Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Planetary Sciences

Evaluating participatory modelling methods for co-creating pathways to sustainability

Enayat A. Moallemi, Fjalar J. de Haan, Michalis Hadjikakou, Sina Khatami, Shirin Malekpour, Alex Smajgl, Mark Stafford Smith, Alexey Voinov, Reihaneh Bandari, Prahlad Lamichhane, Kelly K. Miller, Emily Nicholson, Wikke Novalia, Euan G. Ritchie, Angela M. Rojas, M. Abdullah Shaikh, Katrina Szetey, Brett A. Bryan

Published: 2020-11-03
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Planetary Sciences, Systems Engineering

The achievement of global sustainability agendas, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, relies on transformational change across society, economy, and environment that are co-created in a transdisciplinary exercise by all stakeholders. Within this context, environmental and societal change is increasingly understood and represented via participatory modelling for genuine engagement with [...]

Fernandes and Roberts (2020) - preprint

Victoria Milanez Fernandes, Gareth Roberts

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

There are many geoscience problems for which constraining histories of uplift or subsidence of Earth’s surface is of direct or indirect importance, for example reconstructing tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, sedimentary and chemical flux, biodiversity, glacio-eustasy and climate change. The least equivocal constraints on timing and amplitude of vertical motions on geological [...]

Estimating survival probability using the terrestrial extinction history for the search for extraterrestrial life

Kohji Tsumura

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Several exoplanets have been discovered to date, and the next step is the search for extraterrestrial life. However, it is difficult to estimate the number of life-bearing exoplanets because our only template is based on life on Earth. In this paper, a new approach is introduced to estimate the probability that life on Earth has survived from birth to the present based on its terrestrial [...]

Habitability of the early Earth: Liquid water under a faint young Sun facilitated by strong tidal heating due to a nearby Moon

René Heller, Jan-Peter Duda, Max Winkler, Joachim Reitner, Laurent Gizon

Published: 2020-07-10
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, The Sun and the Solar System

Geological evidence suggests liquid water near the Earths surface as early as 4.4 gigayears ago when the faint young Sun only radiated about 70 % of its modern power output. At this point, the Earth should have been a global snowball. An extreme atmospheric greenhouse effect, an initially more massive Sun, release of heat acquired during the accretion process of protoplanetary material, and [...]

RECENT RAPID SEA LEVEL RISE IN DUBLIN BAY BASED ON TIDE GAUGE ANALYSIS

Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew Parnell, Alice Greene, Brian P Kelleher, Gerard McCarthy

Published: 2020-05-27
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Statistics and Probability

We analysed tide gauges at Dublin port and its environs over the period 1938-2018. With three different tide gauges in the vicinity of the main Dublin port gauge, we merged the data sets and validated them against each other. The recordings of all four tide gauges were found to be in good agreement between 2003-2015, though this was markedly less so from 2016 to the present. We estimate the sea [...]

Preservation of Organic Carbon in Dolomitized Cambrian Stromatolites and Implications for Microbial Biosignatures in Diagenetically Replaced Carbonate Rock

Ashley Elizabeth Murphy, Scott T. Wieman, Juliane Gross, Jennifer C. Stern, Andrew Steele, Mihaela Glamoclija

Published: 2020-05-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

Stromatolites have been a major focus in the search for ancient microbial biosignatures, however, the organic carbon biosignatures of dolomitized stromatolites have not yet been fully characterized and correlated with their dolomitizing conditions. The lack in detailed dolomitic stromatolite studies is likely because dolomitization rarely preserves microbial morphology, which hampers the [...]

Jarosite formation in deep Antarctic ice provides a window into acidic, water-limited weathering on Mars

Giovanni Baccolo, Barbara Delmonte, Paul B. Niles, Giannantonio Cibin, Elena Di Stefano, Dariush Hampai, Lindsay Keller, Valter Maggi, Augusto Marcelli, Joseph Michalski

Published: 2020-05-20
Subjects: Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Sciences

Many interpretations have been proposed to explain the presence of jarosite within Martian surficial sediments, including the possibility that it precipitated within paleo-ice deposits owing to englacial weathering of dust. But until now a similar mechanism was not observed on Earth nor in other planetary settings. We report the first multi-analytical indication of jarosite formation within deep [...]

Coupling Mars ground and orbital views: generate viewsheds of Mastcam images from the Curiosity rover, using ArcGIS® and public datasets.

