Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Planetary Sciences

Core Formation and Geophysical Properties of Mars

Matthew C Brennan, Rebecca A Fischer, Jessica C.E. Irving

Published: 2019-02-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

The chemical and physical properties of the interiors of terrestrial planets are largely determined during their formation and differentiation. Modeling a planet’s formation provides important insights into the properties of its core and mantle, and conversely, knowledge of those properties may constrain formational narratives. Here, we present a multi-stage model of Martian core formation in [...]

A sensor-invariant atmospheric correction method: application to Sentinel-2/MSI and Landsat 8/OLI

Feng Yin, Philip E Lewis, Jose Luis Gomez-Dans, et al.

Published: 2019-02-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Mitigating the impact of atmospheric effects on optical data is a critical for monitoringland processes. Consistent approaches to different sensors, which also quantify uncertainty, are required to combine surface reflectance observations from heterogeneous sensors. This paper provides a sensor agnostic approach to atmospheric correction, called SIAC. It exploits operational global datasets on [...]

A test case for application of convolutional neural networks to spatio-temporal climate data: Re-identifying clustered weather patterns

Ashesh Chattopadhyay, Pedram Hassanzadeh, Saba Pasha

Published: 2019-01-01
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can potentially provide powerful tools for classifying and identifying patterns in climate and environmental data. However, because of the inherent complexities of such data, which are often spatio-temporal, chaotic, and non-stationary, the CNN algorithms must be designed/evaluated for each specific dataset and application. Yet to start, CNN, a supervised [...]

A PCA-based framework for determining remotely-sensed geological surface orientations and their statistical quality

Daven Quinn, Bethany Ehlmann

Published: 2018-11-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Statistics and Probability, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The orientations of planar rock layers are fundamental to our understanding of structural geology and stratigraphy. Remote-sensing platforms including satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and LIDAR scanners are increasingly used to build three-dimensional models of structural features on Earth and other planets. Remotely-gathered orientation measurements are straightforward to calculate [...]

A New Mechanism for Terrace Formation in Submarine Canyons

Anjali M Fernandes, David Mohrig, James Buttles

Published: 2018-09-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Engineering, Geology, Geomorphology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Deep canyons on Earth occur in both terrestrial and submarine environments, where they are carved by actively incising channels. Apparently similar flights of unpaired terraces, seen at the inside of bends in incised sinuous channels, are also common in both environments. Here we demonstrate a new mechanism for terrace formation that we believe is unique to settings where sediment transporting [...]

Ocean Drilling Perspectives on Meteorite Impacts

Christopher Michael Lowery, Joanna V. Morgan, Sean P. S. Gulick, et al.

Published: 2018-08-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences, Stratigraphy

Extraterrestrial impacts are a ubiquitous process in the solar system, reshaping the surface of rocky bodies of all sizes. On early Earth, impact structures may have been a nursery for the evolution of life. More recently, a large meteorite impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, causing the extinction of 75% of species known from the fossil, including non-avian dinosaurs, and clearing [...]

Mars Global Simulant MGS-1: A Rocknest-based open standard for basaltic martian regolith simulants

Kevin Cannon, Daniel Britt, Trent Smith, et al.

Published: 2018-06-04
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

The composition and physical properties of martian regolith are dramatically better understood compared to just a decade ago, particularly through the use of X-ray diffraction by the Curiosity rover. Because there are no samples of this material on Earth, researchers and engineers rely on terrestrial simulants to test future hardware and address fundamental science and engineering questions. Even [...]

Could machine learning break the convection parametrization deadlock?

Pierre Gentine, Mike Pritchard, Stephan Rasp, et al.

Published: 2018-03-16
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Sciences

Modeling and representing moist convection in coarse-scale climate models remains one of the main bottlenecks of current climate simulations. Many of the biases present with parameterized convection are strongly reduced when convection is explicitly resolved (in cloud resolving models at high spatial resolution ~ a kilometer or so). We here present a novel approach to convective parameterization [...]

The Extraordinary Mediocrity of the Holocene

Lee Drake

Published: 2018-03-15
Subjects: Climate, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

The extinction of multiple genera of large-bodied mammals during the Holocene interglacial transition has been attributed to three hypothesized causes: human migration, climate change, and an extra-terrestrial impact. Two of these hypotheses, climate change and extra-terrestrial impactor, would predict that the Holocene interglacial transition was uniquely stressful for large-bodied mammals. To [...]

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