Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Is there a Speed Limit for the Thermal Steady-State Assumption in Continental Rifts?

Esther Heckenbach, Sascha Brune, Anne C Glerum, Judith Bott

Published: 2021-03-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The lithosphere is often assumed to reside in a thermal steady-state when quantitatively describing the temperature distribution in continental interiors and sedimentary basins, but also at active plate boundaries. Here, we investigate the applicability limit of this assumption at slowly deforming continental rifts. To this aim, we assess the tectonic thermal imprint in numerical experiments that [...]

Temperature variability and extremes both affect economic growth

Christopher Callahan, Justin Mankin

Published: 2021-02-27
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Changes in temperature averages, variability, and extremes may all independently affect economic growth under climate change. Kotz et al. (2021) show that temperature variability reduces growth, but find no significant effect of temperature extremes. Recreating their results, here we show that temperature extremes do indeed affect growth independently from the effects of variability. Our results [...]

3D modeling of long-term slow slip events along the flat slab segment in the Guerrero Seismic Gap, Mexico

Andrea Perez-Silva, Duo Li, Alice-Agnes Gabriel, Yoshihiro Kaneko

Published: 2021-02-27
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

During the last two decades, quasi-periodic long-term slow-slip events (SSEs) of magnitudes up to Mw7.5 have been observed about every 4 years in the Guerrero Seismic Gap. Here we present numerical simulations of the long-term SSE cycles along the 3D slab geometry of central Mexico. Our model accounts for the hydrated oceanic crust in the framework of rate-and-state friction. The modeled SSE [...]

Reassessing Eastern Mediterranean tectonics and earthquake hazard from the AD 365 earthquake

Richard F Ott, Karl W Wegmann, Sean F Gallen, Frank J Pazzaglia, Mark T Brandon, Kosuke Ueda, Charalampos Fassoulas

Published: 2021-02-27
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The hallmark of great earthquakes (Mw ≈ 8.3-8.5) in the Mediterranean is the 21 July AD 365 earthquake and tsunami that destroyed cities and killed thousands of people throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. This event is intriguing because most Mediterranean subduction forearcs exhibit pervasive crustal extension and minimal definitive evidence exists for great subduction megathrust earthquakes, [...]

The Merluza Graben: how a failed spreading centre influenced margin structure, salt deposition and tectonics in the Santos Basin, Brazil

Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Christopher A-L Jackson, Frank Peel, Oriol Ferrer

Published: 2021-02-26
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The relative timing between crustal extension and salt deposition can vary spatially along passive margin salt basins as continents unzip or the locus of extension shifts through time towards the embryonic spreading centre. Determining the relative timing of salt deposition, rifting and seafloor spreading is often problematic due to the diachronous nature of rifting, the ability of salt fill [...]

A Reduced Order Approach for Probabilistic Inversions of 3D Magnetotelluric Data II: Joint inversion of MT and Surface-Wave Data

Maria Constanza Manassero, Juan Carlos Afonso, Fabio Ivan Zyserman, Sergio Zlotnik, Ilya Fomin

Published: 2021-02-26
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Joint probabilistic inversions of magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic data has great potential for imaging the thermochemical structure of the lithosphere as well as mapping fluid/melt pathways and regions of mantle metasomatism. In this contribution we present a novel probabilistic (Bayesian) joint inversion scheme for 3D MT and surface-wave dispersion data particularly designed for large-scale [...]

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: tackling gross under-representation and recognition among talents in Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

Olivier Pourret, Pallavi Anand, Sandra Arndt, Pieter Bots, Anthony Dosseto, Zimin Li, Johanna Marine Carbone, Jennifer Middleton, Bryne Ngwenya, Amy J. V. Riches

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Diversity, at every step along the scientific path, drives innovative research. Scientific societies, like the Geochemical Society (GS) and the European Association of Geochemistry (EAG), have a significant influence on which innovators are celebrated. Such choices have the consequence of shaping the future of research, and so are responsible for the evolution of our discipline and its [...]

Lithostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of salt diapir sedimentary inclusions: unraveling Ediacaran salt tectonics in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia

Rachelle Kernen, Asmara Lehrmann, Piper Poe

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Patawarta Diapir, located in the Central Flinders Ranges, South Australia, has been interpreted as a single allochthonous salt sheet containing Tonian-aged igneous and layered evaporite sedimentary intrasalt inclusions derived from the Callanna Group. Using detailed field mapping, petrographic analysis, and lithostratigraphic correlation within Patawarta Diapir, five primarily silty limestone [...]

Nature of the Cuvier Abyssal Plain crust, offshore NW Australia

Matthew Reeve, Craig Magee, Ian Bastow, Carl McDermott, Christopher A-L Jackson, Rebecca E. Bell, Julie Prytulak

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Magnetic stripes have long been assumed to be indicative of oceanic crust. However, continental crust heavily intruded by magma can also record magnetic stripes. We re-evaluate the nature of the Cuvier Abyssal Plain (CAP), offshore NW Australia, which hosts magnetic stripes and has previously been defined as oceanic crust. We show chemical data from a basalt within the CAP, previously described [...]

Global climate-driven trade-offs between the water retention and cooling benefits of urban greening

Mark Cuthbert, Gabriel Rau, Adam Bates, Marie Ekstrom, Denis O'Carroll

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Engineering and Management, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Heat-related mortality and flooding are pressing challenges for the >4 billion urban population worldwide, exacerbated by increasing urbanization and climate change. Urban greening, such as green roofs and parks, can potentially help address both problems, but the geographical variation of the relative hydrological and thermal performance benefits of such interventions are unknown. Here we [...]

A deposition baseline for microplastic particle distribution in an estuary

Matthew L. H. Cheng, Thomas C Lippmann, Jennifer Dijkstra, Gabriela Bradt, Salme Cook, Jang-Geun CHoi, Bonnie L Brown

Published: 2021-02-19
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Microplastics (MP) known to be ubiquitous in the plastisphere, have yet to be quantified within Great Bay Estuary (GBE) in the Gulf of Maine region of North America. We extracted and analyzed MP in archived sediment cores obtained from representative transects across GBE. Results indicated that MP are distributed in GBE sediments, 0-30 cm, at an average occurrence of 100±50 particles g-1 and that [...]

Accelerating the Lagrangian particle tracking of residence time distributions and source water mixing towards large scales

Chen Yang, You-Kuan Zhang, Xiuyu Liang, Catherine Olschanowsky, Xiaofan Yang, Reed Maxwell

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Travel/residence time distributions (TTDs/RTDs) are important tools to evaluate the vulnerability of catchments to contamination and understand many aspects of catchment function and behavior. In recent years, the calculation of TTDs/RTDs based on the Lagrangian particle tracking approach together with the integrated hydrologic modeling has become a popular counterpart to analytical approaches [...]

Insights into the nature of plume-ridge interaction and outflux of H2O from the Galápagos Spreading Centre

Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson, Sally Gibson

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The flow of high-temperature and compositionally-enriched material between mantle plumes and nearby spreading centres influences up to 30% of the global mid-ocean ridge system and represents a significant, but currently unconstrained, flux of volatiles out of the mantle. Here we present new analyses of H2O, F, Cl and S in basaltic glass chips from an archetypal region of plume-ridge interaction, [...]

Laponite gels - visco-elasto-plastic analogues for geological laboratory modelling

Uchitha Nissanka Arachchige, Alexander R. Cruden, Roberto Weinberg

Published: 2021-02-16
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Laponite ® is a synthetic clay that, depending on concentration, temperature and curing time, forms a clear, transparent thixotropic fluid or brittle visco-elasto-plastic gel when mixed with water. Here we present the results of rheological and mechanical testing of gel-forming Laponite RD (LRD) to evaluate its suitability as a rock analogue in laboratory analogue experiments. Rheological tests [...]

Slip behaviors extracted from decadal seafloor geodesy after the Tohoku-oki earthquake

Shun-ichi Watanabe, Tadashi Ishikawa, Yuto Nakamura, Yusuke Yokota

Published: 2021-02-16
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Investigations of the co- and postseismic processes of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake provide essential information on the seismic cycle in the Japan Trench. Although various postseismic models have been proposed, no consensus has been reached, especially on the along-strike extensions of the main rupture due to the lack of conclusive evidence, even in the coseismic process. To capture aseismic [...]


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