Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Nature Based Solutions for Sustainable Urban Storm Water Management in Global South: A Short Review

Fahad Ahmed, Shashwat Sharma, Loc Huu Ho, et al.

Published: 2022-01-16
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rapid urbanization in the Global South exacerbates urban water management challenges such as urban flooding and water pollution, rendering many areas water-insecure. Our reliance on grey infrastructures to combat these water management challenges is not sustainable in the long run, due to which a better alternative must be sought. Nature-based Solution (NBS) promote ecosystem services and enhance [...]

Variations in Earth's 1D viscosity structure in different tectonic regimes

Anthony Osei Tutu, Christopher Harig

Published: 2022-01-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Earth’s long-wavelength geoid provides insights into the thermal, structural, and compositional evolution of the mantle. Historically, most estimates of mantle viscosity using the long-wavelength geoid have considered radial variations with depth in a symmetric Earth. Global estimates of this kind suggest an increase in viscosity from the upper mantle to lower mantle of roughly 2 -- 3 orders of [...]

Explosive activity on Kīlauea’s Lower East Rift Zone fuelled by a volatile-rich, dacitic melt

Penny E Wieser, Marie Edmonds, Cheryl Gansecki, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Magmas with matrix glass compositions ranging from basalt to dacite erupted from a series of 24 fissures in the first two weeks of the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption of Kīlauea Volcano. Eruption styles ranged from low spattering and fountaining to strombolian activity. Major element trajectories in matrix glasses and melt inclusions hosted by olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase are [...]

Global and regional drivers of power plant CO2 emissions over the last three decades

Xinying Qin, Dan Tong, Fei Liu, et al.

Published: 2022-01-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The past three decades have witnessed the dramatic expansion of global biomass- and fossil fuel-fired power plants, but the tremendously diverse power infrastructure shapes different spatial and temporal CO2 emission characteristics. Here, by combining Global Power plant Emissions Database (GPED v1.1) constructed in this study and the previously developed China coal-fired power Plant Emissions [...]

Experimental multiblast craters and ejecta — seismo-acoustics, jet characteristics, craters, and ejecta deposits and implications for volcanic explosions

Ingo Sonder, Alison H. Graettinger, Tracianne B. Neilsen, et al.

Published: 2022-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Blasting experiments were performed that investigate multiple explosions that occur in quick succession in the ground and their effects on host material and atmosphere. Such processes are known to occur during volcanic eruptions at various depths, lateral locations, and energies. The experiments follow a multi-instrument approach in order to observe phenomena in the atmosphere and in the ground, [...]

Diapycnal motion, diffusion, and stretching of tracers in the ocean

Henri Francois Drake, Xiaozhou Ruan, Raffaele Ferrari

Published: 2022-01-07
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Fluid Dynamics, Non-linear Dynamics, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Small-scale mixing drives the diabatic upwelling that closes the abyssal ocean overturning circulation. Measurements of in-situ turbulence reveal that mixing is bottom-enhanced over rough topography, implying downwelling in the interior and stronger upwelling in a sloping bottom boundary layer. However, in-situ mixing estimates are indirect and the inferred vertical velocities have not yet been [...]

Dynamics of eddying abyssal mixing layers over rough topography

Henri Francois Drake, Xiaozhou Ruan, Raffaele Ferrari, et al.

Published: 2022-01-07
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The abyssal overturning circulation is thought to be primarily driven by small-scale turbulent mixing. Diagnosed watermass transformations are dominated by rough topography "hotspots", where the bottom-enhancement of mixing causes the diffusive buoyancy flux to diverge, driving widespread downwelling in the interior—only to be overwhelmed by an even stronger upwelling in a thin Bottom Boundary [...]

