Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Planetary Sciences

Tectono-magmatic, sedimentary and hydrothermal history of Arsinoes and Pyrrhae Chaos, Mars

Erica Luzzi, Angelo Pio Rossi, Cristian Carli, Francesca Altieri

Published: 2020-01-10
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

Arsinoes and Pyrrhae Chaos are two adjacent chaotic terrains located east of Valles Marineris and west of Arabia Terra, on Mars. In this work we produced a morpho‐stratigraphic map of the area, characterized by a volcanic bedrock disrupted into polygonal mesas and knobs (Chaotic Terrain Unit) and two non‐disrupted units. The latter present a spectral variation, likely associated with hydrated [...]

Centroid moment tensor inversions of offshore earthquakes using a three-dimensional velocity structure model: Slip distributions on the plate boundary along the Nankai Trough

Shunsuke Takemura, Ryo Okuwaki, Tatsuya Kubota, Katsuhiko Shiomi, Takeshi Kimura, Akemi Noda

Published: 2019-11-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Due to complex three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneous structures, conventional one-dimensional (1D) analysis techniques using onshore seismograms can yield incorrect estimation of earthquake source parameters, especially dip angles and centroid depths of offshore earthquakes. Combining long-term onshore seismic observations and numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in a 3D model, we [...]

Deep learning to infer eddy heat fluxes from sea surface height patterns of mesoscale turbulence

Tom George, Georgy Manucharyan, Andrew Thompson

Published: 2019-11-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Oceans play a major role in Earths climate by storing and transporting heat via turbulent currents called mesoscale eddies. However, direct monitoring of eddy-driven heat fluxes is currently impossible because it requires simultaneous surface and subsurface observations of velocity and heat content, while only surface properties of mesoscale eddies can be comprehensively measured by satellites in [...]

Linking the evolution of terrestrial interiors and an early outgassed atmosphere to astrophysical observations

Dan J. Bower, Daniel Kitzmann, Aaron S. Wolf, Patrick Sanan, Caroline Dorn, Apurva V. Oza

Published: 2019-10-17
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Astrophysics and Astronomy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

A terrestrial planet is molten during formation and may remain molten due to intense insolation or tidal forces. Observations favour the detection and characterisation of hot planets, potentially with large outgassed atmospheres. We aim to determine the radius of hot Earth-like planets with large outgassing atmospheres. Our goal is to explore the differences between molten and solid silicate [...]

Thermal and magnetic evolution of a crystallizing basal magma ocean in Earths mantle

Nicolas Blanc, Dave Stegman, Leah B. Ziegler

Published: 2019-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

We present the thermochemical evolution of a downward crystallizing BMO overlying the liquid outer core and probe its capability to dissipate enough power to generate and sustain an early dynamo. A total of 61 out of 112 scenarios for a BMO with imposed, present-day $Q_{BMO}$ values of 15, 18, and 21 TW and $Q_r$ values of 4, 8, and 12 TW fully crystallized during the age of the Earth. Most of [...]

The effect of remote sensing resolution limits on aeolian sandstone measurements and the reconstruction of ancient dune fields on Mars: Numerical experiment using the Page Sandstone, Earth

Benjamin T. Cardenas, Travis Eric Swanson, Timothy A. Goudge, R. Wayne Wagner, David Mohrig

Published: 2019-09-10
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

The distribution of cross-set thicknesses is important field-collected data for reconstructing ancient aeolian dune fields from the strata they accumulated, but most aeolian strata on Mars must be observed with remote sensing. We hypothesize that remote sensing resolution limits will affect cross-set thickness measurements and the dune field reconstructions that follow. Here, we test this [...]

Representation of European hydroclimatic patterns with Self-Organizing Maps

Yannis Markonis, Filip Strnad

Published: 2019-05-15
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Self-Organizing Maps provide a powerful, non-linear technique of dimensionality reduction that can be used to identify clusters with similar attributes. Here, they were constructed from a 1000-year-long gridded palaeoclimatic dataset, namely the Old World Drought Atlas, to detect regions of homogeneous hydroclimatic variability across the European continent. A classification scheme of 10 regions [...]

