Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Physics

Poroelastic effects destabilize mildly rate-strengthening friction to generate stable slow slip pulses

Elias Rafn Heimisson, Eric M. Dunham, Martin Almquist

Published: 2019-03-18
Subjects: Applied Mechanics, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Tribology

Slow slip events on tectonic faults, sliding instabilities that never accelerate to inertially limited ruptures or earthquakes, are one of the most enigmatic phenomena in frictional sliding. While observations of slow slip events continue to mount, a plausible mechanism that permits instability while simultaneously limiting slip speed remains elusive. Rate-and-state friction has been successful [...]

Hydrodynamic control of gas-exchange velocity in small streams

Andreas Lorke, Pascal Bodmer, Kaan Koca, Christian Noss

Published: 2019-03-02
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Gas exchange is a critical component of any biogeochemical mass balance model of dissolved gases in aquatic systems, yet the magnitude and drivers of spatial and temporal variations of air-water exchange rates in shallow streams are poorly understood. We investigated the relationships between gas exchange velocity of carbon dioxide and methane and flow hydraulics at different sections along a [...]

High-resolution prediction of organic matter concentration with hyperspectral imaging on a sediment core

Kévin Jacq, Yves Perrette, Fanget Bernard, Pierre Sabatier, Coquin Didier, Martinez-Lamas Ruth, Debret Maxime, Arnaud Fabien

Published: 2019-02-21
Subjects: Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Optics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

In the case of environmental samples, the use of a chemometrics-based prediction model is highly challenging because of the difficulty in experimentally creating a well-ranged reference sample set. In this study, we present a methodology using short wave infrared hyperspectral imaging to create a partial least squares regression model on a cored sediment sample. It was applied to a sediment core [...]

Calibration of astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry based on generalized Gaussian feature extraction

Simon Franchini, Alexandros Charogiannis, Christos N. Markides, Martin J. Blunt, Sam Krevor

Published: 2018-11-20
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Flow and transport in porous media are driven by pore scale processes. Particle tracking in transparent porous media allows for the observation of these processes at the time scale of ms. We demonstrate an application of defocusing particle tracking using brightfield illumination and a CMOS camera sensor. The resulting images have relatively high noise levels. To address this challenge, we [...]

Lubrication of dislocation glide in forsterite by Mg vacancies: insights from Peierls-Nabarro modeling

Richard Skelton, Andrew Walker

Published: 2018-07-26
Subjects: Condensed Matter Physics, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Dislocation glide is an important contributor to the rheology of olivine under conditions of high stress and low to moderate temperature, such as occur in mantle wedges. Interactions between point defects and dislocation core may alter the Peierls stress,

Higher potential compound flood risk in Northern Europe under anthropogenic climate change

Emanuele Bevacqua, Douglas Maraun, Michalis I. Vousdoukas, Evangelos Voukouvalas, Mathieu Vrac, Lorenzo Mentaschi, Martin Widmann

Published: 2018-07-18
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Multivariate Analysis, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Probability

The published version of this article is available at https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/9/eaaw5531. Compound flooding (CF) is an extreme event taking place in low-lying coastal areas as a result of co-occurring high sea level and large amounts of runoff, caused by precipitation. The impact from the two hazards occurring individually can be significantly lower than the result of their [...]

Tracking CO2 plumes in clay-rich rock by distributed fiber optic strain sensing (DFOSS): a laboratory demonstration

Yi Zhang, Ziqiu Xue, Hyuck Park, Jiquan Shi, Tamotsu Kiyama, Xinglin Lei, Yankun Sun, Yunfeng Liang

Published: 2018-04-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Optics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Monitoring the migration of pore pressure, deformation, and saturation plumes with effective tools is important for the storage and utilization of fluids in underground reservoirs, such as geological stores of carbon dioxide (CO2) and natural gas. Such tools would also verify the security of the fluid contained reservoir–caprock system. Utilizing the swelling strain attributed to pressure [...]

River deltas as Multiplex networks: A framework for studying multi-process multi-scale connectivity via coupled-network theory

Alejandro Tejedor, Anthony Longjas, Paola Passalacqua, Yamir Moreno, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

Published: 2018-04-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Dynamic Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Mathematics, Non-linear Dynamics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

Transport of water, nutrients or energy fluxes in many natural or coupled human-natural systems occurs along different pathways that often have a wide range of transport timescales and might exchange fluxes with each other dynamically (e.g., surface-subsurface). Understanding this type of transport is key to predicting how landscapes will change under changing forcing. Here, we present a general [...]

Could machine learning break the convection parametrization deadlock?

Pierre Gentine, Mike Pritchard, Stephan Rasp, Gael Reinaudi, Galen Yacalis

Published: 2018-03-16
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Modeling and representing moist convection in coarse-scale climate models remains one of the main bottlenecks of current climate simulations. Many of the biases present with parameterized convection are strongly reduced when convection is explicitly resolved (in cloud resolving models at high spatial resolution ~ a kilometer or so). We here present a novel approach to convective parameterization [...]

Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes

Rodolfo Luiz Bezerra Nóbrega, Alphonce C. Guzha, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S. S. Amorim, Eduardo G. Couto, Harold J. Hughes, Hermann F. Jungkunst, Gerhard Gerold

Published: 2018-01-28
Subjects: Chemistry, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Fresh Water Studies, Geography, Hydrology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science

Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental [...]

Numerical solution of a non-linear conservation law applicable to the interior dynamics of partially molten planets

Dan J. Bower, Patrick Sanan, Aaron S. Wolf

Published: 2017-11-21
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, dS/dr, as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with [...]

A general model for the helical structure of geophysical flows in channel bends

Maria Azpiroz-Zabala, Matthieu Cartigny, Esther J. Sumner, Michael Clare, Peter J. Talling, Daniel R. Parsons, Cortis Cooper

Published: 2017-10-31
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Risk Analysis, Sedimentology

Meandering channels host geophysical flows that form the most extensive sediment transport systems on Earth (i.e. rivers and submarine channels). Measurements of helical flow structures in bends have been key to understanding sediment transport in rivers. Turbidity currents differ from rivers in both density and velocity profiles. These differences, and the lack of field measurements of turbidity [...]

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