Time-series analysis and statistical forecasting of daily rainfall in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: a pilot study

Sandy Hardian Susanto Herho, Gisma Aminurah Firdaus

Published: 2022-01-06
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

This pilot study presents a novel statistical time-series approach for analyzing daily rainfall data in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. By using the piecewise cubic hermite interpolation algorithm, we succeeded in filling in the null values in the daily rainfall time series. We then analyzed the monthly average and its pattern using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm, which [...]

Toward Real-time Microseismic Event Detection using the YOLOv3 Algorithm

Xiaoyu Zhu, Jeffrey Shragge

Published: 2022-01-05
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Real-time microseismic monitoring is essential for understanding fractures associated with underground fluid injection in unconventional reservoirs. However, microseismic events recorded on monitoring arrays are usually contaminated with strong noise. With a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/R), the detection of microseismic events is challenging using conventional detection methods such as the [...]

Alpine subduction zone metamorphism in the Paleozoic successions of the Monti Romani (Northern Apennines, Italy)

Samuele Papeschi, Alessio Pontesilli, Claudia Romano, et al.

Published: 2022-01-05
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The hinterland of the Cenozoic Northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt exposes the metamorphic roots of the chain, vestiges of the subduction-related tectono-metamorphic evolution that led to the buildup of the Alpine orogeny in the Mediterranean region. Like in other peri-Mediterranean belts, the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Paleozoic continental basement in the Apennines is still poorly [...]

Meltwater generation in ice stream shear margins: case study in Antarctic ice streams

Meghana Ranganathan, Jack-William Barotta, Colin R. Meyer, et al.

Published: 2022-01-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Liquid water within glacier ice and at the glacier beds exerts a significant control on ice flow and glacier stability through a number of processes, including altering the rheology of the ice and lubricating the bed. Some of this water is generated as melt in regions of rapid deformation, including shear margins, due to heating by viscous dissipation. However, how much meltwater is generated and [...]

Seismic velocity recovery in the subsurface: transient damage and groundwater drainage following the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal

Luc Illien, Christoph Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph Andermann, et al.

Published: 2022-01-04
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Shallow earthquakes frequently disturb the hydrological and mechanical state of the subsurface, with consequences for hazard and water management. Transient post-seismic hydrological behaviour has been widely reported, suggesting that the recovery of material properties (relaxation) following ground shaking may impact groundwater fluctuations. However, the monitoring of seismic velocity [...]

Agricultural Flood Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Quantification in Iowa

Enes Yildirim, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2021-12-31
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Agricultural lands are often impacted by flooding, which results in economic losses and causes food insecurity across the world. Due to the world’s growing population, land-use alteration is frequently practiced to meet global demand. However, land-use changes combined with climate change have resulted in extreme hydrological changes (i.e., flooding and drought) in many areas. The state of Iowa [...]

An estimate of the amount of geological CO2 storage over the period 1996-2020

Yuting Zhang, Samuel Krevor, Chris Jackson

Published: 2021-12-28
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Existing centralised databases of industrial-scale CCS report various characteristics including capture capacities but do not specify the amount of CO2 stored from commercial CCS facilities. We review a variety of publicly available sources to estimate the amount of CO2 that has been captured and stored by operational CCS facilities since 1996. We organise these sources into three categories [...]

Comment on ‘Unveiling ductile deformation during fast exhumation of a granitic pluton in a transfer zone’ by Richard Spiess, Antonio Langone, Alfredo Caggianelli, Finlay M. Stuart, Martina Zucchi, Caterina Bianco, Andrea Brogi, & Domenico Liotta

Francesco Mazzarini, Giovanni Musumeci, Samuele Papeschi

Published: 2021-12-26
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In their paper, Spiess et al. (2021) published structural, geochronological, and EBSD data on one of the monzogranite apophyses (Capo Bianco) of the buried Porto Azzurro Pluton (island of Elba, Northern Apennines, Italy), a pluton emplaced in the upper crust (P < 0.2 GPa; e.g. Papeschi et al., 2019). The authors publish a new U/Pb age of 6.4 ± 0.4 Ma, associated to the thermal peak, and a U-Th/He [...]


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