Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Exploring the depositional, diagenetic and carbon-oxygen isotope record of an evolving Ordovician carbonate system, Tarim Basin, China

Yuefeng Shen, Fritz Neuweiler, Adrian Immenhauser

Published: 2022-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Bulk-rock based carbon-oxygen chemostratigraphy should be combined with a detailed understanding of depositional facies (mineralogy, porosity), its 2D-chronostratigraphic architecture, and diagenesis. The Ordovician of the western Tarim Basin recorded a peculiar litho-biostratigraphic succession. The Darriwilian Yijianfang Formation formed part of a carbonate ramp dominated by filter feeders. [...]

Influence of variation of some parameters on the HYPO-like location of seismic swarm. Synthetic study based on real data from the West-Bohemia region

Jaromir Jansky, Vladimír Plicka, Oldřich Novotný

Published: 2022-04-19
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The West-Bohemia/Vogtland region is well known for the occurrence of intraplate earthquake swarms. Those are monitored by the seismic network WEBNET. The relative locations, often used for estimation of the swarm time development, depend on the quality of the initial absolute location. In routine practice, hypocenters in the area are mostly located using the upper crustal 1-D velocity-depth model [...]

The spatial and temporal domains of natural climate solutions

Ori Chafe, Adrian Broz, Lucas C.R. Silva, et al.

Published: 2022-04-16
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Natural climate solutions (NCS) have been proposed to mitigate climate change by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and increasing organic carbon storage in ecosystems. Adoption is required at global scales, but implementation of NCS have been limited by the lack of a systematic framework to prioritize ecosystem restoration or conservation at local and regional scales. Current carbon sequestration [...]

Soil dryness and its lead relationship to wildfires in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA

Zachery Taylor Law, James B Elsner

Published: 2022-04-15
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Climate models show rainy seasons getting rainier and dry seasons getting drier due to global warming from increasing greenhouse gases but local changes in drying, the understanding of which is important for mitigation efforts, will not necessarily match the global response. Here long-term weather observations from the Weather Service Office in Tallahassee are used to examine soil moisture [...]

Understanding surface-wave modal content for high-resolution imaging of submarine sediments with Distributed Acoustic Sensing

Loïc Viens, Mathieu Perton, Zack J. Spica, et al.

Published: 2022-04-15
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ocean Bottom Distributed Acoustic Sensing (OBDAS) is emerging as a new measurement method providing dense, high-fidelity, and broadband seismic observations from fibre-optic cables deployed offshore. In this study, we focus on 33 km of a telecommunication cable located offshore the Sanriku region, Japan, and apply seismic interferometry to obtain a high-resolution 2-D shear-wave velocity (VS) [...]

A global analysis of controls on submarine-canyon geomorphology

Laura Henrika Bührig, Luca Colombera, Marco Patacci, et al.

Published: 2022-04-15
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The role of possible controlling factors in influencing the geomorphology of submarine canyons has been investigated using a database of 282 globally distributed modern examples collated from the literature, open-source worldwide bathymetry and satellite imagery. Canyon geomorphology has been characterized quantitatively in terms of maximum and average canyon dimensions, canyon sinuosity, the [...]

Upstream propagation of sea-level signals in fluvio-deltaic environments: time-lags and the dynamics of the fluvial surface

Madeline Kollegger, Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba, Anjali Fernandes, et al.

Published: 2022-04-14
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Stratigraphic interpretation generally relies upon the assumption that the fluvio-deltaic surface responds uniformly to sea-level changes; however, recent theoretical work suggests that changes in its relief and concavity can influence the propagation of sea-level information upstream and result in geologically long-lived lags in the system response. We test this theoretical result using [...]

Maars, tuff rings, and tuff cones at the Manyara rift escarpment, Tanzania.

Audray Delcamp, Hannes B Mattsson, Lucia Gurioli, et al.