A new method to study inhomogeneities in climate records: Brownian Motion or Random Deviations?

Ralf Lindau, Victor Venema

Published: 2019-05-08
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Climate data is affected by inhomogeneities due to historical changes in the way the measurements were performed. Understanding these inhomogeneities is important for accurate estimates of long-term changes in the climate. These inhomogeneities are typically characterized by the number of breaks and the size of the jumps or the variance of the break signal, but a full characterization of the [...]

Decomposition of Amino Acids in Water with Application to In-Situ Measurements of Enceladus, Europa and Other Hydrothermally Active Icy Ocean Worlds

Ngoc Tuan Truong

Published: 2019-04-17
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Sciences, The Sun and the Solar System

To test the potential of using amino acid abundances as a biosignature at icy ocean worlds, we investigate whether primordial amino acids (accreted or formed by early aqueous processes) could persist until the present time. By examining the decomposition kinetics of amino acids in aqueous solution based on existing laboratory rate data, we find that all fourteen proteinogenic amino acids [...]

Preprint: Dataset of global extreme climatic indices due to an acceleration of ice sheet melting during the 21st century

Dimitri Defrance

Published: 2019-03-25
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Sciences

This article describes extreme indices maps (Data Cube, raster X Time) for different scenarios with a more important contribution to the sea level rise from Greenland and/or Antarctica during the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emission scenario. The indices are produced annually and globally with a resolution of 0.5°X0.5° from 1951 to 2099. The data were [...]

Hydrodynamic control of gas-exchange velocity in small streams

Andreas Lorke, Pascal Bodmer, Kaan Koca, Christian Noss

Published: 2019-03-02
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Gas exchange is a critical component of any biogeochemical mass balance model of dissolved gases in aquatic systems, yet the magnitude and drivers of spatial and temporal variations of air-water exchange rates in shallow streams are poorly understood. We investigated the relationships between gas exchange velocity of carbon dioxide and methane and flow hydraulics at different sections along a [...]

Core Formation and Geophysical Properties of Mars

Matthew C Brennan, Rebecca A. Fischer, Jessica C. E. Irving

Published: 2019-02-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

The chemical and physical properties of the interiors of terrestrial planets are largely determined during their formation and differentiation. Modeling a planet’s formation provides important insights into the properties of its core and mantle, and conversely, knowledge of those properties may constrain formational narratives. Here, we present a multi-stage model of Martian core formation in [...]

A sensor-invariant atmospheric correction method: application to Sentinel-2/MSI and Landsat 8/OLI

Feng Yin, Philip E Lewis, Jose Gomez-Dans, Qingling Wu

Published: 2019-02-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Mitigating the impact of atmospheric effects on optical data is a critical for monitoringland processes. Consistent approaches to different sensors, which also quantify uncertainty, are required to combine surface reflectance observations from heterogeneous sensors. This paper provides a sensor agnostic approach to atmospheric correction, called SIAC. It exploits operational global datasets on [...]

A test case for application of convolutional neural networks to spatio-temporal climate data: Re-identifying clustered weather patterns

Ashesh Kumar Chattopadhyay, Pedram Hassanzadeh, Saba Pasha

Published: 2019-01-01
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can potentially provide powerful tools for classifying and identifying patterns in climate and environmental data. However, because of the inherent complexities of such data, which are often spatio-temporal, chaotic, and non-stationary, the CNN algorithms must be designed/evaluated for each specific dataset and application. Yet to start, CNN, a supervised [...]

A PCA-based framework for determining remotely-sensed geological surface orientations and their statistical quality

Daven Quinn, Bethany Ehlmann

Published: 2018-11-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Statistics and Probability, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The orientations of planar rock layers are fundamental to our understanding of structural geology and stratigraphy. Remote-sensing platforms including satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and LIDAR scanners are increasingly used to build three-dimensional models of structural features on Earth and other planets. Remotely-gathered orientation measurements are straightforward to calculate [...]

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