Marion Nachon, Schuyler Borges, Ryan Ewing, Frances Rivera-Hernández, Nathan Stein, Jason Van Beek

Published: 2020-04-30
Subjects: Other Planetary Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

The Mastcam (Mast Camera) instrument onboard the NASA Curiosity rover provides an exclusive view of Mars: the color high-resolution Mastcam images allow users to study Gale crater’s geological terrains and landscapes along the rover path. This view from the ground complements the spatially broader view provided by spacecrafts from orbit. However, for a given Mastcam image, it can be challenging [...]

Seismic electric signals (SES) and earthquakes: A review of an updated VAN method and competing hypotheses for SES generation and earthquake triggering

Daniel S. Helman

Published: 2020-04-07
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Electromagnetic phenomena are sometimes associated with seismic events, but earthquake prediction using seismic electric signals (SES) has not been seriously considered since the early 1990s. There are several causes: (1) false alarms that have created panics in Greece, and (2) a strong critique of the Varotsos-Alexopoulos-Nomicos (VAN) method used there. An updated VAN method that includes time [...]

Initial Exploration Free Floating CO2 Fixation Catalysts

Aya Thompson

Published: 2020-04-01
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Climate change as an inextricable and dire threat to humanity is well established. The primary problem stems from an excess of carbon dioxide in earths atmosphere and oceans causing a gradual increase in average temperature. With this there arises an immediate need for the alteration of this carbon dioxide into differing chemical states. Herein we perform an initial exploration of adapting the [...]

Analytical prediction of seismicity rate due to tides and other oscillating stresses

Elias Rafn Heimisson, Jean-Philippe Avouac

Published: 2020-03-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Oscillatory stresses are ubiquitous on earth and other solid-surface bodies. Tides and seasonal signals perpetually stress faults in the crust. Relating seismicity to these stresses offers fundamental insight into earthquake triggering. We present a simple model that describes seismicity rate due to perpetual oscillatory stresses. The model applies to large amplitude, non-harmonic, and [...]

Variations in the magnetic properties of meteoritic cloudy zone

Claire Nichols, James F J Bryson, Roberts Blukis, Julia Herrero-Albillos, Florian Kronast, Rudolf Rüffer, Aleksandr I Chumakov, Richard J Harrison

Published: 2020-01-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences

Iron and stony-iron meteorites form the Widmanstätten pattern during slow cooling. This pattern is comprised of several microstructures whose length-scale, composition and magnetic properties are dependent upon cooling rate. Here we focus on the cloudy zone: a region containing nanoscale tetrataenite islands with exceptional paleomagnetic recording properties. We present a systematic review of [...]

Tectono-magmatic, sedimentary and hydrothermal history of Arsinoes and Pyrrhae Chaos, Mars

Erica Luzzi, Angelo Pio Rossi, Cristian Carli, Francesca Altieri

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

Arsinoes and Pyrrhae Chaos are two adjacent chaotic terrains located east of Valles Marineris and west of Arabia Terra, on Mars. In this work we produced a morpho‐stratigraphic map of the area, characterized by a volcanic bedrock disrupted into polygonal mesas and knobs (Chaotic Terrain Unit) and two non‐disrupted units. The latter present a spectral variation, likely associated with hydrated [...]

Centroid moment tensor inversions of offshore earthquakes using a three-dimensional velocity structure model: Slip distributions on the plate boundary along the Nankai Trough

Shunsuke Takemura, Ryo Okuwaki, Tatsuya Kubota, Katsuhiko Shiomi, Takeshi Kimura, Akemi Noda

Published: 2019-11-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Due to complex three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneous structures, conventional one-dimensional (1D) analysis techniques using onshore seismograms can yield incorrect estimation of earthquake source parameters, especially dip angles and centroid depths of offshore earthquakes. Combining long-term onshore seismic observations and numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in a 3D model, we [...]

Deep learning to infer eddy heat fluxes from sea surface height patterns of mesoscale turbulence

Tom George, Georgy Manucharyan, Andrew Thompson

Published: 2019-11-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Oceans play a major role in Earths climate by storing and transporting heat via turbulent currents called mesoscale eddies. However, direct monitoring of eddy-driven heat fluxes is currently impossible because it requires simultaneous surface and subsurface observations of velocity and heat content, while only surface properties of mesoscale eddies can be comprehensively measured by satellites in [...]

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