack, Michael Buchwitz, Anthony Romilio

Published: 2020-11-19
Subjects: Paleontology

3D digitisation of surfaces became a standard procedure in ichnology in recent years. 3D models allow not only for the digital preservation of vulnerable ichnological records, but also for the illustration, qualitative description, and quantitative analysis of the fossils. Here we discuss how to obtain photographs for photogrammetry, to generate, scale, and orient the models, and to extract [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M. Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, et al.

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

Fully Automated Carbonate Petrography Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Ardiansyah Koeshidayatullah, Michele Morsilli, Daniel J. Lehrmann, et al.

Published: 2020-06-23
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Carbonate rocks are important archives of past ocean conditions as well as hosts of economic resources such as hydrocarbons, water, and minerals. Geologists typically perform compositional analysis of grain, matrix, cement and pore types in order to interpret depositional environments, diagenetic modification, and reservoir quality of carbonate strata. Such information can be obtained primarily [...]

Architecture and controls of thick, intensely bioturbated, storm-influenced shallow-marine successions: an example from the Jurassic Neuquén Basin (Argentina)

Ernesto Schwarz, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Salvador Boya, et al.

Published: 2020-06-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Thick (>100 m-thick), highly bioturbated storm-influenced shallow-marine deposits are not frequent in the stratigraphic record, but they tend to be unusually common in aggradational to retrogradational successions. Individual storm-event beds have typically low preservation in these successions, yet depositional settings are characterized on the basis of storms processes. We present a [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, et al.

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

New composite bio- and isotope stratigraphies spanning the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum at tropical ODP Site 865 in the Pacific Ocean

Kirsty Edgar, Steven Bohaty, Helen Coxall, et al.

Published: 2020-02-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) at ca. 40 Ma is one of the largest of the transient Eocene global warming events. However, it is relatively poorly known from tropical settings as few sites span the entirety of the MECO event and/or host calcareous microfossils, which are the dominant proxy carrier. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Pacific Ocean Site 865 in the low-latitude North Pacific [...]

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