Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An Active Learning Pipeline to Detect Hurricane Washover in Post-Storm Aerial Images

Evan B Goldstein, Somya D Mohanty, Shah Nafis Rafique, Jamison Valentine

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We present an active learning pipeline to identify hurricane impacts on coastal landscapes. Previously unlabeled post-storm images are used in a three component workflow — first an online interface is used to crowd-source labels for imagery; second, a convolutional neural network is trained using the labeled images; third, model predictions are displayed on an interactive map. Both the labeler [...]

Stalagmite carbon isotopes suggest deglacial increase in soil respiration in Western Europe driven by temperature change

Franziska Lechleitner, Christopher C. Day, Oliver Kost, Micah Wilhelm, Negar Haghipour, Gideon M. Henderson, Heather M. Stoll

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Speleology

The temperate region of Western Europe underwent dramatic climatic and environmental change during the last deglaciation. Much of what is known about the terrestrial ecosystem response to deglacial warming stems from pollen preserved in sediment sequences, providing information on vegetation composition. Other ecosystem processes, such as soil respiration, remain poorly constrained over past [...]

Listening for the Landing: Detecting Perseverance’s landing with InSight

Benjamin Fernando, Natalia Wojcicka, Marouchka Froment, Ross Maguire, Simon Staehler, Lucie Rolland, Gareth Collins, Ozgur Karatekin, Carene Larmat, Eleanor Sansom, Nicholas Teanby, Aymeric Spiga, Foivos Karakostas, Kuangdai Leng, Tarje Nissen-Meyer, Taichi Kawamura, Domenico Giardini, Philippe lognonne, Bruce Banerdt, Ingrid Daubar

Published: 2020-12-02
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence of NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance rover will act as a seismic source of known temporal and spatial localization. We evaluate whether the signals produced by this event will be detectable at the InSight lander (3452~km away), comparing expected signal amplitudes to noise levels at the instrument. Modeling is undertaken to predict the propagation of the [...]

Carbonate clumped isotope analysis (Δ47) of 21 carbonate standards determined via gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry on four instrumental configurations using carbonate-based standardization and multi-year datasets

Deepshikha Upadhyay, Jamie Lucarelli, Alexandrea Arnold, Randy Flores, Hayley Bricker, Robert Ulrich, Gregory Jesmok, William Defliese, Robert Eagle, Hannah Carroll, Jesse Bateman, Victoria Petryshyn, Sean Loyd, Jianwu Tang, Antra Priyadarshi, Ben Elliott, Aradhna Tripati

Published: 2020-11-28
Subjects: Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rationale: Clumped isotope geochemistry examines the pairing or clumping of rare, heavy isotopes in molecules and provides information about the thermodynamic and kinetic controls on their formation. Since clumped isotope measurements of carbonate minerals were first published 15 years ago, interlaboratory offsets in calibrations have been observed, and laboratory and community practices for [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over Europe coherent with ERA5-Land reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-27
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5-Land reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is over Europe, has a spatial resolution of 0.10° x 0.10°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over the globe coherent with ERA5 reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-27
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5 reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is global has a spatial resolution of 0.25°x 0.25°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), precipitation, and [...]

A benthic light index of water quality in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Marites Canto, Katharina Fabricius, Murray Logan, Stephen Lewis, Lachlan McKinna, Barbara Robson

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Good water quality is essential to the health of marine ecosystems, yet current metrics used to track water quality in the Great Barrier Reef are not strongly tied to ecological outcomes. There is a need for a better water quality index (WQI). Benthic light, the amount of light reaching the seafloor, is critical for coral and seagrass health and is strongly affected by water quality. It therefore [...]

Automatic Slowness Vector Measurements of Seismic Arrivals with Uncertainty Estimates using Bootstrap Sampling, Array Methods and Unsupervised Learning

James Ward, michael Thorne, Andy Nowacki, Sebastian Rost

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Horizontal slowness vector measurements using array techniques have been used to analyse many Earth phenomena from lower mantle heterogeneity to meteorological event location. While providing observations essential for studying much of the Earth, slowness vector analysis is limited by the necessary and subjective visual inspection of observations. Furthermore, the interpretation of the [...]

