Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tectono-sedimentary evolution of Southern Mexico. Implications for Cretaceous and younger source-to-sink systems in the Mexican foreland basins and the Gulf of Mexico

Diego Villagomez, Carl Steffensen, James Pindell, et al.

Published: 2022-05-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An extensive dataset of existing and new geo/thermochronological data from several areas in Southern Mexico constrains the tectonic history of the region, as well as various source-to-sink relationships and local burial histories. Our interpretation acknowledges that not all cooling/heating observed in the source areas is due to erosional exhumation/burial but, in some cases, due to advective [...]

Caledonian hot zone magmatism in the “Newer Granites”: insight from the Cluanie and Clunes plutons, Northern Scottish Highlands

Eilidh J.M. Milne, Iain Neill, Ian Millar, et al.

Published: 2022-05-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Scottish Newer Granites record the evolution of the Caledonides resulting from Iapetus subduction and slab breakoff during the Silurian-Devonian Scandian Orogeny, but relationships between geodynamics, petrogenesis and emplacement are incomplete. Laser ablation U-Pb results from magmatic zircons at the Cluanie pluton (Northern Highlands) identify clusters of concordant Silurian data points. A [...]

Divergence in climate model projections of future Arctic Ocean stratification and hydrography

Morven Muilwijk, Aleksi Nummelin, Lars H. Smedsrud, et al.

Published: 2022-05-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Arctic Ocean is strongly stratified by salinity gradients in the uppermost layers. This stratification is a key attribute of the region as it acts as an effective barrier for the vertical exchanges of Atlantic Water heat, nutrients, and CO2 between intermediate depths and the surface of the Eurasian and Amerasian basins (EB and AB). Observations show that from 1970 to 2017, the stratification [...]

Weak coupling of fluvial aggradation and paleo-denudation rates during the last glacial cycle, Crete, Greece

Richard F Ott, Dirk Scherler, Karl W Wegmann, et al.

Published: 2022-05-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The impact of Quaternary climate cycles on denudation rates and fluvial aggradation and incision is debated, especially in non-glaciated regions. Here we present paleo-denudation rates and geochronological constraints on aggradation and incision from the Sfakia and Elafonisi alluvial-fan sequences on Crete, Greece. We report seven optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), ten radiocarbon ages, and [...]

Gender Equity in Oceanography

Sonya Legg, Caixia Wang, Ellen Kappel, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gender equity, providing for full participation of people of all genders in the oceanographic workforce, is an important goal for the continued success of the oceanographic enterprise. Here we describe historical obstructions to gender equity, assess recent progress and the current status of gender equity in oceanography by examining quantitative measures of participation, achievement, and [...]

Cloud feedback depends on Southern Ocean salinity

Maofeng Liu, Brian Soden, Gabriel Vecchi, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The uncertainty in equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) has remained persistently unchanged for the past four decades1–4, with cloud feedback3,5–11 as a primary source of the uncertainty. Here we show that a key component of this uncertainty is rooted in the impact of base-state Southern Ocean salinity on cloud feedback. Sea surface salinity in the sinking zone of the Southern Ocean (45o-60oS) [...]

Geometry and growth of syn-tectonic plutons emplaced in thrust shear zones: Insights from Abu Ziran Pluton, Egypt

Abdullah T. Mohammad, Yahia El Kazzaz

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Coupling of deformation and magmatism has been reported in several old orogenic belts, particularly along thrust faults and shear zones. The syn-kinematic plutons in exhumed shear zones offer the best opportunity to understand the complex relationship between magmatism and regional deformation. The present paper investigates the geometry and internal structure of granite plutons emplaced in [...]

The microwave snow grain size: a new concept to predict satellite observations over snow-covered regions

Ghislain Picard, Henning Löwe, Florent Domine, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Satellite observations of snow-covered regions in the microwave range have the potential to retrieve essential climate variables such as snow height. This requires a precise understanding of how microwave scattering is linked to snow microstructural properties (density, grain size, grain shape and arrangement). This link has so far relied on empirical adjustments of the theories, precluding the [...]

Linking silicon isotopic signatures with diatom communities

Daniel Joseph Conley

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The use of silicon isotope ratios (expressed as d30Si) as a paleolimnological proxy in lacustrine systems requires a better understanding of the role of lake processes in setting the d30Si values of dissolved Si (dSi) in water and in diatom biogenic silica (bSi). We determined the d30Si of modern dSi (d30SidSi) and bSi (d30SibSi) in three lakes in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO), [...]

Deep Compressed Seismic Learning for fast location and moment tensor inferences with natural and induced seismicity

Ismael Adan Vera Rodriguez, Erik B. Myklebust

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Fast detection and characterization of seismic sources is crucial for decision-making and warning systems that monitor natural and induced seismicity. However, besides the laying out of ever denser monitoring networks of seismic instruments, the incorporation of new sensor technologies such as Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) further challenges our processing capabilities to deliver short [...]

Probabilistic Assessment of Antarctic Thermomechanical Structure: Impacts on Ice Sheet Stability

James Alexander Nicholas Hazzard, Fred D. Richards, Saskia Goes, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistical Methodology

Uncertainty in present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) rates represent at least 44% of the total gravity-based ice mass balance signal over Antarctica. Meanwhile, physical couplings between solid Earth, sea level and ice dynamics enhance the dependency of the spatiotemporally varying GIA signal on three-dimensional variations in mantle rheology. Improved knowledge of thermomechanical [...]

Centering Equity in the Nation's Weather, Water and Climate Services

Aradhna Tripati, Marshall Shepherd, Vernon Morris, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Water, weather, and climate affect everyone. However, their impacts on various communities can be very different based on who has access to essential services and environmental knowledge. At the same time, structural discrimination, including racism and other forms of privileging and exclusion, affects people's lives and health, with ripples across all sectors of society. In the United States, [...]

Caravan - A global community dataset for large-sample hydrology

Frederik Kratzert, Grey Nearing, Nans Addor, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Hydrology relies on data, and high quality datasets are essential to support advances in hydrological process understanding and modelling. The past decade has seen the release of several large-sample hydrology (LSH) datasets. These datasets make available an easy-to-use combination of high-quality hydroclimatic time series (atmospheric and river flow data) plus biogeophysical attributes (e.g. [...]

Defining renewable groundwater use to improve groundwater management

Mark Olaf Cuthbert, Tom Gleeson, Grant Ferguson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Groundwater systems are commonly but variously defined as renewable or non-renewable based on natural fluxes of recharge or on estimates of aquifer storage and groundwater residence time. However, the principle of capture challenges simple definitions: groundwater pumping can alter the rates of groundwater recharge and/or discharge over a characteristic groundwater response time related to the [...]

A Practical Guide to Virtual Outcrop Photogrammetry in Earth Science

Matthew S Allison, Jonathan R Hall, Stephen M Jones

Published: 2022-05-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In 2021, a photogrammetric model of a 7 km coastal cliff section of the Tjörnes Peninsula, NE Iceland was constructed to provide a “virtual geological outcrop” at a spatial resolution of approximately 5 cm or less. Field expedition planning and post-expedition processing were somewhat hampered by a lack of freely accessible guiding resources. This document presents a first-hand case study of [...]


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