Published: 2022-04-14
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

About 350 maar craters, tuff rings, and tuff cones are spread along the Manyara rift escarpment, and clustered around the Hanang and Kwahara volcanoes in North Tanzania. They lie in the East African Rift, an active extensional setting, where the magma composition is moderately to highly alkaline and carbonate-rich. We present newly-collected depositional characteristic observations, grain size [...]

On the timing and nature of magmatism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: New implications from basaltic rocks of the Faroe Islands

Jogvan Hansen, Morgan Ganerød

Published: 2022-04-14
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

New 40Ar/39Ar ages representing a number of basaltic sills and a key lava flow from the Faroe Islands are presented in this contribution and utilised in order to assess the igneous history of parts of this region. In turn, the acquired ages are contrasted against other Faroese rocks of known ages as well as against other comparable igneous regions in the North Atlantic area. Altogether, the novel [...]

Interactive Hydrological Modelling and Simulation on Client-Side Web Systems: An Educational Case Study

Gregory James Ewing, Ricardo Mantilla, Witold F. Krajewski, et al.

Published: 2022-04-13
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Education, Engineering, Engineering Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Science and Mathematics Education, Water Resource Management

Computational hydrological models and simulations are fundamental pieces of the workflow of contemporary hydroscience research, education, and professional engineering activities. In support of hydrological modelling efforts, web-enabled tools for data processing, storage, computation, and visualization have proliferated. Most of these efforts rely on server resources for computation and data [...]

Plate Tectonics, Mixed Heating Convection and the Divergence of Mantle and Plume Temperatures

Johnny Seales, Adrian Lenardic, Julian Garrido

Published: 2022-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Petrological data indicate that upper mantle and mantle plume temperatures diverged 2.5 billion years ago. This has been interpreted as plate tectonics initiating at 2.5 Ga with Earth operating as a single plate planet before then. We take an Occam’s razor view that the continuous operation of plate tectonics can explain the divergence. We validate this hypothesis by comparing petrological data [...]

A unified numerical model for two-phase porous, mush and suspension flow dynamics in magmatic systems

Ying Qi Wong, Tobias Keller

Published: 2022-04-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Multi-disciplinary evidence increasingly suggests that crustal magmatic systems exist as crystal-rich mush bodies with smaller, ephemeral regions of crystal-poor magma. However, most process-based models of magmatic systems describe magma flowing as if it were a single-phase fluid, as two-phase porous flows at low melt fractions or two-phase suspension flows at high melt fraction. These existing [...]

DEM-assisted in-season soil moisture estimation based on normalized Sentinel-1 SAR imagery

Gregoriy Kaplan, Michael Gross, Itamar Michel-Meyer, et al.

Published: 2022-04-13
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Soil moisture is a crucial in-field variable used in many applications. Soil moisture might be measured in the field using soil sensors and can be estimated via satellite imagery. The present study proposes an innovative SAR-based method that significantly improves the accuracy of soil moisture estimation and does not require field-measured data. The method is based on the previously developed [...]

Quantifying Rates of Landscape Unzipping

Emma Jayne Harrison, Brandon McElroy, Jane Willenbring

Published: 2022-04-07
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Measuring rates of valley head migration and determining the timing of canyon-opening are insightful for the evolution of planetary surfaces. Spatial gradients of in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide concentrations along horizontal transects provide a framework for assessing the migration of valley networks and similar topographic features. We developed a new derivation for valley head retreat [...]

A machine learning approach to water quality forecasts and sensor network expansion: Case study in the Wabash River Basin, USA

Tyler Balson, Adam Scott Ward

Published: 2022-04-06
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

Midwestern cities require forecasts of surface nitrate loads to bring additional treatment processes online or activate alternative water supplies. Concurrently, networks of nitrate monitoring stations are being deployed in river basins, co-locating water quality observations with established stream gauges. However, tools to evaluate the future value of expanded networks to improve water quality [...]


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