The predictability of shallow landslides: lessons from a natural laboratory

Rupert Bainbridge, Michael Lim, Stuart Dunning, Mike Winter, Alejandro Diaz-Moreno, James Martin, Hamdi Torun, Bradley Sparkes, Muhammad Khan, Nanlin Jin

Published: 2020-11-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Shallow landslides are a significant hillslope erosion mechanism and can transform into destructive debris-flows. Limited understanding of the controls on debris-flow initiation, development and deposition results in persistent risk and high impacts where linear infrastructure is affected. Here, we analyse steep slopes above a key road, the A83 Rest and be Thankful, Scotland, where near-real-time [...]

The development of intermittent multiphase fluid flow pathways through a porous rock

Catherine Spurin, Maja Rücker, Tom Bultreys, Gaetano Garfi, Vladimir Novak, Christian Schlepütz, Steffen Berg, Martin J Blunt, Sam Krevor

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Intermittent fluid flow has recently been identified as an important transport mode for subsurface multiphase flow systems such as CO2 storage and natural gas production. However, due to experimental limitations, it has not been possible to identify why intermittency occurs at subsurface conditions and what the implications are for upscaled flow properties such as relative permeability. We [...]

How fast can minibasins translate down a slope? Observations from 2D numerical models

Naiara Fernandez, Oliver B. Duffy, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Tim Dooley, Michael R. Hudec, Boris B. Kaus

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Minibasins are important features in salt-bearing basins and they are mostly found in salt-detached continental slopes where the sedimentary cover undergoes seaward translation. One question which is relevant to understand the structural evolution of salt-detached slopes is how fast can the sedimentary cover and the minibasins translate. The aim of this study is three-fold: 1) to compare [...]

Feedbacks on zonal mean tropical precipitation shifts induced by land surface change

Marysa M. Lague, Abigail L. S. Swann, William R. Boos

Published: 2020-11-17
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Changes in land surface albedo and land surface evaporation modulate the atmospheric energy budget by changing temperatures, water vapor, clouds, snow and ice cover, and the partitioning of surface energy fluxes. Here idealized perturbations to land surface properties are imposed in a global model to understand how such forcings drive shifts in zonal mean atmospheric energy transport and zonal [...]

Boron isotopic signatures of melt inclusions from North Iceland reveal recycled material in the Icelandic mantle source

Margaret Hartley, Oliver Shorttle, Cees-Jan de Hoog

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Trace element and volatile heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle is inuenced by the recycling of oceanic lithosphere through subduction. Oceanic island basalts commonly have high concentrations of volatiles compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, but the extent to which this enrichment is linked to recycled mantle domains remains unclear. Boron is an ideal tracer of recycled subducted material, [...]

Backstress from dislocation interactions quantified by nanoindentation load-drop experiments

Christopher A. Thom, Lars N. Hansen, David L Goldsby, Kathryn M Kumamoto

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Recent work has identified the importance of strain hardening and backstresses among dislocations in the deformation of geologic materials at both high and low temperatures, but very few experimental measurements of such backstresses exist. Using a nanoindentation load drop method and a self-similar Berkovich tip, we measure backstresses in single crystals of olivine, quartz, and plagioclase [...]

The Influence of Dust Levels on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Global Temperature

David Edmund Allen, Danail Sandakchiev, Vincent James Hooper, Ivan Ivanov

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causality between DUST, CO2 and temperature for the Vostok ice core data series [Vostok Data Series], dating from 420 000 years ago, and the EPICA C Dome data going back 800 000 years. In addition, the time-varying volatility and coefficient of variation in the CO2, dust and temperature is examined, as well as their dynamic correlations and [...]

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