Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Quantifying excess heavy metal concentrations in drainage basins using conservative mixing modelling

Jonas Alexander Eschenfelder, Alex G. Lipp, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

High concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants in river sediments can have detrimental effects on the health of ecosystems and humans. As such, determining the composition of river sediments throughout drainage basins is an essential aspect of environmental monitoring. Well characterised natural baseline concentrations are important information with which observations can be compared [...]

Future projections for the Antarctic ice sheet until the year 2300 with a climate-index method

Ralf Greve, Christopher Robert Scott Chambers, Takashi Obase, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) was devised to assess the likely sea-level-rise contribution from the Earth's ice sheets. Here, we construct an ensemble of climate forcings for Antarctica until the year 2300 based on original ISMIP6 forcings until 2100, combined with climate indices from [...]

Analog experiments in volcanology: towards multimethod, upscaled and integrated models

Sam Poppe, Johan Gilchrist, Eric Christophe Pascal Breard, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

For decades scaled analog experiments have improved the understanding of a broad range of multiphase volcanological processes in controlled laboratory environments. Successfully modeled processes include magma flow through magma reservoirs, conduits and sheets, associated crustal deformation, lava flow, volcanic plume dynamics, ash cloud dispersion, pyroclast sedimentation, pyroclastic density [...]

Plant-microbe symbiosis widens the habitability range of the Daisyworld

Estefanía Muñoz, Jorge Carneiro

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Plant-microbe symbiosis is pervasive in the Earth's ecosystems and dates back to the early land colonisation by plants. Mutualistic partnership with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi promotes plant nutrition, growth and diversity, impacting important ecosystem functions. However, how the global behaviour and dynamical properties of an ecosystem are modified by plant-microbe symbiosis is [...]

The signature of lithospheric anisotropy at post-subduction continental margins: new insight from XKS splitting analysis in northern Borneo

Conor Andrew Bacon, Nicholas Rawlinson, Simone Pilia, et al.

Published: 2022-05-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The relative paucity of recent post-subduction environments globally has meant that, so far, little is known about tectonic processes that occur during and after subduction termination, as previously convergent tectonic plates adjust to the new stress regime. The region of Southeast Asia that now encompasses northern Borneo has been host to two sequential episodes of subduction—both now [...]

Asynchronous dynamics of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet along the Pomeranian Phase ice-marginal belt: a new scenario inferred from surface exposure 10Be dating

Karol Tylmann, Piotr P. Woźniak, Vincent Rinterknecht, et al.

Published: 2022-04-30
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We present a new set of 25 10Be surface exposure ages of boulders located on the Pomeranian moraines and of erratic boulders located directly upstream of the Pomeranian moraines in northern Poland. Together with recalculated 10Be surface exposure ages along the Pomeranian Phase ice-marginal belt from Denmark to the west to Lithuania and Belarus to the east, the full data set (n = 86) enabled us [...]

Magnetic fabrics reveal three-dimensional flow processes within elongate magma fingers near the Shonkin Sag laccolith (MT, USA)

Jonas Köpping, Alexander R. Cruden, Craig Magee, et al.

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Unravelling magma flow in ancient sheet intrusions is critical to understanding how magma pathways develop and feed volcanic eruptions. Analyzing the shape preferred orientation of minerals in intrusive rocks can provide information on magma flow, because crystals may align parallel to the primary flow direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is an established method to quantify [...]

Uncertainty quantification of multi-modal surface wave inversion using artificial neural networks

Alexandr Yablokov, Yevgeniya Lugovtsova, Aleksander Serdyukov

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

An inversion of surface waves dispersion curves is a non-unique and ill-conditioned problem. The inversion result has a probabilistic nature, what becomes apparent when simultaneously restoring the shear wave (S-wave) velocity and layer thickness. Therefore, the problem of uncertainty quantification is relevant. Existing methods through deterministic or global optimization approaches of [...]

Critical metal enrichment in crustal melts: the role of metamorphic mica

Barbara Kunz, Clare Warren, Frances Jenner, et al.

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rare metals like Li, Be, V, Co, Nb, In, Cs, Sn, Ta, and W are considered critical resources and can be significantly enriched in granites and pegmatites. However the mechanisms of their enrichment in granitic magmas remain poorly understood. Many metal-enriched granitic magmas form through mica dehydration reactions during high-grade metamorphism. The preferential incorporation of these metals [...]

Incorporating Full Elastodynamic Effects and Dipping Fault Geometries in Community Code Verification Exercises for Simulations of Earthquake Sequences and Aseismic Slip (SEAS)

Brittany Angela Erickson, Junle Jiang, Valere Lambert, et al.

Published: 2022-04-26
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Numerical modeling of earthquake dynamics and derived insight for seismic hazard relies on credible, reproducible model results. The SEAS (Sequences of Earthquakes and Aseismic Slip) initiative has set out to facilitate community code comparisons, and verify and advance the next generation of physics-based earthquake models that reproduce all phases of the seismic cycle. With the goal of [...]

Potential Health and Economic Impacts of Shifting Manufacturing from China to Indonesia or India

Qi Ran, Shao-Yi Lee, Duofan Zheng, et al.

Published: 2022-04-26
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The diversification or decoupling of production chains from China to alternative Asian countries such as India or Indonesia would impact the spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions, with corresponding economic impacts due to mortality associated with particulate matter exposure. We evaluated these changes using the Community Earth System Model, the Integrated Exposure-Response (IER) model [...]


Joel Peter Bensing, David Misch, Lukas Skerbisch, et al.

Published: 2022-04-22
Subjects: Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

With the rising potential of underground hydrogen storage (UHS) in depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep saline aquifers, questions remain regarding changes to geological units due to interaction with injected hydrogen. Of particular importance is the integrity of potential caprocks/seals with respect to UHS. The results of this study show significant dissolution of calcite fossil fragments in [...]

800,000 years of abrupt climate variability

Stephen Barker, Gregor Knorr, Larry Edwards, et al.

Published: 2022-04-22
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We construct an 800 kyr synthetic record of Greenland climate variability based on the thermal bipolar seesaw model. Our Greenland analogue reproduces much of the variability seen in the Greenland ice cores over the last 100 kyr. We also find a strong similarity with the absolutely-dated speleothem record from China, allowing us to place ice core records within an absolute timeframe for the last [...]

Persistent influence of precession on northern ice sheet variability since the early Pleistocene

Stephen Barker, Aidan Starr, Jeroen van der Lubbe, et al.

Published: 2022-04-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Before ~1M years ago, variations in global ice volume were dominated by changes in obliquity but the role of precession remains unresolved. Using a record of North Atlantic ice rafting spanning the last 1.7Myr, we find that the onset of ice rafting within a given glacial cycle (reflecting ice sheet expansion) consistently occurred during times of decreasing obliquity, while mass ice wasting [...]

Mathematical determination of discrete sampling locations minimizing both the number of samples and the maximum interpolation error: application to measurements of surface ocean properties

Veronique GUGLIELMI, Franck TOURATIER, Catherine GOYET

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Over the past three decades, started extensive measurements of ocean properties at fixed stations throughout the water column, as well as in the surface ocean via oceanographic ships and via ships of opportunity. The later ones were particularly used to determine the air-sea CO2 fluxes from automated measurements of sea-surface temperature, salinity, and CO2 fugacity. These underway measurements, [...]


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